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Lesson 4 Patterns of Development in Writing

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Lesson 4 Patterns of Development in Writing

  1. 1. Patterns of Development
  2. 2. P S K A O H L R B Y O C T S S YROT
  3. 3. T P C E O V P A E L R N O Y E V TNE
  4. 4. L V R I T C W E I E D A S V N S VV I I D
  5. 5. R G T K O I R S I A Y M A S N E H T RRAN A T E
  6. 6. Y I G N L E S D F M K P A L IS K L L
  7. 7. N A R R A T I O N event narrate vivid skill
  8. 8. I. Narration - the most basic pattern of development - describes how, when, and where an event or occurrence actually happened - used to tell a story or focus on a set of related events
  9. 9. Components of Narrative Text 1. Logical Actions - are considered the very movements within the plot or the narrative that drive the characters forward, be it during the dialogue, or within a scene
  10. 10. Example It was late spring the last time we saw Ross. He was standing at the edge of the hill, and he never so much as looked up even though we were sure he knew we were there. There was a bunch of flowers clutched to his fist, but there really was no reason for him to be standing there. We knew that Carrie wasn't coming to see him. But he stood there anyway, waiting, even as the afternoon sunlight deepened towards the evening. He must have been standing there for hours.
  11. 11. 2. Way of Narration - refers to how the writer presents the story - includes the pace by which scenes are given out * Having natural progression of time to the events of the story makes a good writing.
  12. 12. Clipped Narration “He came and talked to us. Then he left the house and then he drove the car back home. Paced Narration “He came and talked to us for a few moments. He seemed upset, but he managed to get through all the bad news. Shaking our hands before he left the house come twilight, he seemed to feel better now that he had delivered the news. He waved from the car as he pulled out of the driveway, narrowly missing the mailbox again, and drove off to return home.”
  13. 13. 3. Terminology - places emphasis on the fact that concepts are critical to the narration * Writers must choose how to address terms and which ones they want to use in order to create an appropriate setting.
  14. 14. Concrete Terms - words that identify things, places, and events that can be measured and observed - terms that have physical manifestation in our world Examples: spoon, dog, house
  15. 15. Abstract Terms - refer to ideas or concepts that are intangible Examples: love, freedom, feminism
  16. 16. General Terms - commonly used to denote groups - refer to an individual component of the group Examples: cabinets, desks, chairs Example: furniture Specific Terms
  17. 17. Concrete: “He was shivering violently from the cold.” Abstract: “The joy in the air was palpable.” General: “He gave her a piece of jewelry.” Specific: “Each green stone had fire in its facets.”
  18. 18. Writing Activity Write a narrative text about a time in your life when you experienced an emotion strongly. Try to give as much detail as possible.
  19. 19. Rubric Focus 30% Organization 25% Integration 25% Convention 20% 100%
  20. 20. R E M H G T N A L S P D U B I T ATED I L
  21. 21. O N A S O Y D N I G R C E A T L U S SNES O R Y
  22. 22. Y O E M K A L N I E O S F C OL O K
  23. 23. U C A E Q S A C Y I E L K O T R D H LAUQ I T Y
  24. 24. LAER I S T I C I L U A P R E C M S T E R S I B A T E N
  25. 25. D E S C R I P T I O N sensory look realistic quality
  26. 26. II. Description - the pattern of development which goes into details about a specific object, person, or location, in order to firmly set its appearance What does it look like? What are its characteristics?
  27. 27. Characteristics of Description ● has a clear focus and sense of purpose ● uses sensory details and precise words ● presents details in a logical order
  28. 28. Varieties of Description 1. Objective Description - looks into factual and scientific characteristics of what is being described as objectively as possible * The writer stays away from emotional impressions or responses and instead, describes the scene as it is.
  29. 29. Example The Acer barbatum is a small to medium-sized, deciduous tree usually ranging from 15 to 25 m. (50 to 80 ft.) tall when mature. Its bark is light gray and smooth on younger trees, and it becomes ridged and furrowed with age. Leaves are opposite and shallowly to deeply palmately lobed, with a few blunt teeth but no serrations. The leaf sinuses are rounded, unlike those of red maple (Acer rubrum) which are sharply V-shaped. Also, the sides of terminal leaf lobes are more or less parallel, while those of red maple are widest at the base, tapering to the tip.
  30. 30. 2. Subjective Description - a sort of description that the author would normally use to “paint a picture” of how he sees a character, or how he wants the reader to see a character - also used in a literary discourse when there is stereotyped image that can be attributed to a person, place, or an event.
