Win the kids, lose the parents? (@ CTC 2014)

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Endorsement advertising is a persuasive cue in promoting foods to children. Also healthy foods can be promoted as such. But what do parents think about this commercialized persuasion for healthy foods?
CTC 2014 Conference (Children and Teen Consumption): Edinburgh

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Win the kids, lose the parents? (@ CTC 2014)

  1. 1. Win the kids, lose the parents? Endorsement marketing for healthy foods Heidi Vandebosch – Tim Smits – Karolien Huybrechts @TimSmitsTim – KU Leuven CTC 2014 – Edinburgh– April 2014 http://www.slideshare.net/timsmitstim/
  2. 2. MAIN ISSUE Ample research demonstrates the effect of endorsement food marketing on children… … also for healthy foods. But what about the parents?
  3. 3. BACKGROUND First wave of child media/marketing research (Mainly) focus on :  general effects  concerns, incl. parental concerns
  4. 4. BACKGROUND Second wave of child marketing research Specific focus on food marketing  IOM 2006 report: Food Marketing to Children  FTC (2008): Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents Spurred a lot of research on: • General media effects on food liking/intake • Specific marketing techniques
  5. 5. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING Endorser = fictional or real character promoting a product (in ads, on packages, websites etc.) Often used marketing technique: • 17% of ads worldwide (Money et al 2006) • 9 - 49% of child targeting food ads (Kelly et al 2010) • Even 73% in sample of TV ads (Castonguay et al 2013)
  6. 6. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING They often endorse unhealthy foods • 79% ‘noncore’ endorsed foods (Kelly et al 2010) • 72% foods of low nutr quality (Castonguay et al 2013) • Comparable for on-pack endorsers in supermarket (Hebden et al 2011; Van Assema et al 2011; Smits CTC2014) Do such endorsements have a persuasive impact?
  7. 7. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING Bezbaruah, N., Stastny, S. N., & Brunt, A. (2014). Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science. Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Dovey, T. M., Allison, M., Dobson, S., Jacobs, M. C., & Halford, J. C. (2013). The Journal of Pediatrics Dixon, H., Scully, M., Niven, P., Kelly, B., Chapman, K., Donovan, R., ... & Wakefield, M. (2014). Pediatric obesity. de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. (2012). Journal of Health Communication de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2014). Appetite de Droog, S. M., Valkenburg, P., & Buijzen, M. (2011). Journal of Health Communication Kotler, J. A., Shiffman, J. M., & Hanson K. G. (2012). Journal of Health Communication Lapierre, M. A., Vaala, S. E., & Linebarger, D. L. (2011). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Levin, A. M., & Levin, I. P. (2010). Journal of Consumer Behaviour Neeley, S. M., & Schumann, D. W. (2004). Journal of Advertising Roberto, C. A., Baik, J. , Harris, J. L., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Pediatrics Robinson, T. N., Borzekowski, D. L. G.., Matheson, D. N., & Kraemer, H. C. (2007). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Smits, T. & Vandebosch, H. (2012). Communications Wansink, B., Shimizu, M., & Camps, G. (2012). Pediatric Obesity Wansink, B., Just, D. R., & Payne, C. R. (2012). Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
  8. 8. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING It is a simple technique and adults often recognize the child targeted marketing Though they are susceptible as well (Dixon et al 2011) Could we use it to promote healthy foods?
  9. 9. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING Bezbaruah, N., Stastny, S. N., & Brunt, A. (2014). Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science. Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Dovey, T. M., Allison, M., Dobson, S., Jacobs, M. C., & Halford, J. C. (2013). The Journal of Pediatrics Dixon, H., Scully, M., Niven, P., Kelly, B., Chapman, K., Donovan, R., ... & Wakefield, M. (2014). Pediatric obesity. de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. (2012). Journal of Health Communication de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2014). Appetite de Droog, S. M., Valkenburg, P., & Buijzen, M. (2011). Journal of Health Communication Kotler, J. A., Shiffman, J. M., & Hanson K. G. (2012). Journal of Health Communication Lapierre, M. A., Vaala, S. E., & Linebarger, D. L. (2011). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Levin, A. M., & Levin, I. P. (2010). Journal of Consumer Behaviour Neeley, S. M., & Schumann, D. W. (2004). Journal of Advertising Roberto, C. A., Baik, J. , Harris, J. L., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Pediatrics Robinson, T. N., Borzekowski, D. L. G.., Matheson, D. N., & Kraemer, H. C. (2007). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Smits, T. & Vandebosch, H. (2012). Communications Wansink, B., Shimizu, M., & Camps, G. (2012). Pediatric Obesity Wansink, B., Just, D. R., & Payne, C. R. (2012). Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
