The Value of Spaces & Quality of Public Life

2,149 views

Published on

Oct.31, 2011
IAT 233: Spatial Design
Copenhagen & Campidoglio

Published in: Design, Travel, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,149
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,333
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Value of Spaces & Quality of Public Life

  1. 1. THE VALUE OF S PACES & Q UALIT Y OF PUBLIC LIF E COPENHAGEN, DENMARK THE PIAZZ A DEL C AMPIDOGL I O BY JEREMY FUNG, SERENA LEUNG, SABRINA JUNG, MOSES IP, KATIE NG, TINK NEWMAN
  2. 2. COPENHAGE N OPPOR TUNIT Y TO REBUIL D THE COPENHAGEN FIRE OF 1728 WAS THE LARGEST FIRE IN THE HISTORY OF COPENHAGEN. IT DESTROYED AROUND 28% OF THE CITY AND THE RECONSTRUCTION LASTS UNTIL 1737. ANOTHER FIRE ALSO HAPPENED IN 1795 DESTROYING WHAT ALMOST ALL OF WHAT WAS LEFT OF THE MEDIEVAL COPENHAGEN. AFTER ALL THE DESTRUCTION, COPENHAGEN WAS GIVEN A CHANCE TO REBUILD AND IMPROVE ITS URBAN DESIGN. where Copenhagen was burne d
  3. 3. “ AN GEHL COPENHAGEN IS KNOWN TO LOCALS AS A PLACE THAT IS EASY OUTGOING, MODERN - [WITH] MORE SPACES IN THE STREETS, [WITH AN] EASY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM TO FOLLOW. IT IS EASY TO TRAVEL, [WITH] MANY BICYCLES - LESS CARS - CLEANER AIR. - JULIA, COPENHAGEN LOCAL, PAST SFU EXCHANGE STUDENT STUDYING BUSINESS IN INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY. ”
  4. 4. EDGES CREATE AN ACCESSIBLE INTERFACE DUE TO THE INCREASED AMOUNT OF OPEN SPACE, COPENHAGEN HAS A FLEXIBLE AND APPROACHABLE SPACE THAT ALLOWS EVENTS AND EXHIBITION DISPLAYS TO TAKE PLACE. MANY OF COPENHAGEN’S BUILDINGS HAVE VERTICAL, CHANGING STRUCTURES IN THEIR FACADES WHICH MAKES PROMENADES MORE ENJOYABLE. THE SOFT FACADES OF THE GLAZED STORE FRONTS ALLOW PASSERBYS TO INTERACT WITH, LOOK INSIDE AND SOMETIMES TOUCH WHAT THE STORE IS SELLING.
  5. 5. A REDUCED SCALE AND EMBRACED DEMOGRAPHICS IN COPENHAGEN, A COHESIVE NETWORK FOR BICYCLES COMPRISING ALL PARTS OF THE CITY HAS GRADUALLY BEEN ESTABLISHED. TRAFFIC IS SO QUIET ON SMALL SIDE STREETS AND RESIDENTIAL STREETS IN 15 AND 30 KM PER HOUR/9 AND 19 MPH ZONES. ON MOST STREETS, THE NETWORK CONSISTS OF BICYCLE PATHS ALONG THE SIDEWALKS, TYPICALLY USING THE CURBSTONES AS DIVIDERS TOWARD THE SIDEWALK, AS WELL AS PARKING AND DRIVING LANES. IN SOME PLACES BIKE LANES ARE NOT DELIMITED BY CURBSTONES, BUT RATHER MARKED WITH PAINTED STRIPES INSIDE A ROW OF PARKED CARS, SO THAT THE CARS PROTECT THE BICYCLES FROM MOTORIZED TRAFFIC. IN FACT, THIS SYSTEM IS KNOWN AS “COPENHAGEN-STYLE BICYCLE LANES.”
