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Fran samuel


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Este trabajo ha sido realizado por un alumno del IES FRancés de Aranda de Teruel dentro del proyecto LEONARDO DA... JUEGO, desarrollado junto con el IES Salvador VIctoria de Monral del Campo en el curso 2012/2013

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Fran samuel

  1. 1. Leonardo da VinciSamuel Gomez & Francisco Rubio
  2. 2. INDEX1. Who was Leonardo da Vinci?2. Time period3. Contributions. Painting3.1. Anatomy3.2. Engineering and inventions3.3. Geometry3.4. Cartography4. Ancient anatomical knowledge. Egypt4.1. Greece4.2. Galen4.3.India
  3. 3. Index5. Da Vinci times anatomical knowledge6. Da Vincis methods and knowledges expansion7. Anatomical conclusions8. Recently found drawings9. Anatomical drawing comparison10. Webgraphy
  4. 4. 1. Who was Leonardo da Vinci?• He was an Italian painter, sculptor, architect,musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor,anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist,and writer. He is considered a RenaissanceMan because he could do almost everything.
  5. 5. 2. Time period• He lived in the Renaissance period, a culturalmovement from the 14th to the 17th centurybeginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages andlater spreading to the rest of Europe. Leonardo daVinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was born inthe Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the territory ofthe Medici-ruled Republic of Florence.Vinci, Italy
  6. 6. 3. Contributions. Painting• SFUMATO: painting technique in which thereare no harsh outlines, and it is painted with fullstrokes that enhance color and light.• CHIAROSCURO: use of strong contrastsbetween light and dark, usually bold contrastsaffecting a whole composition.-- SfumatoChiaroscuro--
  7. 7. 3.1. Anatomy• He drew the heart and vascular system, the sexorgans and other internal organs, making oneof the first scientific drawings of a fetus in auterus, as well as the human skeleton andmuscles. He dissected cows, birds, monkeysand frogs, comparing in his drawings theiranatomical structure to that of humans.
  8. 8. 3.2. Engineering and invention• He designed musical instruments, bridges andhydraulics, war machines, flying machines, ...
  9. 9. 3.3. Geometry• Leonardo helped in the production of a bookcalled "De divina proportione" aboutmathematical and artistic proportion. Leonardoprepared a series of drawings of regular solidsin a skeletal form to be engraved as plates.Truncated icosahedron
  10. 10. 3.4. Cartography• Leonardo produced several extremely accuratemaps employing a technique calledcartographic perspective.Leonardos accurate map ofImola for Cesare Borgia.
  11. 11. 4. Ancient anatomical knowledge• EGYPT (1600 BC): the heart, its vessels, liver,spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus andbladder were recognized, and the blood vesselswere known to come from the heart.
  12. 12. 4.1. GREECE (460 - 377 BC):• Basic understanding of musculoskeletalstructure and certain organs like the kidneys.Hippocrates was the first to discover thetricuspid valve of the heart and its function. Toidentify the difference between arteries andveins, and the relations between organs.Beginning of animal dissection.Hippocrates Aristotle
  13. 13. 4.2. GALEN (2nd century)• The major anatomist of ancient times wasGalen. He studied the function of organs byperforming vivisection on animals.Galen of Pergamon Frog’s vivisection
  14. 14. 4.3. INDIA (3rd and 4th century)• Description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinalplants and a detailed study on anatomy.Sushruta Samhita
  15. 15. 5. Da Vinci time anatomical knowledge• Dissected corpses contributed to the accuratedescription of organs and the identification oftheir functions. Leonardo did many studies ofthe human skeleton and its parts, as well asmuscles and sinews. He drew the heart andvascular system, the sex organs and otherinternal organs, making one of the firstscientific drawings of a fetus in utero.
  16. 16. 6. Da Vincis methods and knowledge expansion• Like a true modern scientist, Leonardo usedsystematic observations, along with logicalreasoning, experimentation and mathematicalconcepts to describe accurately the anatomicaltheories and satisfy his curiosity. ThereforeLeonardo could expand and understand humananatomy.
  17. 17. 7. Anatomical conclusions• Leonardo worked past and knew that there wasmuch to learn from not only the outside of thehuman body but also the inside to trulyunderstanding of what happens to the body incertain situations. Due to his studies, otherfields of medicine have expanded knowledgefrom his basis of work.
  18. 18. 8. Recently found drawings• Leonardo tried to publish his amazing work ina treatise on anatomy, and his discoverieswould have transformed European knowledgeof the subject. But on Leonardo’s death in1519 the drawings remained a mass ofundigested material among his private papersand their significance was effectively lost tothe world for almost 400 years.
  19. 19. 9. ANATOMICAL DRAWING COMPARISON we know that in the final stages of the pregnancy the foetus isusually upside-down (you can also point at the umbilical cord, that providesnutrients and oxygen to the baby). Another peculiar characteristic of da Vinci’sdrawing is that the uterus has a completely round shape like a cocoon, now wecentainly know that the human uterus has a different shape.
  20. 20. 10. WEBGRAPHY••••••