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Teaching How Electoral Systems Change Political Outcomes Using a Role-Playing Simulation Game

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NISHINO Shinsuke, SONG Jaehyun(Presenter), TANI Keisuke, and Yuki Yanai. 2016. “Teaching How Electoral Systems Change Political Outcomes Using a Role-Playing Simulation Game.” American Political Science Association Teaching and Learning Conference. Portland, OR: USA

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Teaching How Electoral Systems Change Political Outcomes Using a Role-Playing Simulation Game

  1. 1. Teaching How Electoral Systems Change Political Outcomes Using a Role-Playing Simulation Game Shinsuke Nishino Jaehyun Song* Keisuke Tani Yuki Yanai Graduate School of Law, Kobe University jaehyun.song@stu.kobe-u.ac.jp February 12, 2016
  2. 2. Today’s Talk 1 Background Why does electoral system matter? Difficulty of teaching electoral systems How to overcome: Role-playing game 2 Role-playing game How to play Result 3 Educational effect How to measure How effective
  3. 3. Background Why matters? Why matters? Elements of electoral systems Voting rule, district magnitude, counting rule, . . . Electoral systems affect Party systems Party organizations Voting behavior . . . ⇒ Important for learning political science Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 1 / 11
  4. 4. Background Problems & Difficulties Problems & Difficulties 1 No experiences Stability of political system No experiences with various electoral systems 2 Connection with voting rules SMD & Single vote; MMD & Multiple vote What about MMD & Single vote? (Pure effect of MMD) 3 Only a few cases Upper-house in Japan, local elections in Japan and Korea NOT the most important elections. A role-playing simulation as an indirect experience. Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 2 / 11
  5. 5. Role-playing Game Design Design Purpose Effect of district magnitudes (MMD vs. SMD) MMD → SMD: Pork-barrel politics declines A role-playing game to understand why and how Role-playing as candidates in elections Candidates allocate their own resources to each sector More allocation, more votes Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 3 / 11
  6. 6. Role-playing Game Setting Setting Common Setting Population of each district: 100,000 Every voter belong to specific sectors Sec. 1 Sec. 2 Sec. 3 Sec. 4 Total Pop. 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 100,000 Each candidate has 10 unit of resources. Two situations MMD 5 candidates & 3 winners Candidates 1 and 2 belong to the same party SMD 3 candidates & 1 winner Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 4 / 11
  7. 7. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example) Cand. 1, 2, and 3 allocated 3, 0, and 4 units of the resources respectively to Sector 1 ⇒ s1 = (3, 0, 4) Calculating the costs of competitons(c) Subtracting c Normalizing the column vectors Multiplying the populations of the sectors Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  8. 8. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example): STEP 1 Cand. 1, 2, and 3 allocated 3, 0, and 4 units of the resources respectively to Sector 1 ⇒ s1 = (3, 0, 4) Table: Resource Allocation Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Cand.1 3 4 1 2 Cand.2 0 6 4 0 Cand.3 4 3 2 1 Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  9. 9. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example): STEP 2 Calculating the cost of competition (c = 0.1× # of competitors) Table: Calculating the costs Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Cand.1 3 4 1 2 Cand.2 0 6 4 0 Cand.3 4 3 2 1 c 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  10. 10. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example): STEP 3 Subtracting c Table: Cost-adjusted Resource Allocation Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Cand.1 3 − 0.2 = 2.8 3.7 0.7 1.8 Cand.2 0 5.7 3.7 0 Cand.3 4 − 0.2 = 3.8 2.7 1.7 0.8 Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  11. 11. