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Race & Sport (2004)

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Slides from a 2004 class on Race & Sport

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Race & Sport (2004)

  1. 1. Race & SportRace & Sport
  2. 2. Class FormatClass Format  Overview of Sport Sociology/ Issues inOverview of Sport Sociology/ Issues in SportSport  Expand your perspectiveExpand your perspective
  3. 3. Sport SociologySport Sociology  StackingStacking  Participation TrendsParticipation Trends  Employment TrendsEmployment Trends  Participation BenefitsParticipation Benefits  OppressionOppression  Is sport a microcosm of society?Is sport a microcosm of society?
  4. 4. The BeginningThe Beginning V. Yale Princeto n
  5. 5. Scalp SongScalp Song  Simpson CollegeSimpson College  Miami University (Ohio)Miami University (Ohio)  StanfordStanford
  6. 6. Indians on the GridironIndians on the Gridiron
  7. 7. Jim Crow & SportJim Crow & Sport  Gentleman’s AgreementGentleman’s Agreement  1939 Cotton Bowl1939 Cotton Bowl  1940 NYU v. U. of Missouri1940 NYU v. U. of Missouri
  8. 8. Irony?Irony?
  9. 9. Euro-AmericansEuro-Americans  SpectatorsSpectators  CoachesCoaches  AdministratorsAdministrators  JournalistJournalist  AthletesAthletes  Performance isn’t normally marked byPerformance isn’t normally marked by racerace
  10. 10. Sports & RecollectionSports & Recollection  Recalling events is synonymous with sportRecalling events is synonymous with sport  Events related to race and sport are oftenEvents related to race and sport are often excluded or devoid of facts aboutexcluded or devoid of facts about strugglesstruggles
  11. 11. Erasing ProcessErasing Process  NCAA Hall of ChampionsNCAA Hall of Champions  They do not address segregation orThey do not address segregation or integrationintegration  Athletes accomplishments are devoid ofAthletes accomplishments are devoid of segregationsegregation
  12. 12. Erasing Process (cont.)Erasing Process (cont.)  College Football Hall of FameCollege Football Hall of Fame  No attempts are made to clarify raceNo attempts are made to clarify race  No discussion about the conditions theNo discussion about the conditions the Native Americans excelled under, andNative Americans excelled under, and how they disappearedhow they disappeared  Fails to show the rise of the African-Fails to show the rise of the African- American athleteAmerican athlete  Bypasses topics of Native AmericanBypasses topics of Native American mascots & Confederate mascotsmascots & Confederate mascots
  13. 13. Jack TriceJack Trice  Iowa State UniversityIowa State University rededicated theirrededicated their stadium in his honorstadium in his honor  One of the first BlackOne of the first Black players at ISUplayers at ISU
  14. 14. Love/Hate the Black BodyLove/Hate the Black Body  Black bodies have been seen asBlack bodies have been seen as grotesquegrotesque  Black bodies have been renderedBlack bodies have been rendered aesthetically as superior in: strength,aesthetically as superior in: strength, speed, & resiliencespeed, & resilience  Black bodies signified deviance: sexuality,Black bodies signified deviance: sexuality, style, presentation, criminalitystyle, presentation, criminality
  15. 15. Love/Hate the Black BodyLove/Hate the Black Body  The body of the African-AmericanThe body of the African-American athletes, as a site and source ofathletes, as a site and source of exceptional ability, criminal deviance, andexceptional ability, criminal deviance, and spectatorial, if not sexual pleasure,spectatorial, if not sexual pleasure, simultaneously facilitates imagination andsimultaneously facilitates imagination and exploitation. And as it entertains, inspires,exploitation. And as it entertains, inspires, troubles, and revolts, it legitimates, if nottroubles, and revolts, it legitimates, if not encourages, discipline, regulation andencourages, discipline, regulation and control.control. (King & Springwood, 2001)(King & Springwood, 2001)
  16. 16. College or Pro?College or Pro?  ImmatureImmature  MaterialisticMaterialistic  Disinterested in EducationDisinterested in Education  Lacking DisciplineLacking Discipline  Taking the Easy Way OutTaking the Easy Way Out  Needs to Care for their FamiliesNeeds to Care for their Families
  17. 17. A Tale of Two AthletesA Tale of Two Athletes  Henson opted toHenson opted to attend the Universityattend the University of Michigan & playof Michigan & play minor league baseballminor league baseball in the summerin the summer  Bryant decided toBryant decided to play pro-basketballplay pro-basketball
  18. 18. A Tale of Two AthletesA Tale of Two Athletes  Phenomenal AthletesPhenomenal Athletes  Middle-class familiesMiddle-class families involved in sportinvolved in sport  Approached byApproached by professional teams inprofessional teams in high schoolhigh school
  19. 19. A Tale of Two AthletesA Tale of Two Athletes  Bryant received a $10Bryant received a $10 million contractmillion contract  NY Yankees openlyNY Yankees openly courted Hensoncourted Henson  Bryant “the nextBryant “the next Michael Jordan”Michael Jordan”  Henson “the nextHenson “the next Michael Jordan of proMichael Jordan of pro sports”sports”
