Effects of Design Features on Visitors’ Behavior in a Museum Setting Ting-Ray Chang Oral Defense for Master of Arts in Int...
Presentation Background of study Questions & Hypothesis Function Model Methods Data Analysis Conclusion, Limitation, and F...
Background of study Behavior Environment Actors Context
Actors   Single adult visitors, including: KU Students Community/ Regional visitors Background of study Context
<ul><li>Environment   </li></ul><ul><li>Physical setting </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Renovation </li></ul>...
Environment  The North wall with 29 art pieces of 20 th  and 21 st  centuries  Background of study Context
Visitors’ paths, stop-locations, and viewing time/frequency Behavior Context
What Environmental Features Related to Design Decisions have an Impact on Visitors’ Behavior? Question
Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis:  </li></ul><ul><li>Visual grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Location-center </li></ul><ul><li>Eye-...
Curator’s Decisions (Based on museological and educational purposes and one’s background in art/history) Exhibition Design...
1) Measuring physical settings of display 2) Rating art pieces by the curator 3) Tracking visitors’ viewing paths and stop...
Methods Display Location,  Clusters, Size measurement, Lighting,  Distance between the Art Pieces,  and Eye-level Height D...
Methods Mapping clusters and weighted-locations: The clusters of art pieces were identified by the physical locations on t...
Methods Mapping distance between the art pieces: The average distance for one art piece from one’s center to the other sur...
Methods Mapping Eye-level Height Deviation: The standard is based on Bailey’s human factors study (1996) where the median ...
<ul><li>Measuring lighting: </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the limitations of the composition of art pieces, exhibition designer...
Methods <ul><li>2) Rating art pieces by the curator with three different scales:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canonical impo...
<ul><li>3) Tracking visitors’ viewing paths and stop-location and  document visitors’  </li></ul><ul><li>time spent and fr...
4) Categorizing and Analyzing data The data were complex with many factors and large quantity and were divided,  categoriz...
<ul><li>Graph analysis – Tracking Visitors’ path, mapping Display </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations – Correlations between Cu...
Data <ul><li>Stop-locations </li></ul>
Low-Frequency High-Frequency Long-Time Continuous High-Frequency Analysis <ul><li>Stop-locations </li></ul>
Data <ul><li>Paths </li></ul>
Main-Pathway Safety-Distance Analysis <ul><li>Paths: free-movements in the gallery </li></ul>
<ul><li>Viewed-Frequency on Art pieces </li></ul>Viewed-Frequency compare to both the physical design of display measured,...
<ul><li>Correlations  </li></ul><ul><li>Curator’s Rating    Display: </li></ul><ul><li>Canonical Importance    Lighting ...
Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance, popularity, museum goal  Visitors’ Behavior Frequency,...
Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance , popularity, museum goal  Visitors’ Behavior Frequency...
Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance, popularity, museum goal  Visitors’ Behavior Display of...
Display of  Arts Lighting, Cluster, Eye-level deviation, Weighted-Location, Distance (from center of an art piece to other...
Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance Visitors’ Behavior Time Display of  Arts Cluster, Weigh...
<ul><li>Purpose: define display designs and its impact on visitors’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: measuring the disp...
<ul><li>Purpose: only focused on factors related to environmental behavioral study </li></ul><ul><li>Observation: natural ...
Future Direction <ul><li>Possibilities of qualitative approach, such as narratives or interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Use que...
<ul><li>Eliminate the complexity of the natural setting: </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate floor pieces in the original setting ...
