Logotherapy

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Logotherapy

  1. 1. LOGOTHERAPY Is life worth living? Viktor Frankl shows us how to make life worth living no matter what. mariacristinajsantos.blogspot.com http://dlsu.academia.edu/MariaCristinaSantos
  2. 2. BORN: MARCH 26, 1905. VIENNA PROFESSOR OF NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY SPENT 3 YEARS AT A CONCENTRATION CAMP DIED: SEPTEMBER 2, 1997, VIENNA VIKTOR FRANKL INSTITUTE VIENNA FOUNDED 1992 (http://logotherapy.univie.ac.at) LIFE AND WORK
  3. 3. THE DOCTOR AND THE SOUL, 1955 MAN’S SEARCH FOR MEANING. AN INTRODUCTION TO LOGOTHERAPY, 1963 THE UNCONSCIOUS GOD. PSYCHOTHERAPY AND THEOLOGY, 1975 MOST IMPORTANT BOOKS
  4. 4. The development of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis dates back to the 1930s. On the basis of Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalysis and Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology the psychiatrist and neurologist Viktor Emil Frankl (1905-1997) laid down the foundations of a new and original approach which he first published in 1938. Logotherapy/Existential Analysis, sometimes called the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy", is an internationally acknowledged and empirically based meaning-centered approach to psychotherapy. LOGOTHERAPY AND EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS
  5. 5. WILL-TO-MEANING (FRANKL) LOGOS – THE SPIRITUAL, THE MEANING LOGOTHERAPY
  6. 6. LOGOTHERAPY – PSYCHOTHERAPY IN TERMS OF THE MIND LOGOTHERAPY MUST SUPPLEMENT PSYCHOTHERAPY, NOT REPLACE IT (OTHERWISE PSYCHOTHERAPY FALLS INTO THE ERROR OF PSYCHOLOGISM) FROM PSYCHOTHERAPY TO LOGOTHERAPY
  7. 7. In Logotherapy/Existential Analysis (LTEA) the search for a meaning in life is identified as the primary motivational force in human beings. Frankl's approach is based on three philosophical and psychological concepts: FRANKL’S BASIC CONCEPTS
  8. 8. •humans are not fully subject to conditions but are basically free to decide and capable of taking their stance towards internal (psychological) and external (biological and social) conditions. •As spiritual persons, humans are not just reacting organisms but autonomous beings capable of actively shaping their lives. FREEDOM OF WILL
  9. 9. The freedom of the human person plays an important role in psychotherapy, in that it provides clients with room for autonomous action even in the face of somatic or psychological illness. And it just that resource which enables clients, in the context of the techniques of Paradoxical Intention and Dereflection, to cope with their symptoms and to regain control and self-determination. FREEDOM OF WILL
  10. 10. Human beings are not only free, but most importantly they are free to something - namely, to achieve goals and purposes. The search for meaning is seen as the primary motivation of humans. When a person cannot realize his or her "Will to Meaning" in their lives they will experience an abysmal sensation of meaninglessness and emptiness. The frustration of the existential need for meaningful goals will give rise to aggression, addiction, depression and suicidality, and it may engender or increase psychosomatic maladies and neurotic disorders. WILL TO MEANING
  11. 11. Logotherapy assists clients in perceiving and removing those factors that hinder them in pursuing meaningful goals in their lives. Clients are sensitized for the perception of meaning potentialities; however, they are not offered specific meanings. Rather, they are guided and assisted in the realization of those meaning possibilities they have detected themselves. WILL TO MEANING
  12. 12. According to Logotherapy humans are called upon, on the grounds of their freedom and responsibility, to bring forth the possible best in themselves and in the world, by perceiving and realizing the meaning of the moment in each and every situation. MEANING IN LIFE
  13. 13. BY REALIZING: CREATIVE VALUES – ACHIEVING TASKS EXPERIENTIAL VALUES – EXPERIENCING THE GOOD, THE TRUE, THE BEAUTIFUL OR EXPERIENCING ONE HUMAN BEING AS UNIQUE (LOVING HIM/HER) ATTITUDINAL VALUES – FACING SUFFERING WITHOUT FLINCHING – THE HIGHEST ACHIEVEMENT HOW TO GIVE MEANING TO OUR LIVES?