  20. 20. A Tale of Two AthletesA Tale of Two Athletes  Bryant: School’s OutBryant: School’s Out  Henson: Golden Boy:Henson: Golden Boy: Michigan-BoundMichigan-Bound Quarterback andQuarterback and Yankee Bonus ByYankee Bonus By Drew Henson—WhoDrew Henson—Who Also Averaged 22Also Averaged 22 Points in BasketballPoints in Basketball and 4.0 in theand 4.0 in the Classroom Is AlmostClassroom Is Almost Too Good to Be TrueToo Good to Be True
  21. 21. A Tale of Two AthletesA Tale of Two Athletes  Bryant’s physical andBryant’s physical and emotional maturity wasemotional maturity was debated in the mediadebated in the media  Did he have theDid he have the necessary experience ornecessary experience or strength?strength?  Could he handle theCould he handle the pressure?pressure?  College would refine him,College would refine him, grant him the opportunitygrant him the opportunity to earn a diploma and toto earn a diploma and to improve his gameimprove his game
  22. 22. A Tale of Two AthletesA Tale of Two Athletes  Henson’s choices wereHenson’s choices were celebratedcelebrated  Yankees were very verbalYankees were very verbal in the media they wantedin the media they wanted him now!him now!  No arguments aboutNo arguments about maturitymaturity  No assumptions about hisNo assumptions about his physical abilityphysical ability  No mention of the valueNo mention of the value of a college degreeof a college degree
  23. 23. The Assumptions?The Assumptions?  Bryant is lackingBryant is lacking  Bryant is breaking theBryant is breaking the “rules”“rules”  Is there theIs there the suggestion that Blacksuggestion that Black athletes need training,athletes need training, regulation, andregulation, and discipline, but thatdiscipline, but that their Euro-Americantheir Euro-American counterparts do not?counterparts do not?
  24. 24. Problems with Kobe?Problems with Kobe?  Than consider TigerThan consider Tiger  Left Stanford beforeLeft Stanford before graduatinggraduating  Some backlash, atSome backlash, at firstfirst
  25. 25. The Rules of SportThe Rules of Sport Maria Sharapova age 17 Robert Swift age 19 Al Montoya age 19 Dominique Moceanu age 13 Rick Nash age 18
  26. 26. The Black Female AthleteThe Black Female Athlete  Research about women in sport has beenResearch about women in sport has been limitedlimited  Large research studies about BlackLarge research studies about Black women and sport were not conducted untilwomen and sport were not conducted until the 1980’sthe 1980’s  Contemporary research continues toContemporary research continues to ignore Black womenignore Black women
  27. 27. The Black Female AthleteThe Black Female Athlete  Black females at ALL levels ofBlack females at ALL levels of competition, only account for 6-8% ofcompetition, only account for 6-8% of athletesathletes  Limited research suggest that there areLimited research suggest that there are some similarities, but more differencessome similarities, but more differences than Euro-American female athletesthan Euro-American female athletes
  28. 28. The Black Female AthleteThe Black Female Athlete  Girls only with exceptional talent receiveGirls only with exceptional talent receive encouragementencouragement  Culture is more comfortable with femalesCulture is more comfortable with females in traditional rolesin traditional roles  Sports is still viewed as a predominatelySports is still viewed as a predominately male activitymale activity
  29. 29. Additional ProblemsAdditional Problems  Cultural differencesCultural differences  Different set of valuesDifferent set of values  Environments withEnvironments with tension &tension & misunderstandingmisunderstanding  Lack of sensitivityLack of sensitivity  Differences related toDifferences related to commitment, ethics, faircommitment, ethics, fair play, winningplay, winning  Differences in style ofDifferences in style of playplay
  30. 30. StackingStacking  Describes the assumption that minorities possess certain set of skills appropriate to certain positions on teams (or specific sports or events), and they will compete among themselves for these positions
  31. 31. Nontraditional SportsNontraditional Sports  Exclusionary clubs and leaguesExclusionary clubs and leagues  Lack of minority role modelsLack of minority role models  Lack of accessibility to facilities orLack of accessibility to facilities or coachingcoaching
  32. 32. Misc. TopicsMisc. Topics  What’s in a name?What’s in a name? – First name v. last nameFirst name v. last name  Success when the playing field is even?Success when the playing field is even?
  33. 33. ConclusionConclusion  “…“…it is important to acknowledge that,it is important to acknowledge that, despite problems, sports can be sites fordespite problems, sports can be sites for challenging race logic and transformingchallenging race logic and transforming racial and ethnic relations”racial and ethnic relations” (Coakley, 2001).(Coakley, 2001).

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