  6. 6. “OUR APPROACH TO DESIGN EXTENDS BEYOND THE USE OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND ADVOCATING WALKING, CYCLING AND ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT. WE PROMOTE A HOLISTIC LIFESTYLE. OUR DESIGN SOLUTIONS PRIORITIZE LIFE QUALITY, HEALTH, SAFETY AND AN INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR ALL. “ -JAN GEHL A RECORD OF PUBLIC LIFE
  7. 7. LIFE : NEC ESSARY, OP T I ON A L & S OCI A L ACTI V I TI ES “ PEOPLE COME WHERE PEOPLE ARE” - AS PEOPLE SEE OTHER PEOPLE DOING/WATCHING SOMETHING, “ THEY JOIN IN THE HUMAN DIMENSION. . A GOOD CITY IS LIKE A GOOD PARTY – PEOPLE STAY MUCH LONGER THAN REALLY NECESSARY BECAUSE THEY ARE ENJOYING THEMSELVES” - JAN GEHL
  8. 8. UP UNTIL 1939, COPENHAGEN WAS A BICYCLE CITY. BUT BY THE MID 50’S, CARS HAVE INVADED DUE TO THE CHEAP PETROLEUM READILY AVAILABLE. THE FIRST DANISH HIGHWAY HØRSHOLMVEJEN WAS BUILT AND BY 1960’S, PEOPLE STARTED COMPLAINING ABOUT THE DISRUPTION CAUSED BY THE CARS. CARS WERE THEN REMOVED 1 KILOMETER AWAY FROM STRØGET STREET, THE LARGEST PEDESTRIAN SHOPPING STREET. NOW IN HOPES TO INCREASE THE 36% OF TRIPS BY BIKE, HELMETS ARE NOT REQUIRED. AS WELL, IN THE WINTER, SNOW IS REMOVED FROM BICYCLE TRACKS FIRST. SAFET Y MAKING TRAFFIC SAFER “ “ “PEDESTRIAN AREAS AND BICYCLE PATHS SHOULD BE CLEARED BEFORE ROADS FOR CAR TRAFFIC” - GEHL “CARS- THERE ARE OF COURSE. BUT THERE ARE NOT BIG PROBLEMS ON THE STREETS. PEOPLE DRIVE CAREFULLY. ALCOHOL IS TOO EXPENSIVE TO DRIVE DRUNK, ALTHOUGH AS A NATION LIKE TO DRINK (EVEN DURING THE DAY).” - JULIA
  9. 9. BICYCLE PATHS IN COPENHAGEN VARY IN WIDTH FROM 1.7 TO 4 METERS/5.5 TO 13 FEET, WITH 2.5 METERS/8.2 FEET AS THE RECOMMENDED MINIMUM. AS BICYCLE TRAFFIC IS GRADUALLY DEVELOPED INTO A VERSATILE, POPULAR TRANSPORT SYSTEM, MANY NEW AND WIDER BICYCLES APPEAR ON THE STREET SCENE. THESE INCLUDE THREE-WHEELED TRANSPORT BICYCLES FOR CHILDREN AND GOODS, HANDICAP BICYCLES AND BICYCLE TAXIS. ALL OF THESE TRANSPORT OPTIONS REQUIRE ROOM, AND SENIOR BIKERS AS WELL AS THE MANY PARENTS WHO TRANSPORT THEIR CHILDREN BY BICYCLE NEED INCREASED REASSURANCE THAT THEY WON’T BE PUSHED AND CROWDED. A STUDY CONDUCTED IN COPENHAGEN IN 2005 CONCLUDED THAT ONE OF THE CITY’S MOST PRESSING PROBLEMS WAS HEAVY CONGESTION ON BICYCLE PATHS. THE CITY COUNCIL HAS SINCE ADOPTED AN EXPANSION OF THE WIDTH OF BICYCLE PATHS IN THE MOST POPULAR STREETS AND IS CURRENTLY CARRYING OUT THIS POLICY. SUSTAINABLE INCLUSIVE ENVIR ONMENT
  10. 10. SLIDE 16PDC IN ITALY, IT IS COMMON FOR STORES, BANKS, AND STREETS TO BE CLOSED AND EMPTY DURING LUNCH TIME FOR AT LEAST TWO CU LTURAL ASPECTS HOURS. EVEN BUSINESSES COME TO A HALT. ITALIANS VALUE THE IMPORTANCE OF LIVING THEIR LIFE, SO SPENDING AN HOUR OR TWO FOR LUNCH IS A DAILY EVENT, ESPECIALLY SINCE IT INCORPORATES A TRADITIONAL TWO TO THREE COURSE MEAL WITH THEIR FAMILY AND FRIENDS. BY 2 O’CLOCK, PEOPLE WILL ROAM THE STREETS ONCE AGAIN UNTIL DINNER AT 7:30PM, AND DISAPPEAR ONCE MORE UNTIL THEY ARE FINISHED. CHRISTIAN IV LED DENMARK INTO A THIRTY-YEAR WAR AGAINST SWEDEN, ULTIMATELY LOSING AND HISTORICALLY, LEADING HIS NATION INTO AN ERA OF DEBT. THE DANISH MONARCHS WERE KNOWN TO HAVE PLACED HIGH TAXES ON THEIR CITIZENS TO BOOST THE ECONOMY, ENSURING THAT THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN RECEIVES OPTIMUM MAINTENANCE. WITH THE CONCLUSION OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE CITY WAS EXPERIENCING ISOLATED SECTIONS DUE TO THE INCREASING DIFFICULTY TO FIND ANY FORM OF SPACE FOR VEHICLES. AS SUCH, THE IDEA OF PEDESTRIANISING STROGET STREET WAS PROPOSED TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC. THE REACTION FROM THE PUBLIC WAS NEGATIVE, STATING THAT A WALKING STREET, NORMALLY FOUND IN ITALY, WOULD NEVER WORK IN DENMARK. THE NEW STREET, HOWEVER, TRIUMPHED OVER ITS CRITICS , PAVING THE WAY FOR MANY MORE PEDESTRIANISED STREETS. “ FIRST LIF E, THEN SPACES , THEN BUILDINGS – THE OTHER WAY AROUND NEVER WORKS. ” - JAN GEHL PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO
  11. 11. SLIDE 18 SHIFT ECONOMICCPH HISTORICALLY, CHRISTIAN IV LED DENMARK INTO A THIRTY-YEAR WAR AGAINST SWEDEN, ULTIMATELY LOSING AND LEADING HIS THE MAJOR INDUSTRIES IN DENMARK RELY HEAVILY ON MANUFACTURING (73.3% OF GDP), WHICH NORMALLY HAS POLLUTION AS A NATION INTO AN ERA OF DEBT. THE DANISH MONARCHS WERE KNOWN TO HAVE PLACED HIGH TAXES ON THEIR CITIZENS TO BOOST THE BY-PRODUCT. HOWEVER, BECAUSE DENMARK ALSO RELIES ON AGRICULTURAL AND FISHING PRODUCTS FOR CONSUMPTION (18.7%), IT ECONOMY, ENSURING THAT THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN RECEIVES OPTIMUM MAINTENANCE. IS IMPERATIVE THAT THEY WATCH THEIR LEVELS OF POLLUTION TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION. MUCH OF WHAT DRAWS VISITORS TO VISIT AND SPEND MONEY IN COPENHAGEN IS THE HIGH QUALITY OF LIFE, BASED ON THE LESSER POLLUTION LEVELS, THE DESIGN AND “FIRST LIFE, THEN SPACES, THEN BUILDINGS – THE OTHER WAY AROUND NEVER WORKS.”- JAN GEHL EXPERIENCE OF THE CITY ITSELF. IT WOULD BE IN THE CITY’S BEST INTERESTS TO MAINTAIN A WELL-DESIGNED PUBLIC SPACE. WITH THE CONCLUSION OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE CITY WAS EXPERIENCING ISOLATED SECTIONS DUE TO THE INCREASING DIFFICULTY TO FIND ANY FORM OF SPACE FOR VEHICLES. AS SUCH, THE IDEA OF PEDESTRIANISING STROGET STREET WAS PROPOSED TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC. THE REACTION FROM THE PUBLIC WAS NEGATIVE, STATING THAT A WALKING STREET, NORMALLY FOUND IN ITALY, WOULD NEVER WORK IN DENMARK. THE NEW STREET, HOWEVER, TRIUMPHED OVER ITS CRITICS , PAVING THE WAY FOR MANY MORE PEDESTRIANISED STREETS
  12. 12. ZAMULTIPLICIT Y, DIVERSIT Y, CREATIVIT Y DEL CAMPIDOGLIO SLIDE A REQUIREMENT TO ENSURE THAT A CITY PROVIDES EACH INDIVIDUAL A MEMORABLE AND PLEASANT EXPERIENCE, IS FOR IT TO BE ABLE TO WELCOME ANYONE AND EVERYONE INTO IT. TO ENSURE SUCH DEMOCRATIC OPTIONS, IT WILL FIRST NEED TO BE TOLERANT AND AS SUCH, THE CITY SHOULD POSSESS A VARIETY OF PEOPLE. COPENHAGEN IS A CLEAN CITY, ALWAYS INVITED PLACES CAN BOAST ABOUT. COPENHAGEN’S HISTORY AS A TRADE HARBOUR HASWHICH NOT MANYTHE POSSIBILITY OF AN INNOVATIVE EXPERIENCE, AND AS SUCH, THEY HAVE MADE THE EFFORT TO MAKEIT IS HEALTHY AND APPEALING ALLOWING PEOPLE TO LIVE INVITATION TO PEOPLE THROUGH PEDESTRIANISED STREETS TRAFFIC. - JULIA THEIR CITY MORE SPACIOUS, AS A MEETING PLACE. THE WITH MORE HAPPINESS AND LESS STRESS, POLLUTION AND AND OPENED FACADES HAVE ESTABLISHED THEM AS A CITY THAT CARES ABOUT PEOPLE. THE EMPHASIS ON PUBLIC INTERACTION AND SOCIAL ATMOSPHERE HAS LED DESIGNERS TO TRY AND BLEND MODERNISM WITH A SENSE OF DANISH TRADITIONAL DESIGN, WHICH CAN BE SHOWN THROUGH THE INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO CALLED “&TRADITION”.
