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Teacher’s Guide  to the Common EuropeanFramework    1
A Teacher’s Guide to the                Common European Framework          Introduction                                   ...
Part 1: What is the Common                                       Reflecting this, the Council of Europe developed the     ...
Common Reference Levels - The Global Scale                               • Can understand with ease virtually everything h...
Self-Assessment Grids                                                       Q: Is the CEF a teaching methodology?Students ...
6. There are no requirements in the CEF; it is a                   the ascent gets harder the higher you climb. It does   ...
CEF Self-Assessment Grid                  	                  A1	                                   A2	                    ...
B2                                   C1                                    C2• I can understand extended          • I can ...
(Continued from page 8)                                          what the framework means to them so that theyYou may want...
Tip 2 Have learners keep a record of their                    (often called My Learning Progress) and score               ...
Useful website links:            Pearson Longman CEF companion website:          The f...
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  1. 1. Teacher’s Guide to the Common EuropeanFramework 1
  2. 2. A Teacher’s Guide to the Common European Framework Introduction Table of ContentsSince its publication in 2001, the Common All of the topics listed below are addressedEuropean Framework of Reference for in this guide. Throughout we have providedLanguages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment quick reference tabs so you can find the(CEF) has had a wide-ranging impact on the information you need easily. At the end ofteaching and learning of languages around some sections we have also addressed somethe world. Many ministries of education, frequently asked questions about the CEF.local education authorities, educationalinstitutions, teachers’ associations, and Part 1: What is the Common Europeanpublishers use the CEF, and it will continue Framework and how did itto have an impact for many years to come. evolve?In its own words, the CEF “provides a A. A common reference forcommon basis for the elaboration of describing language learning,language syllabuses, curriculum guidelines, teaching, and assessmentexaminations, textbooks, etc.” (CEF: 2001: 1) For B. Understanding and using themany teachers and learners, though, there Global Scaleis some misunderstanding as to what the C. Frequently asked questionscontext, aims, and benefits of the CEF are.The purpose of this guide is to give teachersand learners insight into the CEF and to show Part 2: How can teachers make use ofhow it can have a positive impact on learning, the CEF to help achieve theirteaching, and assessment. classroom goals? A. Understanding the benefits forThis guide is not intended to replace a more teachersin-depth reading of the CEF itself, nor can it B. Using the CEF to “map” a journeyprovide all the answers to questions you or C. Defining how long it will take toyour learners may have. However, we hope reach each CEF levelthat you will find this introduction useful ifyou are considering the CEF as a classroom D. Using CEF-referenced coursetool. booksPearson Longman Part 3: How can the CEF help students reflect on their learning? A. Encouraging reflection B. Language Portfolios and the CEF Part 4: Further suggestions 3
  3. 3. Part 1: What is the Common Reflecting this, the Council of Europe developed the Common European Framework of References forEuropean Framework and how did Languages to establish international standards forit evolve? learning, teaching, and assessment for all modernA. A common reference for describing European languages.language learning, teaching, and assessment. B. Understanding and using the Global ScalePeople have been learning, teaching, and assessinglanguage for centuries. In this long history, there have The Common European Framework describes what abeen as many different ways of teaching as there have learner can do at six specific levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1,been ways of describing levels of language learning and C2.and assessment. Even today, schools, universities, and • asic User (A1 and A2) Blanguage academies use many different methodologies Quick reference:and many ways to describe proficiency levels. What • ndependent User (B1 I Common referencemay be an intermediate level in one country may be an and B2) levels in the Global Scale range from A1upper-intermediate level in another. Levels may vary • roficient User (C1 and C2) P to C2.even among institutions in the same area.Consider how you would describe to a learner what These levels match general concepts of basic,you mean by intermediate: intermediate, and advanced and are often referred to as the Global Scale. For each level, the full CEF• hat is an intermediate level? W document complements this by describing in depth Quick Reference:• hat does intermediate mean W Several issues • ompetencies necessary for effective communication. C to you as a teacher and to your become apparent when trying to • kills and knowledge related to language learning S learners? describe levels of and competencies.