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example): STEP 4 Normalizing the column vectors Table: Normalized Resource Allocation Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Cand.1 2.8 2.8+3.8 = 0.424 0.306 0.115 0.692 Cand.2 0 0.471 0.607 0 Cand.3 3.8 2.8+3.8 = 0.576 0.223 0.279 0.308 Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  12. 12. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example): STEP 5 Multiplying the populations of sectors Table: Translating Resources to Votes Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Cand.1 0.424 × 40000 = 16970 9174 2295 6923 Cand.2 0 × 40000 = 0 14132 12131 0 Cand.3 0.576 × 40000 = 23030 6694 5574 3077 Cand.1 Cand.2 Cand.3 Votes 35361 26263 38375 W/L Lose Lose Win Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  13. 13. Role-playing Game Rule Rule How to calculate votes (Example): Summary Cand. 1, 2, and 3 allocated 3, 0, and 4 unit of the resources respectively to Sector 1. ⇒ s1 = (3, 0, 4) 1.Calculating c Two candidates × 0.1 = 0.2 2.Subtracting (2.8, 0, 3.8) 3.Normalizing 2.8 2.8+3.8 , 0, 3.8 2.8+3.8 = (0.424, 0, 0.576) 4.Multiplying 40,000 (16970 Cand.1 , 0 Cand.2 , 23030 Cand.3 ) Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 5 / 11
  14. 14. Role-playing Game Practice Procedure 1 Guidance on how to play 2 Thinking strategies (3 mins.) No communication except players 1 and 2 in MMD 3 Submit distribution sheets to masters 4 Notice the results The votes are calculated using R and the results are uploaded on a webpage 5 Repeat ten times Table Table Table C1 C5 C3 M C2 C4 Figure: Table setting(MMD) C: Candidate, M: Master Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 6 / 11
  15. 15. Role-playing Game Practice Procedure 1 Guidance on how to play 2 Thinking strategies (3 mins.) No communication except players 1 and 2 in MMD 3 Submit distribution sheets to masters 4 Notice the results The votes are calculated using R and the results are uploaded on a webpage 5 Repeat ten times Figure: Playing game Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 6 / 11
  16. 16. Role-playing Game Practice Procedure 1 Guidance on how to play 2 Thinking strategies (3 mins.) No communication except players 1 and 2 in MMD 3 Submit distribution sheets to masters 4 Notice the results The votes are calculated using R and the results are uploaded on a webpage 5 Repeat ten times Table: A distribution sheet Candidate ID: Sector Population Resource Sector1 40,000 Sector2 30,000 Sector3 20,000 Sector4 10,000 Total 100,000 10 Magnitude is 3. If tied, winner is randomly decided Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 6 / 11
  17. 17. Role-playing Game Practice Procedure 1 Guidance on how to play 2 Thinking strategies (3 mins.) No communication except players 1 and 2 in MMD 3 Submit distribution sheets to masters 4 Notice the results The votes are calculated using R and the results are uploaded on a webpage 5 Repeat ten times Figure: Calculating votes Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 6 / 11
  18. 18. Role-playing Game Practice Procedure 1 Guidance on how to play 2 Thinking strategies (3 mins.) No communication except players 1 and 2 in MMD 3 Submit distribution sheets to masters 4 Notice the results The votes are calculated using R and the results are uploaded on a webpage 5 Repeat ten times Figure: Result page Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 6 / 11
  19. 19. Role-playing Game Result Result Expectation MMD(1,2): (8, 0, 0, 2) & (0, 6, 4, 0) ⇒ ENC = (1, 1, 1, 1) MMD(i≥3) = SMD: (4, 3, 2, 1) Table: MMD - Players 1 and 2 Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Expected 1 1 1 1 Mean 1.95 1.92 1.58 1.44 Note: Average ENC of the last three tasks Table: MMD(Player 3-5) & SMD Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Expected 4 3 2 1 M: Mean 3.78 3.11 2.22 0.89 M: SD 0.85 0.97 0.80 0.58 S: Mean 3.90 3.00 2.07 1.03 S: SD 1.09 1.05 0.74 0.49 Note: Average allocation of the last three tasks Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 7 / 11