  13. 13. CAPITOLINE HILL CAPITOLINE HILL PIAZZA DEL COMPIDOGLIO IS PLACED DIRECTLY AT THE TOP OF THE HILL. DESPITE BEING THE SMALLEST OF ROME'S SEVEN HILLS, IT WAS HELD SACRED AS THE RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL CENTER OF THE CITY. LEFT IN RUINS BY THE MIDDLE AGES, FARNESE POPE PAUL III COMMENDED MICHELANGELO IN HOPES TO RESTORE ITS ONCE GRAND STATE FOR THE ENTRANCE OF CHARLES V, THE HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR. PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO
  14. 14. PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO PA L A Z ZOS E N ATOR I O BUILT ON THE REMAINS OF THE TABULARIUM, A RECORD BUILDING, THE ESSENTIAL USAGE OF THIS BUILDING WAS MADE FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, WHERE THE ROMAN SENATE WAS SEATED. THIS BUILDING WAS ALSO THE BACKGROUND TO THE PIAZZA, TO WHICH MICHELANGELO SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED A DOUBLE-FLIGHT OF STAIRS LEADING TOWARDS IT, AT THE SAME TIME SEPARATING THE FACADE. PAL AZZO NUOVO CONSISTED OF AN ELECTED MAGISTRATURE WHO HAD THE AUTHORITY TO REGULATE THE CITY. MANY SCULPTURE AND PAINTINGS CAN BE FOUND WITHIN IT AND IS NOW A MUSEUM MADE UP WITH PALAZZO NUOVO. PAL AZZO DEICONSERVATORI THE EXTERIORS OF THIS FACADE IS IDENTICAL TO PALAZZO DEI CONSERVATORI, CREATED BY MICHELANGELO ONE CENTURY EARLIER, WITH THE PURPOSE OF FINISHING THE PIAZZA SYMMETRICALLY.
  15. 15. HEALTH, HAPPINESS IN ITALY, IT IS COMMON FOR STORES, BANKS, AND STREETS TO BE CLOSED AND EMPTY DURING LUNCH TIME FOR AT LEAST “ TWO HOURS. EVEN BUSINESSES COME TO A HALT. ITALIANS VALUE THE IMPORTANCE OF LIVING THEIR LIFE, SO SPENDING COPENHAGEN IS A CLEAN CITY, WHICH NOT MANY PLACES CAN BOAST ABOUT. AN HOUR OR TWO FOR LUNCH IS A DAILY EVENT, ESPECIALLY SINCE IT INCORPORATES A TRADITIONAL TWO TO THREE IT IS HEALTHY AND SPACIOUS, ALLOWING PEOPLE TO LIVE WITH MORE HAPPINESS AND LESS STRESS, POLLUTION AND TRAFFIC. - JULIA COURSE MEAL WITH THEIR FAMILY AND FRIENDS. BY 2 O’CLOCK, PEOPLE WILL ROAM THE STREETS ONCE AGAIN UNTIL ” DINNER AT 7:30PM, AND DISAPPEAR ONCE MORE UNTIL THEY ARE FINISHED. HEALTH
  16. 16. T E X T UR E & DETAILS “ CITY BUILDINGS HOLD ATTRACTIONS FOR PEDESTRIANS WALKING SLOWLY. APPEALING GROUND FLOORS OFFER TEXTURE, GOOD MATERIALS AND A WEALTH OF DETAILS. ”
  17. 17. “ AND FOR MANY GROUPS IN SOCIETY STAIRS ARE A DIRECT BARRIER. C O R D ONATA: A RAM P E D S TAIRC AS E ”
  18. 18. “ THE EDGES OF A CITY LIMIT THE VISUAL FIELD AND DEFINE INDIVIDUAL SPACE. EDGES MAKE A VITAL CONTRIBUTION TO SPATIAL EXPERIENCE AND TO THE AWARENESS OF INDIVIDUAL SPACE AS A PLACE. per fectly propor tioned square ” E DGES T H AT DE F IN E S PACE
  19. 19. “ AT T R ACTIVE SEATIN G TR AC TIVE SE AT ING WHEN LOCAL CLIMATE, PLACEMENT, PROTECTION AND VIEW JOIN FORCES, THE SEATING PLACE PROVIDES THE BEST OF ALL WORLDS. EDG E EFFE CT ”