• oes intermediate refer to how D language learning, teaching, and • ituations (people, place, time, organization, etc.) S a learner communicates in an assessment. and contexts (study, work, social, tourism, etc.) in everyday situation in an English- which communication takes place. speaking country, to the amount of vocabulary a person has learned to use, or to the The Global Scale is not language-specific. In other grammar items a person at that level understands? words, it can be used with virtually any language and• ow can we assess a learner’s achievement at an H can be used to compare achievement and learning intermediate level if we don’t define exactly what across languages. For example, an A2 in Spanish is the we mean by intermediate? same as an A2 in Japanese or English. The Global Scale also helps teachers, academicComparing levels becomes even Quick Reference: coordinators, and course book writers to decidemore difficult when comparing on curriculum and syllabus content and to choosesomeone who is learning English to Levels can mean different things appropriate course books, etc.someone who is learning another among differentlanguage, for example, French. Can institutions and in “Can do” statementswe directly compare the proficiency different countries.level of an advanced English The Global Scale is based on a set of statements that describe what Quick Reference:student to that of an advanced French student? Common reference a learner can do. The “can do”In order to facilitate both teaching and learning, we levels are based on statements are always positive: they statements of whatneed a way to specify what our learners are able to do describe what a learner is able to a learner can do atat certain levels. As teachers, we also need to know do, not what a learner cannot do or each these levels can guide our teaching and the way does wrong. This helps all learners,we select course books and resources. In short, we even those at the lowest levels, see that learning hasneed a common language by which we can describe value and that they can attain language goals.language learning, teaching, and assessment.In most countries there is general agreement that The following table describes each of thelanguage learning can be organized into three six levels of the Global Scale.levels: basic/beginner, intermediate, and advanced.
  4. 4. Common Reference Levels - The Global Scale • Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. C2 • Can summarize information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. • Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations. Proficient • Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning. C1 • Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. • Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. • Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organizational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices. • Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialization. B2 • Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. • Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.Independent • Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. B1 • Can deal with most situations likely to arise while travelling in an area where the language is spoken. • Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. • Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. • Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, A2 shopping, local geography, employment). • Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. • Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need. Basic • Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases A1 aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. • Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. • Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment has been developed by the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg) (c) 2001 Council of Europe, Language Policy Division 5
  5. 5. Self-Assessment Grids Q: Is the CEF a teaching methodology?Students may find the language used in the Global A: No, the CEF isn’t a methodology, and it doesn’tScale a little complicated. For this reason, when using prescribe a way of teaching. It is a descriptivethe Global Scale to provide a self-assessment grid for framework for all language levels. How you teachlearners, teachers may wish to simplify the language. the levels is up to you. The CEF leaves plenty ofThen students will be able to understand what their room for you to help your learners achieve newlevel is and where they will go next with their language levels of proficiency using a methodology that youlearning and use. feel comfortable with and that your learners areA self-assessment grid for B1 level learners (for used to.listening) looks like this: Q: There is no specific grammar or vocabulary in the CEF “can do” statements. Does this mean that grammar shouldn’t be taught if we use • I can understand the main points of clear, the CEF as a basis? standard speech on familiar matters regularly B1 encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. A: The CEF deliberately does not refer to grammar or • I can understand the main points of many structures. It is designed to describe how language Listening radio or TV programs on current affairs or topics of personal or professional interest users communicate and how they understand when the delivery is relatively slow and clear. written and spoken texts. As it is used to describe and compare European languages, we cannot hope to provide a detailed list of grammar structures.Self-assessment grids encourage learners to reflect on However, learners do need to know about languagetheir current and future levels and are used as part of a systems (grammar, vocabulary, etc.) in order toLanguage Portfolio (discussed in more detail in Part 4). learn. A good course book linked to the CEF will provide all the language input necessary. The “canHowever, the CEF is more than Quick Reference: do” statements complement more specific languagethe Global Scale. The CEF goes The Global Scale in areas.further by breaking down the the CEF is the startingGlobal Scale into more descriptive point for looking at specific languagescales covering three areas of descriptors. Part 2: How can teachers make usecommunication: of the CEF to achieve their classroom goals?