Career counseling


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This is a presentation for Career Counseling to help people who are experiencing career indecision.

Published in: Business, Technology

Career counseling

  1. 1. Career Maria Cristina “Tina” Santos
  2. 2. “Those who know others are wise. Those who know themselves are enlightened.” -----Lao-Tzu
  3. 3. Xvxn though my typxwritxr is an old modxl, it works quitx wxll xcxpt for onx of thx kxys. I havx wishxd many timxs that it would work propxrly; it is trux that thxrx arx 46 kxys that function wxll xnough, but just onx kxy not working makxs a diffxrxncx.
  4. 4. Somxtimxs, it sxxms to mx that cxrtain mxmbxrs of our organization arx somxwhat likx my typxwritxr—not all thx pxoplx arx working propxrly. You may say to yoursxlf: ”Wxll, I am only onx pxrson, I won’t makx or brxak thx organization, but it doxs makx a diffxrxncx, bxcausx for an organization to bx xffxctivx, it nxxds thx activx participation of xvxry mxmbxr. So thx nxxt timx you think you arx only onx pxrson and that your xfforts arxn’t nxxdxd, rxmxmbxr my typxwritxr and say to yoursxlf: “I am a kxy pxrson in thx organization and I am nxxdxd.”
  5. 5. Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities
  6. 6. Theory of Work Adjustment • Referred to as the Person- Environment Correspondence • Originally developed by Rene Dawis, George England and Lloyd Lofquist from the University of Minnesota in 1964
  7. 7. Theory of Work Adjustment • Work is conceptualized as an interaction between an individual and a work environment. • The work environment requires that certain tasks be performed, and the individual brings skills to perform the tasks. • In exchange, the individual requires compensation for work performance and certain preferred conditions, such as a safe and comfortable place to work.
  8. 8. Theory of Work Adjustment • The environment and the individual must continue to meet each other’s requirements for the interaction to be maintained. • Work adjustment is the process of achieving and maintaining correspondence.
  9. 9. Theory of Work Adjustment • This correspondence is the reciprocal process between the worker’s satisfaction and the employer’s satisfactoriness (Eggert, 2008).
  10. 10. Theory of Work Adjustment • Environment = Satisfactoriness • Employer’s satisfaction with the employee’s performance. • Person = Satisfaction • Being satisfied with the work one does.
  11. 11. Theory of Work Adjustment • Dawis and Lofquist (1984) defined work adjustment as a “continuous and dynamic process by which a worker seeks to achieve and maintain correspondence with a work environment “ (p.237).
  12. 12. Satisfaction and Satisfactoriness • Satisfacton and Satisfactoriness are predictors that result in tenure. • “Whatever satisfies needs are called reinforcers because they can maintain or increase the rate of behavior” (Dawis, 1996, p. 80).
  13. 13. Step 1: Assessing Abilities, Values, Personality and Interests • Dawis and Lofquist (1984) make use of the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), developed by the US Department of labor in 1982. • It is most practical because of the information it provides for counselors to use in matching jobs with an individual’s abilities and values (Sharf, 2010).
  14. 14. General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) • The GATB scales measure 9 specific abilities, it is widely used by employment counseling agencies: G – General learning ability V – Verbal ability N – Numerical ability S – Spatial ability P – Form perception Q – Clerical ability K – Eye/hand coordination F – Finger dexterity M – Manual dexterity
  15. 15. Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) • The MIQ (Rounds, Henley, Dawis, Lofquist & Weiss, 1981) is a measure of needs. • Using the Statistical technique of factor analysis, Dawis and Lofquist (1984) derived 6 values from the 20 needs.
  16. 16. MIQ: values and need scales Values (6) Need Scale (20) Achievement Ability utilization Achievement Comfort Activity Variety Security Independence Compensation Working conditions Status Advancement Authority Recognition Social Status Altruism Coworkers Social service Moral values Safety Company policies and practices Human relations Technical Autonomy Creativity Responsibility
  17. 17. Step 2: Measuring the requirements and conditions of occupations • Work environments differ in the degree to which they meet the needs and values of an individual. • To assess how much an occupation reinforces the values of individuals the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ) was developed (MJDQ; Borgen, Weiss, Tinsley, Dawis and Lofquist, 1968a).