  20. 20. “ IF THE PLACE OFFERS SPECIAL ATTRACTIONS SUCH AS WATER, TREES, FLOWERS, FINE SPACE, GOOD ARCHITECTURE AND ART WORKS, THE INDIVIDUAL WANTS A GOOD VIEW OF THEM. “ ” DOMINATED SQUARE IS A SQUARE THAT IS DIRECTED WITH BUILDINGS OR OTHER ELEMENTS LIKE FOUNTAINS AND THE STRUCTURES ARE RELATED WITH ” TH E V I EW
  21. 21. TO INVIT E “ SEEING AND HEARING CONTACTS ARE HIGHLIGHTED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT AND COMMON FORM OF CONTACT BETWEEN PEOPLE IN PUBLIC SPACE. PHYSICAL PLANNING CAN INVITE OR REPEL BASIC SEEING AND HEARING CONTACTS. ”
  22. 22. “ THE KEY TO ENSURING BETTER CONDITIONS FOR THE HUMAN DIMENSION -JAN GEHL ”
  23. 23. REFERENCES A VIEW ON CITIES. CAMPIDOGLIO. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011 FROM HTTP://WWW.AVIEWONCITIES.COM/ROME/CAMPIDOGLIO.HTM/ CAN, I., & SAYGIN, N. (2007). TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC SPACE: A CASE OF KONAK SQUARE, İZMIR. SAN FRANCISCO: [S.N.]. A VIEW ON CITIES. CAMPIDOGLIO. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011 FROM HTTP://WWW.AVIEWONCITIES.COM/ROME/CAMPIDOGLIO.HTM/ GEHL, J. (2010). CITIES FOR PEOPLE, WASHINGTON: ISLAND PRESS. CAN, I., & SAYGIN, N. (2007). TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC SPACE: A CASE OF KONAK SQUARE, İZMIR. SAN FRANCISCO: [S.N.]. GEHL, J. GEMZØE, L. KIRKNÆS, S & SØNDERGAARD, B.S. (2006). NEW CITY LIFE, COPENHAGEN: THE DANISH ARCHITECHTURAL PRESS. GEHL, J. (2010). CITIES FOR PEOPLE, WASHINGTON: ISLAND PRESS. PHILLIP, D. L. (2009, OCTOBER). JAN GEHL. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011, FROM HTTP://WWW.PPS.ORG/ARTICLES/JGEHL/ GEHL, J. GEMZØE, L. KIRKNÆS, S & SØNDERGAARD, B.S. (2006). NEW CITY LIFE, COPENHAGEN: THE DANISH ARCHITECHTURAL PRESS. JOHN, R. P. (2009, DECEMBER). CAPITOLINE HILL AND MUSEUMS, ROME. SACRED DESTINATIONS. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011 FROM HTTP://WWW.SACRED-DESTINATIONS.COM/ITALY/ROME-CAPITOLINE-MUSEUMS HTTP://WWW.SACRED-DESTINATIONS.COM/ITALY/ROME-CAPITOLINE-MUSEUMS/ HTTP://WWW.AVIEWONCITIES.COM/ROME/CAMPIDOGLIO.HTM HTTP://ENTERTAINMENT.HOWSTUFFWORKS.COM/ARTS/ARTWORK/MICHELANGELO-BUILDINGS8.HTM HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ROSS_HARPER/3622184136/ HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/SOUIKY/5387984938/ PHILLIP, D. L. (2009, OCTOBER). JAN GEHL. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011, FROM HTTP://WWW.PPS.ORG/ARTICLES/JGEHL/ HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ROSS_HARPER/3622184136/ JOHN, R. P. (2009, DECEMBER). CAPITOLINE HILL AND MUSEUMS, ROME. SACRED DESTINATIONS. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011 FROM HTTP://WWW.SACRED-DESTINATIONS.COM/ITALY/ROME-CAPITOLINE-MUSEUMS/ MILLER, B. (2008, JANUARY). INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY ON URBAN CONSCIOUSNESS. ETRIEVED OCTOBER 29TH, 2011 FROM HTTP://WWW.STATE.GOV/R/PA/EI/BGN/3167.HTM

×