• Understanding (Listening and Reading)• Speaking (Spoken Interaction and Spoken A. Understanding the benefits for teachers Production) If you choose to use the CEF as a reference point for• Writing your classroom, here are some of the benefits related to using a common framework:These descriptors are adapted for self-assessment and 1. Teachers have access to a meaningful and usefulare often used as the basis for course book design point of reference that is understood globally andand curriculum design, and for defining the content of that informs their decisions on measuring languagelevels based on the Global Scale. See pages 8-9 for the knowledge and skills.complete CEF self-assessment grid. 2. Teachers receive a detailed description of learning,C. Frequently asked questions teaching, and assessing languages, how learnersQ: Why a Common European Framework? compare to a set of competencies, and how they I don’t teach or study in Europe! carry out communicative tasks.A: The Common European Framework is not a 3. Teachers and learners move toward specific levels political or cultural tool used to promote Europe and specific goals of those levels. or European educational systems. The word 4. Teachers may want to select teaching materials European refers to European languages, although (course books and resources) that are referenced to the CEF has now been translated into more than 30 the CEF. languages, including non-European languages such 5. CEF levels provide an indication of performance as Arabic and Japanese, making it accessible to and ability to function in communicative contexts in nearly everyone around the world. a foreign language. 6
  6. 6. 6. There are no requirements in the CEF; it is a the ascent gets harder the higher you climb. It does framework of reference. It is up to the teacher and not take the same amount of time to reach each level. learner to plot a course for language development. It will take longer to get to B2 from B1 than it does to The CEF does not tell them what to do or how get to A2 from A1. to do it. A principle reason for this is that as the learner7. The CEF invites practitioners (all those involved in progresses with the language, he or she needs to teaching and learning a language) to reflect on their acquire a larger range of language knowledge and approach to teaching, learning, and assessment. competencies. Also, when going beyond B1 level, most learners reach a linguistic plateau, and acquisitionB. Using the CEF to “map” a journey slows. Teachers are of course aware of this and understand that the language learning process is aWe can view the CEF as a tool for “mapping” a continual and very individualized one.learner’s journey in learning a language. In many waysthe CEF is similar to a road map. A road map shows Because no two learners develop Quick reference:you how to get from point A to point B. It presents their language skills in the same It is difficult topossible routes but does not specify which one you way or at the same pace, it is define the amountshould follow, nor does it determine the length of difficult to define the exact amount of time needed toyour journey. reach CEF level. The of time needed to reach each level. number of hours is The Association of Language different for everySimilarly, the CEF shows us a path learner. Quick reference: Testers of Europe (ALTE),to follow for learning a language Think of the CEF as a whose members have alignedbut doesn’t take us on the journey. road map. Teachers their language examinations with the CEF, providesThere are many reasons for and learners might guidance on the number of guided teaching hourslearning a language, and language use it to find the best route for their needed to fulfill the aims of each CEF level:is used in a variety of contexts. journey.The CEF may be used to viewlanguage in different contexts, A1 Approximately 90 - 100 hoursand it provides specific descriptor scales for specificcontexts of language use (business, social, etc.). A2 Approximately 180 - 200 hoursLearners can start their journey at the A1 level as a B1 Approximately 350 - 400 hoursbeginner and finish at the C2 level as a master of the B2 Approximately 500 - 600 hourslanguage. They may choose to stop at one of the levelswhen their purposes have been met or their goals C1 Approximately 700 - 800 hoursattained. (Most learners do not progress beyond the C2 Approximately 1,000 - 1,200 hoursB2 level.)How learners reach the different levels depends Guided teaching hours are the hours during whichon many factors, including teaching methodology, the learner is in a formal learning context such as thestudents’ motivation, their reason or purpose for classroom. The number of hours needed for differentlearning, the course book and materials used, the learners varies greatly, depending on a range of