  18. 18. MJDQ Need Scales: • The MJDQ uses the same 20 needs as the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire. Thus the needs of an individual are matched with reinforcers provided by the job. • Using information about value patterns helps counselors to see how the values of their clients match the values that are met or reinforced by a large number of occupations (Sharf, 2010)
  19. 19. Step 3: Matching Abilites, Values and Reinforcers • When matching values and abilities, counselors have three tools available: – Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) – GATB manual (US Department of Labor, 1982 – Minnesota Occupational Classification System (MOCS)
  20. 20. Instruments Used in TWA Assessment of Individuals Assessment of Occupations Abilities Ability Patterns General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) Occupational Ability Patterns Values Value Patterns Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ) Matching Assessment of Individual and Occupation Minnesota Occupational Classification System (MOCS)
  21. 21. Flexibility • Individuals who are more flexible can “tolerate greater degrees of discorrespondence and are less easily dissatisfied” (Dawis, 1996, p.86). • When the lack of correspondence is so great that flexibility is no longer viable, some form of adjustment often takes place.
  22. 22. Discorrespondence (Person) Active Mode • Change the environment Reactive Mode • Change themselves
  23. 23. Active Adjustment Individual • changing their work environment (change content of the job, and therefore its requirements) Environment • changing the person’s abilities through training
  24. 24. Reactive Adjustment Individual • changing behavior to better suit the environment • changing personal priorities or work values Environment • changing the rewards to increase job satisfaction
  25. 25. Persistence • The extent to which individuals or environments will adjust before giving up. • When no further adjustment is possible, something dramatic happens – the person leaves the job or they are fired.
  26. 26. Exercise • Present a job description for a reasonably mundane job. • Discuss ways you could adjust the job to make it more interesting, challenging or worthwhile.
  27. 27. Job Adjustment Counseling Who will benefit from it? • Those in the process of making career choices. • Those experiencing work adjustment problems. • Retirees who want to continue working but need to explore career
  28. 28. Retirement • Traditionally, it is defined as the end of a career and withdrawal from the workforce, a significant percentage of retirees want or need to continue working after retirement (Harper & Shoffner, 2004). • In a survey by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP, 1993) 1/3 of the retirees who responded indicated that they would prefer to work.
  29. 29. TWA in Retirement Counseling • Aside from being challenged by changing capacities, some retirees recognize that their career development options might be limited by social attitudes toward aging (Harper & Shoffner, 2004). • The counselor using TWA with a client who is planning for retirement attempts to compare skills and abilities with the requirements of the environment, needs and values with reinforcers of the environment and personal style with the work environment style.
  30. 30. Counselor Issues • It is necessary for the counselor to identify basic abilities and reinforcers within himself and client so that effective counseling can take place. • A key characteristic for a counselor is flexibility. • It is helpful for counselors to see themselves, as well as their clients, as environments.
  31. 31. Ponder on this: • How might identifying his/her own abilities and reinforcers help a counselor be more effective in counseling clients?
  32. 32. Brown’s Value-Based Theory
  33. 33. Brown’s Value-Based Theory • Values are “beliefs that are experienced by individual as standards regarding how he or she should function” (Brown, 2003, p. 49) • Values are important not only in the selection of life roles but also in the satisfaction derived from life roles (Brown & Crace, 1996).
  34. 34. Brown’s Value-Based Theory • “Values have been the overlooked dimension in the counseling process as well as in the research that has been conducted on career development” (Brown, 1996, p.368) • Brown’s Theory attempts to draw attention to the function of values in decision-making and career counseling as well as to set of values into the broader context of life roles.
  35. 35. Brown’s Value-Based Theory • Brown’s choice of focus on work values and cultural values is related to the identification of work values as a critical variable in career development, and evidence that cultural values also play an important role in career development (Brown, 2002, 2003).
  36. 36. Brown’s Value-Based Theory • Individuals are exposed to different values throughout their lives from many different sources, such as family, peers, environment and the media (Patton & McMahon, 2006, 40). • An individual’s cultural background, gender, socioeconomic status affect the type of opportunities and experiences they encounter. • There is variation of values both within and between subgroups of society.
  37. 37. Cultural Differences • If an individual from a collectivist culture had to make a career decision, that individual may turn to their parents or elders to make decisions for them, or at least seek their advice prior to making any decisions (Patton & McMahon, 2006, 40).