Thank you for Your Time! Q & A
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Effects of Design Features on Visitors’ Behavior in a Museum Setting

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Master thesis on the &quot;Effects of Design Features on Visitors’ Behavior in a Museum Setting&quot;, defended April 2008

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Effects of Design Features on Visitors’ Behavior in a Museum Setting

  1. 1. Effects of Design Features on Visitors’ Behavior in a Museum Setting Ting-Ray Chang Oral Defense for Master of Arts in Interaction Design April 11 th , 2008
  2. 2. Presentation Background of study Questions & Hypothesis Function Model Methods Data Analysis Conclusion, Limitation, and Future Direction Q & A Committee time Time Table
  3. 3. Background of study Behavior Environment Actors Context
  4. 4. Actors Single adult visitors, including: KU Students Community/ Regional visitors Background of study Context
  5. 5. <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical setting </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Renovation </li></ul><ul><li>Art Objects </li></ul>Before After Background of study Context
  6. 6. Environment The North wall with 29 art pieces of 20 th and 21 st centuries Background of study Context
  7. 7. Visitors’ paths, stop-locations, and viewing time/frequency Behavior Context
  8. 8. What Environmental Features Related to Design Decisions have an Impact on Visitors’ Behavior? Question
  9. 9. Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Location-center </li></ul><ul><li>Eye-level height </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matters of art </li></ul>
  10. 10. Curator’s Decisions (Based on museological and educational purposes and one’s background in art/history) Exhibition Designer’s Decisions (Based on the limitations and requirements of exhibits and one’s intuition/experiences of design) Visitors’ Behavior (length and frequency of viewing art display) Use of Space (movements in the space including pathways, distance between art and visitors, stops) Display of Arts (size, locations of art, distances between art pieces, lighting, clusters/grouping, eye-level deviation) Function Model
  11. 11. 1) Measuring physical settings of display 2) Rating art pieces by the curator 3) Tracking visitors’ viewing paths and stop-locations and documenting visitors’ time spent and frequency on art pieces 4) Grouping and Analyzing data Methods
  12. 12. Methods Display Location, Clusters, Size measurement, Lighting, Distance between the Art Pieces, and Eye-level Height Deviation <ul><li>Mapping and measuring physical settings of display, including: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Methods Mapping clusters and weighted-locations: The clusters of art pieces were identified by the physical locations on the wall. The “grouping” of viewing art pieces could affect the way visitors interact with the art. The weighted-location of an art piece is calculated by the total value of the rating of the surrounding pieces. The locations of art pieces could be defined by the importance of art pieces displayed nearby.
  14. 14. Methods Mapping distance between the art pieces: The average distance for one art piece from one’s center to the other surrounded pieces’ centers(image a.) and from one’s edge to the edges of other surrounded pieces (image b.) were measured and calculated in AutoCAD. Image a. Image b.
  15. 15. Methods Mapping Eye-level Height Deviation: The standard is based on Bailey’s human factors study (1996) where the median eye-level height is 62 inches. The distance from the center of each art piece to the 62 inches horizontal-line was measured as the eye-level height deviation.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Measuring lighting: </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the limitations of the composition of art pieces, exhibition designers </li></ul><ul><li>commonly follow standards for the lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>The lighting design could affect visitors’ attention and stop-locations </li></ul>Methods Piece type Lighting standards Works on paper 5-7 foot candles. Photos 7-10 foot candles but can depend on some variables. Textiles 5-7 foot candles. Oil and Acrylic paintings As high as 20 foot candles. Water color paintings Low, 5-7 foot candles but varies. Ceramic and metal objects Can be quite high as in well over 20 foot candles
  17. 17. Methods <ul><li>2) Rating art pieces by the curator with three different scales: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canonical importance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spencer Museum of Art purpose for 20/21 gallery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>3) Tracking visitors’ viewing paths and stop-location and document visitors’ </li></ul><ul><li>time spent and frequency on each art piece during two weeks of observation, data include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitors‘ moving path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time spent on each art piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction of visitors’ paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information of the visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note of any noise events </li></ul></ul>Observation Sheet Methods
  19. 19. 4) Categorizing and Analyzing data The data were complex with many factors and large quantity and were divided, categorized and analyzed in many ways in order to understand the data better. As an example, the data were categorized by visitors’ behavioral patterns. Methods Direction Path pattern Complication of path/cluster
  20. 20. <ul><li>Graph analysis – Tracking Visitors’ path, mapping Display </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations – Correlations between Curator’s Rating, </li></ul><ul><li>Display measured and Behavioral Data </li></ul>Analysis Methods
  21. 21. Data <ul><li>Stop-locations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Low-Frequency High-Frequency Long-Time Continuous High-Frequency Analysis <ul><li>Stop-locations </li></ul>