factorsamount of time taken, and others. such asC. Defining how long it will take to reach • age and motivationeach CEF level • backgroundAs mentioned before in this guide, • amount of prior study and extent of exposure to theone of the main concerns of teachers Quick reference: language outside the classroomis how long it takes to reach each Learning alevel. At first glance, the CEF appears language is a • amount of time spent in individual study like climbingto be like a staircase with each step mountain: The Learners from some countries and cultures may takethe same distance from the next (A1 higher you go, the harder it gets. longer to acquire a new language, especially if theyeto A2 to B1 to B2, etc.). This might have to learn to read and write with a Latin script.seem to indicate that each step orlevel should be achieved in an equal amount of time.But learning a language is like climbing a mountain: (Continued on page 10) 7
  7. 7. CEF Self-Assessment Grid A1 A2 B1 Listening • can recognize familiar words I • can understand phrases I • can understand the main I and very basic phrases concerning and the highest frequency points of clear standard speech myself, my family and immediate vocabulary related to on familiar matters regularly concrete surroundings when areas of most immediate encountered in work, school,U people speak slowly and clearly. personal relevance (e.g. very leisure, etc.N basic personal and family • can understand the main point ID information, shopping, local of many radio or TV programs area, employment). on current affairs or topicsE • I can catch the main point in of personal or professionalR short, clear, simple messages interest when the delivery isS and announcements. relatively slow and clear.TA Reading • can understand familiar I • can read very short, simple I • can understand texts that IN names, words and very simple texts. consist mainly of high frequency sentences, for example on everyday or job-relatedD notices and posters or in • can find specific, predictable I language.I catalogs. information in simple everyday material such as • can understand the description IN advertisements, prospectuses, of events, feelings and wishes inG menus and timetables and I personal letters. can understand short simple personal letters. Spoken • can interact in a simple way I • can communicate in simple I • can deal with most situations I Interaction provided the other person is and routine tasks requiring a likely to arise while traveling in prepared to repeat or rephrase simple and direct exchange of an area where the language is things at a slower rate of speech information on familiar topics spoken. and help me formulate what I’m and activities. • can enter unprepared into I trying to say. • can handle very short social I conversation on topics that areS • can ask and answer simple I exchanges, even though I can’t familiar, of personal interest or questions in areas of immediate usually understand enough toP pertinent to everyday life (e.g. need or on very familiar topics. keep the conversation going family, hobbies, work, travelE myself. and current events).AK • can use simple phrases and I Spoken • can use a series of phrases and I • can connect phrases in a II Production sentences to describe where I sentences to describe in simple simple way in order to describeN live and people I know. terms my family and other experiences and events, my people, living conditions, my dreams, hopes and ambitions.G educational background and my • can briefly give reasons and I present or most recent job. explanations for opinions and plans. • can narrate a story or relate I the plot of a book or film and describe my reactions. Writing • can write a short, simple I • can write short, simple notes I • can write simple connected I postcard, for example sending and messages relating to text on topics which are familiarW holiday greetings. matters in areas of immediate or of personal interest.R • can fill in forms with personal I needs. • can write personal letters II details, for example entering my • can write a very simple I describing experiences and name, nationality and address personal letter, for example impressions.T thanking someone for on a hotel registration form.I something.NG
  8. 8. B2 C1 C2• I can understand extended • I can understand extended • I have no difficulty in speech and lectures and follow speech even when it is not understanding any kind of even complex lines of argument clearly structured and when spoken language, whether provided the topic is reasonably relationships are only implied live or broadcast, even when familiar. and not signaled explicitly. delivered at fast native speed,• I can understand most TV news • I can understand television provided. and current affairs programs. programs and films without too • I have some time to get familiar• I can understand the majority of much effort. with the accent. films in standard dialect.• I can read articles and reports • I can understand long and • I can read with ease virtually all concerned with contemporary complex factual and literary forms of the written language, problems in which the writers texts, appreciating distinctions including abstract, structurally adopt particular attitudes or of style. or linguistically complex texts viewpoints. • I can understand specialized such as manuals, specialized• I can understand contemporary articles and longer technical articles and literary works. literary prose. instructions, even when they do not relate to my field.