  38. 38. East meets West by Yang Liu •  Yang Liu, a 35-year-old Chinese- German artist.  One of her projects,  “East Meets West,” was first  exhibited in Germany a few years  ago and features pictographs  representing the differences between  Eastern and Western (specifically  Chinese and German) cultures.
  39. 39. Confronting a Problem Slideshare by Yang Liu
  40. 40. Sense of Self Slideshare by Yang Liu
  41. 41. Weekend Activities Slideshare by Yang Liu
  42. 42. How to Express Anger Slideshare by Yang Liu
  43. 43. Queue when Waiting Slideshare by Yang Liu
  44. 44. Status of a Leader Slideshare by Yang Liu
  45. 45. Punctuality Slideshare by Yang Liu
  46. 46. Brown’sValue-Based Theory • Values develop because of interactions between innate personal characteristics and external experiences. • Values influence a person’s behavior in various situations and with various objects (Brown & Crace, 1996, 211) • It is important to remember that only a portion or subset of values can be applied to career development (Brown & Crace, 1996, 211).
  47. 47. Brown’s Value-Based Theory • As values are formed they become crystallized in the mind of the individual and prioritized, and this relates to cognitive clarity (Brown, 1996). • Values are said to be crystallized when they can be labeled and articulated by an individual which enables them to judge their own behavior and compare themselves with others (Brown, 1995).
  48. 48. Brown’sValue-Based Theory • Career decision making will be difficult for clients that are unsure of what their values are or if they have conflicting values (Seligman, 2004, 304). • Decisions are based on value priorities, thus if values are not prioritized decisions cannot be wisely made.
  49. 49. Seven Propositions Role of values in the Career Decision -Making Process (Brown & Crace, 1996) 1. Work values that are high in priority are the most important determinants of choice from among alternatives. 2. An individual’s value system is learned from the society they grow up in, and thus this society is of great influence when career decisions are made. 3. Culture, sex and socioeconomic status affect the opportunities an individual is offered. 4. Choices that are in line with an individual’s values is essential to career satisfaction.
  50. 50. Seven Propositions 5. Life Satisfaction is the result of role interaction. 6. An individual’s level of functioning correlates with their values; high- functioning individuals have crystallized and prioritized values. 7. Success in any role depends on the abilities required to perform the role’s functions.
  51. 51. Using Brown’s Value-Based Approach • This approach classifies clients into 2 categories: (1) those making planned decisions (2) those making unplanned decisions • Counselors must also be sure to deal with all mood-related problems with their clients prior to career-related problems (Niles & Hartung 2000, 36).
  52. 52. Using Brown’s Value- Based Approach • Mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, can greatly affect an individual’s outlook on life and their values (Patton & McMahon, 2006,42). • Trying to guide them through career decisions with an already skewed outlook will not be conducive to them in making sound career decisions. • It is important for career counselors to be able to explain various types of psychological data (interest assessments and personality type preferences) to their clients in value-based terms (Niles & Hartung, 2000).
  53. 53. Using Brown’s Value- Based Approach For both clients (planned and unplanned), counselors must assess whether: • There are important intrapersonal value conflicts • Mood problems exist • Values have been crystallized and prioritized • Client can use values-based information • Client understands how career choices affect other life roles ( ex. OFW)
  54. 54. Clients Making Planned Career Changes Counselors need to assess: • How issues relating to intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts may be contributing to client career dissatisfaction. • Degree of client flexibility related to geographical location, training opportunities, and qualifications.
  55. 55. Clients Making Unplanned Career Changes Counselors must assess whether: • There are financial concerns. • Existing career opportunities that can satisfy values. • Clients can make changes to increase the satisfaction they derive from other life roles.
  56. 56. Using Brown’s Value- Based Approach Culture • Counselors must work with clients to understand the value-laden expectations of specific workplaces, identify how their own values may be in conflict with the values of their desired workplace, maintain their personal values, while balancing their workplace values, and how to advocate for acceptance of different values in the workplace.
  57. 57. In conclusion • Brown’s value-based theory examines an individual’s values and how they influence their career choice decisions. • Despite the fact that it focuses on values, it is a holistic approach that covers an individual’s environment and their culture (Oxbridge,n.d.)