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Cellular Respiration


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Cellular Respiration

  1. 1. What’s the point?<br />Cellular Respiration!<br />TO MAKE ATP!!<br />
  2. 2. Energy!<br />Forms of energy include chemical, radiant (heat and light), mechanical and electrical<br />Chemical energy is contained in the chemical bonds of molecules<br />Radiant energy travels in waves (ex: visible light)<br />Energy can be transferred from one form to another<br />Law of Thermodynamics<br />Energy cannot be created or destroyed - can be converted from one form to another<br />Usable energy is lost during transformations<br />
  3. 3. ATP!!<br />Composed of adenine base, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups (PO4)<br />Phosphorylation – the addition of a phosphate group<br />Substrate-level phosphorylation– enzymes help break and down and convert those high energy PO4 bonds<br />When the bond is broken it releases energy, a phosphate group and ADP<br />
  4. 4. Enzymes in Metabolic Pathways!<br />I ♥ NADH!<br />Biological catalysts<br />Speeds up chemical reactions<br />Weakens existing bonds in substrates which lowers the amount of activation energy needed<br />NADH – a second energy carrying molecule in mitochondria and produces 3 ATP<br />FADH2– a third energy carrying molecule in the mitochondria and produces 2 ATP<br />
  5. 5. Mitochondria!<br />Has a smooth, outer membrane and a folded inner membrane<br />Cristae – folds of inner membrane – electron transport chain occurs here<br />Matrix – space inside cristae and contains DNA and ribosomes – Krebs cycle takes place here<br />Site of aerobic respiration<br />
  6. 6. Cellular Respiration Overview!<br />C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O (heat and ATP)<br />Controlled release of energy from organic molecules<br />Glucose is oxidized (loses e-) and oxygen is reduced (gains e-)<br />Carbon atoms of glucose is released as CO2<br />One glucose molecule generates 36 ATP<br />3 steps <br />Glycolysis<br />Kreb’s Cycle<br />Electron Transport Chain (ETC)<br />Glucose rhymes with lumos!<br />
  7. 7. Glycolysis!<br />Occurs in cytoplasm<br />Summary of steps<br />2 ATP added to glucose (6C) to energize it<br />Glucose splits into two PGAL (3C)<br />H+ and e- is removed from each PGAL and given to make 2 NADH<br />NADH – energy and electron carrier<br />Each PGAL is rearranged into pyruvate (3C) with energy and transferred to make 4 ATP<br />Creates 4 ATP but glycolysis requires 2 ATP so the net product is 2 ATP<br />If oxygen is available then the pyruvate will move to the mitochondria and being aerobic respiration <br />
  8. 8. Glycolysis (cont.)<br />If no oxygen is available (anaerobic) the pyruvate will be fermented by the addition of 2 H from the NADH, which changes it to NAD+ and keeps glycolysis going<br />Net yield of Glycolysis<br />4 NADH2<br />2 CO2<br />2 ATP <br />
  9. 9. Kreb’s Cycle!<br />AKA Citric Acid cycle<br />Requires 2 cycles to metabolize glucose<br />Acetyl Co-A (2C) enters the Kreb’s cycle and combines with oxaloacetic acid (4C) to make citric acid (6C)<br />Citric acid is oxidized releasing CO2, free H+, and e- forming ketoglutaric acid (5C)<br />Free e- reduce NAD+ to NADH2 and FAD+ to FADH2<br />Ketoglutaric acid is also oxidized releasing more CO2, free H+, and e-<br />
  10. 10. Kreb’s Cycle (cont.)<br />The cycle continues oxidizing the carbon compounds producing more CO2, NADH2, FADH2, and ATP<br />H2O is added to supply more H+<br />CO2 is a waste product and leaves the cell<br />Oxaloacetic acid is regenerated to start the cycle again<br />NADH2 and FADH2 migrate to the ETC<br />Net yield from Kreb’s Cycle (2 turns)<br />6 NADH2<br />2 FADH2<br />4 CO2<br />2 ATP<br />
  11. 11. Electron Transport Chain!<br />Found in the cristae<br />Contains 4 protein-based complexes that works in sequence moving H+ from the matrix across the inner membrane (proton pumps)<br />A concentration gradient of H+ between the inner and outer membrane occurs<br />H+ concentration gradient causes the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis<br />Energized e- and H+ from 10 NADH2 and 2 FADH2 are transferred to O2 to produce H2O<br />