• I can interact with a degree of • I can express myself fluently • I can take part effortlessly in any fluency and spontaneity that and spontaneously without conversation or discussion and have makes regular interaction with much obvious searching for a good familiarity with idiomatic native speakers quite possible. expressions. expressions and colloquialisms.• I can take an active part in • I can use language flexibly • I can express myself fluently and discussion in familiar contexts, and effectively for social and convey finer shades of meaning accounting for and sustaining professional purposes. precisely. If I do have a problem my views. • I can formulate ideas and I can backtrack and restructure opinions with precision and around the difficulty so smoothly relate my contribution skillfully that other people are hardly aware to those of other speakers. of it.• I can present clear, detailed • I can present clear, detailed • I can present a clear, smoothly- descriptions on a wide range of descriptions of complex flowing description or argument subjects related to my field of subjects integrating sub-themes, in a style appropriate to the interest. developing particular points context and with an effective• I can explain a viewpoint and rounding off with an logical structure which helps on a topical issue giving the appropriate conclusion. the recipient to notice and advantages and disadvantages remember significant points. of various options.• I can write clear, detailed text • I can express myself in clear, • I can write clear, smoothly-flowing on a wide range of subjects well-structured text, expressing text in an appropriate style. related to my interests. points of view at some length. • I can write complex letters,• I can write an essay or report, • I can write about complex reports or articles which present passing on information or giving subjects in a letter, an essay a case with an effective logical reasons in support of or against or a report, underlining what I structure which helps the a particular point of view. consider to be the salient issues. recipient to notice and remember• I can write letters highlighting significant points. • I can select style appropriate to the personal significance of the reader in mind. • I can write summaries and reviews events and experiences. of professional or literary works. 9
  9. 9. (Continued from page 8) what the framework means to them so that theyYou may want to begin your evaluation of how many can use self-assessment and learner autonomy tohours are needed by looking at the number of teaching become more effective learners inside and outside thehours allotted in your courses. Then see how that classroom.number corresponds to the number of approximate At Pearson Longman we firmly believe that Greathours it takes to get from one level of CEF to the next. Teachers Inspire - Great Teachers Motivate. InspiredNote that each designated CEF level covers a range and motivated learners take control of their learningof proficiency and achievement levels. Your course and become more effective autonomous learners.levels may correspond to the higher or lower end of Teachers play an incredibly important role in the livesthis range, or to both. Pearson Longman course books of our learners, because learners view their teacherscover the range of proficiency and achievement in as the source of inspiration and knowledge. Througheach CEF level. In most cases, a course book will learner training we can help learners understand howbe used over a number of course levels, allowing all they learn and how they can acquire useful tools thatstudents to achieve proficiency over a period of time. will enhance their progress.D. Using CEF-referenced course books A. Encouraging ReflectionFor many teachers and curriculum planners, one You may want to ask your studentsdifficulty with any framework (not just the CEF) to reflect on their learning. Learners, Quick Reference: Students can beis deciding how to match the levels to an existing especially children, often have encouraged tocurriculum and classroom goals. By comparing the little knowledge about the learning reflect on theircontent of your course to the CEF, you can define process. If they don’t understand learning.what language skills, vocabulary, grammar, and in concrete terms what learning acommunicative functions will be covered. language involves, they will have trouble deciding on their goals and evaluating their current levels.Course books and supplementary materials that are The following guidance may help to encourage self-referenced to the CEF can help the teacher achieve his reflection and facilitate learner training:or her classroom goals. Pearson Longman has helpedby aligning course books with the CEF. This helps Tip 1 Ask learners concrete questions (andthe teacher decide whether the content of the course give examples of possible answers) to help thembook (topics, language covered, etc.) fits classroom understand the benefits of reflection. Depending ongoals and learners’ needs and whether the level is their level and age, for students in monolingual groupsappropriate. you may have to introduce the concepts in theirTeachers know their classroom mother tongue. Here are some examples of questionsgoals better than anyone else. Quick Reference: to begin with:Working with other teachers in Working together teachers can decide To help them reflect on general learning ability:your institution as a group, you how the CEF fits their What do you think are your strengths as a student?may