  14. 14. EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS may be understood as the philosophical and scientific basis of logotherapy as well as an essential part of a therapy proper. Basically, existential analysis means analysis with respect to existence, or "explication of existence" with consideration of a self-responsible, self-realized and humane life. EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS
  15. 15. In "general existential analysis" the pursuit of meaning is discussed and identified as a basic motivation in humans, and arguments are provided that demonstrate the fundamental possibility of finding meaning in life. On this basis the therapeutic effects of a successful search for meaning may be explained. GENERAL EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS
  16. 16. AFFIRMATIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS LIFE - CRUCIAL CONDITION OF LONGEVITY PLEASURE PRINCIPLE – AN ARTIFICIAL CREATION OF PSYCHOLOGY PLEASURE – NOT THE GOAL OF OUR ASPIRATIONS, BUT A CONSEQUENCE OF ATTAINING THEM MEANING IN LIFE
  17. 17. we are not here to enjoy ourselves human freedom is not a “freedom from” but a “freedom to” freedom to accept responsibility this freedom predicates a sense of responsibility reverence for life (Albert Schweitzer) life has unconditional value – consciousness of having a task in life, a mission having such a task makes the person irreplaceable and unique „FREEDOM TO”
  18. 18. LACK OF SUCCESS DOES NOT SIGNIFY LACK OF MEANING LACK OF PLEASURE IN LIFE DOES NOT DETRACT FROM ITS MEANING SUFFERING HAS A MEANING IN ITSELF THE MEANING OF SUFFERING
  19. 19. 1. Whatever does not kill you makes you stronger 2. Suffering purifies the soul 3. It makes you wiser 4. It increases your compassion 5. It teaches you how to pray and wait upon God 6. It compels you to do something to make life better for all 7. It prepares you for heroic achievements. 7 BENEFITS OF SUFFERING
  20. 20. WORK – ACTUALIZING CREATIVE VALUES, THE RESPONSE WITHIN THE ACTUAL CONDITIONS OF EVERYDAY LIVING, WITHIN THE AREA OF HUMAN RESPONSIBILITY BOTH EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT MAY BE MISUSED AS MEANS TO A NEUROTIC END THE MEANING OF WORK
  21. 21. LOVE IS LIVING THE EXPERIENCE OF ANOTHER PERSON IN ALL ITS UNIQUENESS AND SINGULARITY LOVE ENORMOUSLY INCREASES RECEPTIVITY TO THE FULLNESS OF VALUES THE MIRACLE OF LOVE – A CHILD THE MEANING OF LOVE
  22. 22. MEANING:
  23. 23. Certain attitudes and expectations may be obstacles to meaning fulfillment. They can alienate a person from the meaning potentialities in his or her life, thus accentuating neurotic disorders, or even producing them via repeated maldecisions and formation of behavior patterns. SOCRATIC DIALOGUE / MODIFICATION OF ATTITUDES
  24. 24. It is important to note that the therapist or physician must refrain from imposing his or her own values or meaning perceptions. Rather, clients are guided to perceive their unrealistic and counterproductive attitudes and to develop a new outlook that may be a better basis for a fulfilled life. SOCRATIC DIALOGUE / MODIFICATION OF ATTITUDES
  25. 25. Socratic dialogue is a conversational method frequently used by logotherapists. Specific questions are aimed to raise into consciousness the possibility to find, and the freedom to fulfill, meaning in one's life. In the philosophical setting this technique of guiding by questioning was introduced by Socrates, who characterized it as a sort of "spiritual midwifery". SOCRATIC DIALOGUE / MODIFICATION OF ATTITUDES
  26. 26. It doesn’t matter what we expect from life, but what life expects from us. Love is the ultimate and highest goal to which man can aspire. He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how. That which does not kill me, makes me THOUGHTS FROM FRANKL
  27. 27. 1) Awaken to need for meaning & purpose 2) Believe that life has intrinsic meaning 3) Choose to do what is right & kind 4) Devote oneself to living a responsible, virtuous and resilient life 5) Elevate mundane activities to the transcendental realm, 6) Find positive potentials in negatives 7) Go the extra mile for others. 7 ATTRIBUTES OF MEANING- MINDSET

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