  20. 20. Evaluation Measurements What are measured? Post-game After the game, all participants responded to: 1 How actively the students participated 2 How much they enjoyed the game 3 How helpful they thought the game was Post-lecture In “Political Culture” class, the instructor lectured about: 1 M + 1 Rule 2 District magnitude and candidates’ preferences 3 Electoral system and party factions Asked how much they understood these 3 topics Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 8 / 11
  21. 21. Evaluation Result Post-game Many students actively participated, and rated the game as fun and educationally helpful. Participation Enjoying Helpful N Mean 3.60 3.60 3.21 15 SD 0.51 0.51 0.80 Note: Higher means, more positive response.(1∼4) Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 9 / 11
  22. 22. Evaluation Result Post-lecture Control Group Students who did NOT participate in the game (N = 61) Treatment Group Those who participated in the game (N = 13) Degree of understanding between the two groups PositiveResponses(%) 5060708090100 Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment M + 1 Rule District magnitude Party faction 95% CI A difference between the both group is not statistically significant (small N) Smaller SD in the treatment group Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 10 / 11
  23. 23. Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion Many students actively participated in our role-playing game, enjoyed it, and felt it useful. Statistically significant educational effect was not found, but we could do better How to improve Larger N Reducing social desirability bias Elaborating the game design Separating each sector by Party-Identification Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 11 / 11
  24. 24. Appendix Game Result Result(MMD; Candidates 1 and 2) Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 District 1 1.98 1.96 1.60 1.33 District 2 1.96 1.97 1.87 1.67 District 3 1.91 1.84 1.27 1.33 Mean 1.95 1.92 1.58 1.44 Expected 1 1 1 1 Note: Average ENC of the last three tasks 0.00.51.01.52.0 Result(MMD − Player 1~2) Election ID ENC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sector1(Actual) Sector2(Actual) Sector3(Actual) Sector4(Actual) Expectation Observed result deviated from the expectation. Small # of trials? ⇒ A few chances for “trial and error” ⇒ Avoiding risks. Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 11 / 11
  25. 25. Appendix Game Result Result(MMD; Candidates 3, 4, and 5) Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Expected 4 3 2 1 Mean 3.78 3.11 2.22 0.89 SD 0.85 0.97 0.80 0.58 Note: Mean of the last three tasks 012345 Result(MMD − Player 3~5) Election ID DistributedResources 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sector1(Actual) Sector2(Actual) Sector3(Actual) Sector4(Actual) Sector1(Expected) Sector2(Expected) Sector3(Expected) Sector4(Expected) Observed result almost coincides with the expectation Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 11 / 11
  26. 26. Appendix Game Result Result(SMD) Sec.1 Sec.2 Sec.3 Sec.4 Expected 4 3 2 1 Mean 3.90 3.00 2.07 1.03 SD 1.09 1.05 0.74 0.49 Note: Mean of the last three tasks 1 2 3 4 5 012345 Result(SMD) Election ID DistributedResources Sector1(Actual) Sector2(Actual) Sector3(Actual) Sector4(Actual) Sector1(Expected) Sector2(Expected) Sector3(Expected) Sector4(Expected) Observed result almost coincides with the expectation Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 11 / 11
  27. 27. Appendix Game information Game information Participants: 15 Date: Jan. 18 2016 / Time: 12:20–14:50 Provided Lunch & Gift cards Table: Grades of the participants Year 2 3 4 5 Total N 5 7 1 2 15 Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 11 / 11
  28. 28. Appendix Lecture information Lecture information “Political Culture” in Faculty of Law, Kobe University Lectured about the three topics(Jan.20 2016). M+1 rule, district magnitudes, and party factions. # of Students: about 100 # of Respondents: 80 Year 2 3 4 5∼ Grad. Total N 17 49 9 4 1 80 Table: Grades of the respondents Nishino, Song, Tani, Yanai (Kobe) Election Game February 12, 2016 11 / 11

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