  31. 31. Example My mother had hair so dark that it looked like a waterfall of ink. She always kept it in a braid that fell to her slim waist, and always tied with a plain black band. The braid of black slung over her shoulder, the plaits shining like scales.
  32. 32. Writing Activity (Group) You are a writer of a travel magazine. The editor of the magazine asks you to write a travel article that tells about a beautiful place where one can spend a vacation. Your task is to write a five-paragraph descriptive article.
  33. 33. Rubric Focus 30% Organization 25% Integration 25% Convention 20% 100%
  34. 34. N I E T I N W A F D O R M E G C S I NAEM I N G
  35. 35. T F B U N E L S M S R I K H O A OFNI R M
  36. 36. BALE O R A T E L A N P B U G T O R I X E C S A D E
  37. 37. ILNE G H T E N T P L N O G I X E I C H E U N B A N
  38. 38. TNOC R O V E R T Y N C G I N M O R O U E B R T V D A S S Y
  39. 39. D E F I N I T I O N inform controversy
  40. 40. III. Definition - explains not just what something means or is, but also what something does, what something is used for, what something looks like, etc
  41. 41. Varieties of Definition 1. Scientific Definition - defines concepts in the most factual way, which is often used in scientific, proper, or real world facts
  42. 42. 2. Subjective Definition - defines the objects in a more personal way - usually derived from the author's own experiences and opinion - often used by a writer to state something from the point of view of the characters or in relation to the setting
  43. 43. The term could be emphasized by the following: 1. Characteristics or features 2. Function 3. Effect 4. Origin
  44. 44. Signal Words for Definition is defined as means to define as defined refers to to illustrate
  45. 45. Writing Activity (Group) Specific Definition: You are a medicine student. You would like to write about the definition of a controversial medical term in your blog. The criteria in assessing your blog are its appeal to the readers, accuracy of information, and adherence to the style of format.
  46. 46. ETAC G O R Y D A V E S I T O G I R C N I X Y
  47. 47. A T S G N X A R L E L E I T P O S M MAXE P L E
  48. 48. TIRC E R I A I D A Y R L U O E A Q C I N T R I S
  49. 49. ULLI S T R A T I L M G L K U F A S T C A I N R H E T O I O N
  50. 50. CLASSIFICATION AND EXEMPLIFICATION criteria
  51. 51. IV.Classification and Exemplification Classification - divides things into groups, classes, or categories - organizes ideas into divisions based on criteria or standards
  52. 52. Exemplification - provides examples and illustrations in order to further clarify or explain the concept or subject matter - presents the general statement and then provides specific and concrete examples to expound on the main idea
  53. 53. Signal Words for Classification another classified as one kind the last group another kind final type the first category the next part
  54. 54. Signal Words for Exemplification after all for instance namely that is as an example in other words put another way to be specific consider the following in particular specifically to clarify for example in short stated differently to illustrate
  55. 55. Example Dogs are domesticated animals that have been living with humans for generations. Dogs can be classified in a number of different ways. For example, they can be classified by breed. Examples of different breeds include beagles, basset hounds, poodles and countless others as defined by the American Kennel Club (AKC). They can also be classified by their role in the lives of their masters and the work they do. For example, a dog might be a family pet, a working dog, a show dog, or a hunting dog. In many cases, dogs are defined both by their breed and their role. For example, a dog could be a beagle that is a family pet.
  56. 56. Writing Activity (Group) Task: You are a sales manager. A customer sent you an e-mail asking about the different types of products you sell. You need to respond to the e-mail indicating the classification of your products. Your message must contain the product's category and specific features.
  57. 57. M A U R D I N R L L I E S C L A O P IMIS L A R
  58. 58. FFID E R E N C F U S R T L E K N O E I B C E D S A F T E
  59. 59. A H U W E S D O C Y R C T I N P IOHC C E
  60. 60. M A U L I G T O E P S E Y N C E B R MELE E N T
  61. 61. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST
  62. 62. V. Comparison and Contrast - organizes ideas based on how events, places, people, things, and concepts are similar to or different from one another a. separately -involves describing one item first followed by the second item b. side-by-side -involves discussing both items based on each point of comparison
  63. 63. Signal Words for Comparing also equally in the same way similarly as in a similar fashion like to compare both in comparison likewise
  64. 64. Signal Words for Contrasting although despite instead otherwise and yet even so however still as opposed to even though nevertheless the fact remains but in contrast nonetheless unlike conversely in spite of on the contrary whereas counter to in the meantime on the other hand yet
  65. 65. Example Although I raised Marcee and Obbie from puppies, they have completely diverse personalities. Obbie is a six year old, male, toy Pomeranian whereas Marcee is a one year old, female, Boston terrier. Obbie is small and soft, unlike Marcee who has bristly hair and is much bigger. Marcee insists on sleeping on the bed, under the covers every night. On the other hand, Obbie will only sleep on the floor, under the bed. Obbie is tremendously loyal and uptight; however, Marcee is hyper and friendly to anyone she meets or sees. Around other dogs, Marcee cowers to the larger dog, yet Obbie will always stand his ground, never giving up until he is scolded. Given that they were both treated the same way all their life, it is hard to believe that they are so different in everything they do.