want to read through the classroom goals.levels in the CEF Global Scale and What do you think are your weaknesses as a student?self-assessment grids (as a minimum) and decide how How do you see yourself as a language learner?you think they fit the classroom goals, the curriculum, What expectations do you have of the language teacher?the syllabus, and the course book you have chosen. To help them reflect on learning a language and aims:Part 3: How Can Teachers Help Their What do you find easy or difficult about learning aStudents to Learn? language?Most of our discussion of the Quick Reference: How can you improve your study habits workingCEF so far has focused on Learners need to individually or in a group?helping teachers understand understand CEF levels, Questioning can be done in small groups so that self-assessment ,the basic concepts behind the and how to become learners can share their thoughts with their peers.CEF and Global Scale. However, reflective and Remember that students from some cultures mayat the center of the learning autonomous. not feel comfortable or ready to share their thoughts.process and the framework itself You’ll need to deal with their hesitation carefully andis the learner. It is important that learners understand sensitively. 10
  10. 10. Tip 2 Have learners keep a record of their (often called My Learning Progress) and score charts to check their progress throughout thereflections in a learner’s diary for future reference. course.These can become part of their Language Portfolio(covered in more depth in Part 4). 3. The Language Dossier–This is a collection of learners’ work from throughout the course. Each Tip 3 Introduce the concept and benefits of the student is responsible for compiling the dossier and,CEF as a road map. Most learners, even children, with the teacher’s guidance, selecting examplesunderstand the concept of a road map. If you offer of work that best represents his or her personalthem a clear, understandable example, they will achievements. The dossier can include work takenquickly grasp the concept. from course book activities, the workbook, or extra resource sheets. It can include individual or group Tip 4 A K.I.S.S. (Keep It Short and Simple) work and can be compiled in written, audio, orapproach is best. Introduce elements gradually, video form.particularly the self-assessment grids and descriptorscales. Explain that the self-assessment grids focus Part 4: Further Suggestionson everyday situations and tasks. Learners are far Here are some further suggestions for bringing themore likely to understand the level system when it’s CEF to life in the classroom:presented in these terms instead of as an abstractlinguistic tool. Take a little time to read the complete document. It can be hard, but it will reward the reader with usefulB. Language Portfolios and the CEF insights. The supporting Guide for Users is a good starting point and an easier read. You can downloadLanguage Portfolios are another primary way in which it at:students may wish to make use of the CEF. LanguagePortfolios are designed to help learners become more of their language learning and to encourage Guide-for-Users-April02.docthem to monitor their own progress. They encouragestudents to engage in self-assessment using “can do”statements. They promote creativity and help students Go ahead and personalize the CEF. You may wantexplore their interests and understand their profiles to explore ways to relate the CEF to learners’ ownas language learners. Language Portfolios are the interests and contexts. Use cartoons, games, and roleproperty of the learners. They allow learners to take play to help young learners contextualize and explorecontrol of their learning and to showcase examples of the CEF. Ask your business English learners to write atheir best work. Many Pearson Longman course books profile of what they need English for in their job. Thennow incorporate Language Portfolios into the learning match the CEF to their perceptions and reflections. Asprocess. in any classroom context, the only limitation is your own imagination!Each Language Portfolio is made up of threeparts: Celebrate success! We all recognize that reward and motivation are extremely important parts of the1. The Language ‘Passport’–In this part of the learning process. Learners need to feel an internal portfolio learners reflect on their language learning motivation to continue succeeding. When they have experiences, define their language learning needs, reached different levels in the CEF, celebrate! They and plan a learning route. They can also summarize will feel even more motivated to continue. their intercultural experiences and their exposure to the language in a variety of contexts. We are here to help. Pearson Longman is dedicated to continuing teacher development and supporting2. The Language Biography–This is a more detailed learning. We will continue to provide guidance and look at the learner’s personal language learning resources on the CEF. experiences. Learners are encouraged to look at their own individual learning style and reflect on We hope this guide has inspired you to explore the personal language learning objectives, usually by CEF in your classroom and in other language learning listing them. Learners use self-assessment grids contexts. Good luck! 11
  11. 11. Useful website links: Pearson Longman CEF companion website: The full Common European Framework document (in English): Language Portfolio self-assessment grids and checklists: 12 0-13-236580-4