  10. 10. HEALTHY FOOD ENDORSEMENT Bezbaruah, N., Stastny, S. N., & Brunt, A. (2014). Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science. Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Dovey, T. M., Allison, M., Dobson, S., Jacobs, M. C., & Halford, J. C. (2013). The Journal of Pediatrics Dixon, H., Scully, M., Niven, P., Kelly, B., Chapman, K., Donovan, R., ... & Wakefield, M. (2014). Pediatric obesity. de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. (2012). Journal of Health Communication de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2014). Appetite de Droog, S. M., Valkenburg, P., & Buijzen, M. (2011). Journal of Health Communication Kotler, J. A., Shiffman, J. M., & Hanson K. G. (2012). Journal of Health Communication Lapierre, M. A., Vaala, S. E., & Linebarger, D. L. (2011). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Levin, A. M., & Levin, I. P. (2010). Journal of Consumer Behaviour Neeley, S. M., & Schumann, D. W. (2004). Journal of Advertising Roberto, C. A., Baik, J. , Harris, J. L., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Pediatrics Robinson, T. N., Borzekowski, D. L. G.., Matheson, D. N., & Kraemer, H. C. (2007). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Smits, T. & Vandebosch, H. (2012). Communications Wansink, B., Shimizu, M., & Camps, G. (2012). Pediatric Obesity Wansink, B., Just, D. R., & Payne, C. R. (2012). Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
  11. 11. HEALTHY FOOD ENDORSEMENT We can win the kids for healthy foods But what about the parents? Tension between • willingness to promote healthy eating • commercialization; pester power; etc
  12. 12. METHOD  Participants: 292 parents (254 female) of children in daycare or kindergarten 39% respons rate  Dependent Measures  Attitude towards endorsed fruit/cookie  Buying intention Likert-type, 5 points,  > .7
  13. 13. METHOD  Independent Measures  BLOCK 1: Gender, Age, BMI,Educational level, Ethnicitiy  BLOCK 2: General attitude toward advertising, Belief that advertising causes pestering, Belief that advertising has negative effect on children’s health  BLOCK 3: Frequency of nagging for endorsed products, Expected child’s liking of endorsed fruit/cookie
  14. 14. RESULTS (COOKIES) Beta Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Block 1: background characteristics Age parent 0,010 0,027 0,032 Educational level parent -0,120 -0,059 -0,064 Gender parent (0=male, 1=female) 0,133 0,080 0,079 Nationality (0=Belgian, 1=foreign) -0,217** -0,157* -0,116* How bad do you feel about your child eating biscuits? -0,220** -0,155* -0,143* BMI child -0,137* -0,104 -0,085 Block 2: general advertising attitudes and perceived advertising effects General attitude towards advertising 0,127* 0,120* Perceived negative (health) effects of advertising -0,356** -0,327** Pestering power -0,133* -0,109 Block 3: perceived celebrity endorsement effects Frequency of child requests for celebrity endorsed products 0,080 Perceived preference of child for celebrity endorsed biscuit -0,232** R square 0,139 0,336 0,377 Significance 0,000 0,000 0,000
  15. 15. RESULTS (FRUIT) Beta Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Block 1: background characteristics Age parent -0,043 -0,023 - 0,040 Educational level parent - 0,073 -0,045 - 0,058 Gender parent (0=male, 1=female) 0, 217** 0,190** 0,172** Nationality (0= Belgian, 1=foreign) -0, 169* -0,134* - 0,157* Personal importance daily fruit child -0, 019 0,008 0,025 BMI child -0,139* -0,125* -0,147* Block 2: general advertising attitudes and perceived advertising effects General attitude towards advertising 0,117 0,102 Perceived negative (health) effects of advertising -0,208** -0,193** Pestering power - 0,018 -0,145 Block 3: perceived celebrity endorsement effects Frequency of child requests for celebrity endorsed products 0,109 Perceived preference of child for celebrity endorsed kiwi 0,221** R square 0,112 0,183 0,235 Significance 0,000 0,000 0,000
  16. 16. RESULTS Within-subjects: difference between healthy vs unhealthy endorsement?  Endorsed fruits are not liked more than endorsed cookies  Very few predictors significantly discern endorsed fruit versus cookie attitudes  Highly educated parents seem to be more hesitant towards endorsed fruits
  17. 17. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION  Parents are not more positive towards endorsed fruits than towards endorsed cookies  Significant predictors (& inhibitors) of positive attitude:  Expected child’s preference  Perceived advertisements’ negative health effects  …  Minority of parents with strong concerns

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