SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF
ENDORSER EFFECTS
IN CHILD-TARGETED
FOOD MARKETING
1
Tim Smits
KU Leuven
@timsmitstim
Tim.smits@soc.ku...
BACKGROUND
First wave of child media/marketing research
(Mainly) focus on :
 general effects
 concerns, incl. parental c...
BACKGROUND
Second wave of child marketing research
Specific focus on food marketing
 IOM 2006 report: Food Marketing to C...
ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING
Endorser = fictional or real character promoting a
product (in ads, on packages, websites etc.)...
ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING
They often endorse unhealthy foods
• 79% ‘noncore’ endorsed foods (Kelly et al 2010)
• 72% food...
METHOD
Systematic review
• Experimental research on food endorsement
targeting children <12 years old
• Keyword search in ...
REVIEW CORPUS
Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 8
Bezbaruah, N., Stastny, S. N., & Brunt, A. (2014). Journal of Human Nutriti...
METHODS
Different disciplines & backgrounds
Hence, different methodologies
 Between-subjects vs Within-subjects
 Post-te...
Q1. BASIC ENDORSER EFFECT?
Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 10
++ + / -
Between-
subjects
Kotler et al (2012)
Boyland et al ...
Q2. ENDORSER TYPE? CELEB VS NON-CELEB
Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 11
++ + / -
Between-
subjects
De Droog et al (2011)
W...
Q3. ENDORSED FOOD? UNHEALTHY VS HEALTHY
Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 12
++ + / --
Between-
subjects
Lapierre et al (2011...
DISCUSSION
• Endorser effects are effective: shown in diff designs
• Stronger for familiar/celeb endorsers
• Stronger for ...
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF
ENDORSER EFFECTS
IN CHILD-TARGETED
FOOD MARKETING
14
Tim Smits
KU Leuven
@timsmitstim
Tim.smits@soc.k...
Child targeting food endorsement
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Child targeting food endorsement

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Systematic review of child targeting food endorsement effects. Presented at #icoria2014.

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  • One of the conference reviewers argues that we « know » they have a persuasive impact. Sure we do. But as a position paper, it is good to summarize the findings and to show how sure we are in claiming that they do have an impact.

    Reasons for this review:
    -Find out how strong the effects are. « strong » not to be interpreted in a mere statistical sense but a conceptual one (if different ways to demonstrate the effect work, then it is a strong effect)
    -Find out how exactly it works such that we can use it for policy and to aid good causes
    -Find gaps in available evidence
  • De Droog 2011: only for healthy snack (possibly ceiling effect for unhealthy)
    Lapierre: particularly for unhealthy
    Dixon: OK for boys, not for girls
    Bezbaruah: More children eat beans, but smaller portion sizes
    Wansink: ceiling effect on the unhealthy option (cookies)
  • De Droog 2012: celeb & congruent better than non-celeb incongruent
  • De Droog 2011; Lapierre 2011: ceiling effects
  • Child targeting food endorsement