  23. 23. Data <ul><li>Paths </li></ul>
  24. 24. Main-Pathway Safety-Distance Analysis <ul><li>Paths: free-movements in the gallery </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Viewed-Frequency on Art pieces </li></ul>Viewed-Frequency compare to both the physical design of display measured, including lighting, cluster, distance between art pieces, and eye-level deviation and the importance of Art pieces, including canonical importance, popularity and the Museum goal. Data
  26. 26. <ul><li>Correlations </li></ul><ul><li>Curator’s Rating  Display: </li></ul><ul><li>Canonical Importance  Lighting (0.378**), Cluster (0.436**), </li></ul><ul><li>Eye-level deviation (0.405**), Weighted-Location (0.470**) </li></ul><ul><li>Display  Behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster  Time (-0.487**), Lighting  Frequency (0.469**), </li></ul><ul><li>Distance (from center of an art piece to others)  Frequency (0,506**), </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted-location  Time (-0.466**) </li></ul><ul><li>Curator’s Rating  Behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>Canonical  Time (-0.523**), Rating  Frequency (0.505**) </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity  Frequency(0.621**) </li></ul>Data
  27. 27. Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance, popularity, museum goal Visitors’ Behavior Frequency, Time Display of Arts Lighting, Cluster, Eye-level deviation, Weighted-Location, Distance (from center of an art piece to others) Analysis
  28. 28. Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance , popularity, museum goal Visitors’ Behavior Frequency, Time Display of Arts Lighting(0.378**), Cluster(0.436**), Eye-level deviation(0.405**), Weighted-Location(0.470**) Distance (from center of an art piece to others) Analysis
  29. 29. Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance, popularity, museum goal Visitors’ Behavior Display of Arts Lighting, Cluster, Eye-level deviation, Weighted-Location, Distance (from center of an art piece to others) Analysis Frequency(0.469**), Time(-0.487**), Frequency(0,506**), Time(-0.466**)
  30. 30. Display of Arts Lighting, Cluster, Eye-level deviation, Weighted-Location, Distance (from center of an art piece to others) Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance, popularity, museum goal Visitors’ Behavior Time (-0.523**), Frequency(0.621**) Analysis
  31. 31. Curator’s and Exhibition Designer’s Decisions Canonical Importance Visitors’ Behavior Time Display of Arts Cluster, Weighted-Location Analysis [ + ] [ ] [ ]
  32. 32. <ul><li>Purpose: define display designs and its impact on visitors’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: measuring the display and observing the visitors’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Data: physical setting of display, visitors’ behavior (ex. path, stops), and rating </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: graph  map facts (behavior and display) for further interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>correlation  define interplays between data, didn’t get many </li></ul><ul><li>Complex nature of the context (actors, environment, and activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion based on findings: Display factors studied including clusters, weighted-locations, and popularity could be used as attractions and consideration while designing continuous experiences/exhibits. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-presentation is beneficial for design professions and visual-thinkers. </li></ul>Conclusion
  33. 33. <ul><li>Purpose: only focused on factors related to environmental behavioral study </li></ul><ul><li>Observation: natural setting with freed-elements such as: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Visitors moved freely in a open space with different purposes </li></ul><ul><li>2) The setting/environment were not an experimental setting </li></ul><ul><li>3) Not all subjects went through the whole exhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>4) The subjects were not distributed evenly in terms of time of visit. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Mix-media art pieces fully distributed on the walls and floor. </li></ul><ul><li>6) Didn’t use questionnaire  no visitors’ opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: 1) graph/diagram made by the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>2) without many high correlations  didn’t use other methods </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>Limitation
  34. 34. Future Direction <ul><li>Possibilities of qualitative approach, such as narratives or interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Use questionnaire for visitors’ opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative study: </li></ul><ul><li>Same physical setting but change the location of art pieces or the display of the </li></ul><ul><li>art pieces, to understand the effects of the particular display design factors </li></ul><ul><li>Same physical setting but change the art pieces, to understand the interactions </li></ul><ul><li>between arts and visitors </li></ul><ul><li>In different environmental settings with same art pieces, such as linear gallery </li></ul><ul><li>instead of open space, to understand the effects of environmental settings. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Eliminate the complexity of the natural setting: </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate floor pieces in the original setting </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate different media art pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Build a virtual reality program or laboratory to specify the controlled elements </li></ul><ul><li>Control visitors path of viewing, length of viewing and objects to be viewed </li></ul><ul><li>Use different analysis methods used in environmental behavior research field </li></ul><ul><li>Study behavior in other public setting with similar approaches and methods </li></ul>Future Direction
  36. 36. Thank you for Your Time! Q & A

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