  66. 66. Writing Activity (Group) You are a film critic. You are to write a comparative review of two films of the same genre. Use the comparison and contrast pattern of text development in your review.
  67. 67. A X Y L N A P O R C N I E U D S F L LPXE A I N
  68. 68. SNOC E Q U E N O R U N E F C O S N T S E M C U Y Q L E C E
  69. 69. TIRC I C A L T A R B G I O L U Q C E K C H N S I
  70. 70. NNOC E C T I O N A S O R C P I O S I C N E U T N L A T N
  71. 71. A S N U T O L F F E D R I C B S SAER O N
  72. 72. HSIF B O N E O I T Q Y H A R S B L N A F E U G O
  73. 73. CAUSE AND EFFECT reason
  74. 74. VI. Cause and Effect - explains why something happens or what results a particular event produces a. Paragraph empasizing cause b. Paragraph emphasizing effect
  75. 75. Signal Words for Cause as for in view of (the fact) owing to (the fact) because (of the fact) for the reason that inasmuch as seeing that being that in that one reason since due to (the fact that)
  76. 76. Signal Words for Effect accordingly consequently in consequence so that as a consequence for this reason so therefore as a result (of this) hence so much (so) that thus because (of this)
  77. 77. Example -
  78. 78. Writing Activity (Group) Typhoon Yolanda took the lives of over 6,300 Filipinos and displaced thousands of others. Write a text that explains why there were so many casualties even when they were warned of a storm surge beforehand by the officials. Use the cause and effect pattern of development in writing.
  79. 79. O P T E M Y N U N H C A G C L I R S CNOC E R N
  80. 80. T U B N D A I Q E X L C O M S P SUAC E
  81. 81. EICS N T I F I A T C I U N A M I Y I B F O S L C E R T C
  82. 82. PROBLEM-SOLUTION
  83. 83. VII. Problem-Solution - focuses on either a problem or solution in a particular area or situation
  84. 84. Signal Words for Problem-Solution but the problem one solution is first, second the solution one way is nonetheless one reason for the
  85. 85. Example -
  86. 86. Writing Activity (Group) You are a marketing manager. You are to send business proposals to your clients about a new product/service your company is offering. Write the main text of the proposal using the problem-solution pattern of development. Your writing must be concise, organized, and clear. Remember to use language appropriate to your audience and purpose. Use a professional tone and positive words.
  87. 87. VNOC I N C E N A S O P N U Y V D C E V E W I R C
  88. 88. L E R I M N Q A E K M D C U T R IALC M
  89. 89. UGRA M E N T U Q E A G O R L N T D R I S A P M E
  90. 90. DIVE E N C E E T A M I S O D I N X E N C Y V T E
  91. 91. C I S E T U F J B D A H G R CF A T
  92. 92. P E R S U A S I O N fact
  93. 93. VIII. Persuasion - convinces readers to agree to an argument or claim about a particular topic.
  94. 94. Signal Words for Emphasizing a Point again in that case to emphasize truly for this reason indeed to repeat with this in mind in fact
  95. 95. Signal Words for Concluding and Summarizing accordingly consequently in brief inevitably in a nutshell all in all due to in conclusion on the whole therefore as a result finally in short since thus as I have said in any event in summary in essence to sum up
  96. 96. Signal Words for Conceding a Point admittedly it is true that obviously true assuredly needless to say of course undoubtedly certainly no doubt to be sure unquestionably granted
  97. 97. Example -
  98. 98. Writing Activity (Group)You are an editor of a newpaper. You would like to react strongly to a new government policy in the editorial section of the newspaper. Your editorial must contain a well-supported argumentative thesis, and counter-arguments for opposing viewpoints. It must also encourage a certain course of action. The criteria in assessing your editorial are its appeal to the readers, accuracy of information, and adherence to the style and format.

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