    1. 1. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF ENDORSER EFFECTS IN CHILD-TARGETED FOOD MARKETING 1 Tim Smits KU Leuven @timsmitstim Tim.smits@soc.kuleuven.be Slideshare: timsmitstim Collaboration: Heidi Vandebosch (U Antwerp) Evy Neyens (KU Leuven) Emma Boyland (U Liverpool)
    2. 2. BACKGROUND First wave of child media/marketing research (Mainly) focus on :  general effects  concerns, incl. parental concerns Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 2
    3. 3. BACKGROUND Second wave of child marketing research Specific focus on food marketing  IOM 2006 report: Food Marketing to Children  FTC (2008): Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents Spurred a lot of research on:  General media effects on food liking/intake  Specific marketing techniques Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 3
    4. 4. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING Endorser = fictional or real character promoting a product (in ads, on packages, websites etc.) Often used marketing technique: • 17% of ads worldwide (Money et al 2006) • 9 - 49% of child targeting food ads (Kelly et al 2010) • Even 73% in sample of TV ads (Castonguay et al 2013) Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 4
    5. 5. ENDORSEMENT FOOD MARKETING They often endorse unhealthy foods • 79% ‘noncore’ endorsed foods (Kelly et al 2010) • 72% foods of low nutr quality (Castonguay et al 2013) • Comparable for on-pack endorsers in supermarket (Hebden et al 2011; Van Assema et al 2011; Devi et al 2014; Smits CTC2014) Do such endorsements have a persuasive impact? Does that depend on endorser type? Does it depend on food type? Strategy & Social Media 2014 6
    6. 6. METHOD Systematic review • Experimental research on food endorsement targeting children <12 years old • Keyword search in WoS/WoK, PsychINFO, Scholar; further inspection of article upon retention • Snowball search from within consideration set Result: 15 Articles (from 11 journals) Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 7
    7. 7. REVIEW CORPUS Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 8 Bezbaruah, N., Stastny, S. N., & Brunt, A. (2014). Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science. Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Dovey, T. M., Allison, M., Dobson, S., Jacobs, M. C., & Halford, J. C. (2013). The Journal of Pediatrics Dixon, H., Scully, M., Niven, P., Kelly, B., Chapman, K., Donovan, R., ... & Wakefield, M. (2014). Pediatric obesity. de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. (2012). Journal of Health Communication de Droog, S. M., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2014). Appetite de Droog, S. M., Valkenburg, P., & Buijzen, M. (2011). Journal of Health Communication Kotler, J. A., Shiffman, J. M., & Hanson K. G. (2012). Journal of Health Communication Lapierre, M. A., Vaala, S. E., & Linebarger, D. L. (2011). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Levin, A. M., & Levin, I. P. (2010). Journal of Consumer Behaviour Neeley, S. M., & Schumann, D. W. (2004). Journal of Advertising Roberto, C. A., Baik, J. , Harris, J. L., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Pediatrics Robinson, T. N., Borzekowski, D. L. G.., Matheson, D. N., & Kraemer, H. C. (2007). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Smits, T. & Vandebosch, H. (2012). Communications Wansink, B., Shimizu, M., & Camps, G. (2012). Pediatric Obesity Wansink, B., Just, D. R., & Payne, C. R. (2012). Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
    8. 8. METHODS Different disciplines & backgrounds Hence, different methodologies  Between-subjects vs Within-subjects  Post-test only versus pre- & post-test  Control-experimental vs Experimental-experimental  Food items versus Endorsers varied  DVs: attitude/liking, nagging, wanting, choice, consumption Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 9
    9. 9. Q1. BASIC ENDORSER EFFECT? Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 10 ++ + / - Between- subjects Kotler et al (2012) Boyland et al (2013) De Droog et al (2011) Lapierre et al (2011) Within- subjects Roberto et al (2010) Smits & Vandebosch (2012) De Droog et al (2014) Dixon et al (in press) Bezbaruah et al (2013) Wansink et al (2013) Levin & Levin (2010) DVs:  Attitudinal vs Choice/(Behavior) Age:  3 to 12 years old
    10. 10. Q2. ENDORSER TYPE? CELEB VS NON-CELEB Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 11 ++ + / - Between- subjects De Droog et al (2011) Within- subjects Kotler et al (2012) Wansink et al (2012) Smits & Vandebosch (2012) De Droog et al (2012) DVs:  Attitudinal vs Choice/(Behavior) Age:  3 to 12 years old Basic effect for unknown endorser?  Smits & Vandebosch, 2012; De Droog et al (2011; only for healthy snack)
    11. 11. Q3. ENDORSED FOOD? UNHEALTHY VS HEALTHY Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 12 ++ + / -- Between- subjects Lapierre et al (2011) Within- subjects Roberto et al (2010) Smits & Vandebosch (2012) Kotler et al (2012) De Droog et al (2011) Wansink et al (2012) DVs:  Attitudinal vs Choice/(Behavior) Age:  3 to 12 years old Basic effect for healthy foods?  De Droog et al (2011), Roberto et al (2010); Smits & Vandebosch (2012), Wansink et al (2012)
    12. 12. DISCUSSION • Endorser effects are effective: shown in diff designs • Stronger for familiar/celeb endorsers • Stronger for unhealthy foods, though it does work for healthy foods • Limitations: – Missing gaps: behavior DV, attitudes DV for ‘type of food ’ studies, … – No theory – Only raw effects studied: no moderation/mediation Endorser effects @ ICORIA 2014 13
    13. 13. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF ENDORSER EFFECTS IN CHILD-TARGETED FOOD MARKETING 14 Tim Smits KU Leuven @timsmitstim Tim.smits@soc.kuleuven.be Slideshare: timsmitstim Collaboration: Heidi Vandebosch (U Antwerp) Evy Neyens (KU Leuven) Emma Boyland (U Liverpool)

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