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Image is everythingPersonality and image of financial  banks during times of adversity                                  Ti...
Personality@TimSmitsTim    @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
Image@TimSmitsTim   @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
Personality vs. Image     Well debated issue if it concerns humans     Particularly focal during adolescence     Personali...
Corporations?     They too have both a personality and an image       (Konecnik & Go, 2008):           – Identity – Person...
Conceptual confusion     • In Psychology:       Personality is self-perceived, self-assessed       Image is social percept...
IMAGE                   (other-perceived)                                             DESIRED PERSONALITY PERSONALITY     ...
Personality     Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992):           – Five personality traits (underlying facets) fully            ...
Brand personality     • Definition: “the set of human personality       traits that are both applicable and relevant for  ...
– Aaker’s scale and other attempts recently criticized           – Geuens, Weijters & Dewulf (IJRM, 2009, p.103)@TimSmitsT...
IMAGE                   (other-perceived)                                             DESIRED PERSONALITY PERSONALITY     ...
Research questions     • RQ1: Match between sender’s & receiver’s       perceptions of personality?          CASE: Belgian...
• RQ2: Shouldn’t there be a 6th dimension/trait: regional       versus international scope?           – Adding to both ins...
@TimSmitsTim   @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
Measures     • 10 Belgian banks, ranging in size and sales       volume; split into two subsets (each       participant ra...
Results     • Factor analyses on brand image       questionnaires           – Differences between banks; factor structure ...
Results (RQ1)               Responsibility       Activity          Emotionality             Simplicity               Pers ...
Results     • Predicting respondents attitudes for banks       (RQ3; regression analyses)           – Best predictor, for ...
IMAGE                   (other-perceived)                                             DESIRED PERSONALITY PERSONALITY     ...
Results     • Attitudes: sender vs receiver           – Note: r = -.43 !                                       Expected at...
TAKE HOME MESSAGE     It seems as if banks knew what the key        personality dimension was in adverse times     However...
Further project plans     • Apply more rigorously amongst different type       of stakeholders:           – Management    ...
Questions and suggestions?                     and Thanks! for your attention@TimSmitsTim                          @ABCEur...
Answering research questions     • RQ1: Match between self- & other-perception           – Low match           – Too posit...
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Abc2012.smits vanhemelen

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Presentation on the tension between brand personality and brand image

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Abc2012.smits vanhemelen

  1. 1. Image is everythingPersonality and image of financial banks during times of adversity Tim Smits KULeuven & Northwestern University Natalie Van Hemelen KULeuven
  2. 2. Personality@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  3. 3. Image@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  4. 4. Personality vs. Image Well debated issue if it concerns humans Particularly focal during adolescence Personality characteristics Situational characteristics@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  5. 5. Corporations? They too have both a personality and an image (Konecnik & Go, 2008): – Identity – Personality = sender side – Image = receiver side ~ Brand as a speech flowing from a sender to a receiver (Kapferer, 2008) Often tension between both (e.g., Keller 2008; Plummer 2000) Interest in both constructs has a long history, but often conceptual confusion between them when it comes to empirical research@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  6. 6. Conceptual confusion • In Psychology: Personality is self-perceived, self-assessed Image is social perception by others • In Marketing and Market Research: Brand personality is social perception by others; still intrinsically linked with sender identity but questionnaires focus on perceived personality Brand personality assessment used as a market research tool; feedback loop to management to reposition@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  7. 7. IMAGE (other-perceived) DESIRED PERSONALITY PERSONALITY (self-perceived)(self-perceived)@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  8. 8. Personality Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992): – Five personality traits (underlying facets) fully describing one’s personality – (Almost) universal (McCrae et al. 2005) – Assessment: questionnaires (NEO-PI-R 240 items … Shortest Big Five questionnaire 10 or even 5 items) 1. Openness to Experience 2. Extraversion 3. Conscientiousness 4. Neuroticism 5. Agreeableness@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  9. 9. Brand personality • Definition: “the set of human personality traits that are both applicable and relevant for brands” (Azoulay & Kapferer, 2003) • Measures: – Aaker (JMR, 1997): 44 item for five dimension 1. Sincerity 2. Excitement 3. Competence 4. Sophistication 5. Ruggedness@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  10. 10. – Aaker’s scale and other attempts recently criticized – Geuens, Weijters & Dewulf (IJRM, 2009, p.103)@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  11. 11. IMAGE (other-perceived) DESIRED PERSONALITY PERSONALITY (self-perceived)(self-perceived)@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  12. 12. Research questions • RQ1: Match between sender’s & receiver’s perceptions of personality? CASE: Belgian financial banks – Using Geuens et al measures among key informants – Using the same measure to asses perceptions by others@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  13. 13. • RQ2: Shouldn’t there be a 6th dimension/trait: regional versus international scope? – Adding to both instruments questions about this scope – Might be a decisive personality factor in specific market circumstances: saturated markets; adverse markets; … • RQ3: How do the personality measures and the tension between both relate to brand attitudes and expected brand attitudes? – Is personality predictive of overall value of brand? Which dimension? – Do key informants have an accurate expectation of attitudes in the target audience?@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  14. 14. @TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  15. 15. Measures • 10 Belgian banks, ranging in size and sales volume; split into two subsets (each participant rated only 5 banks) • Personality: 15-item questionnaire; How much does [adjective] apply to X; 7 point Likert scale • Attitude: 4-item questionnaire bipolar semantic differential; 7 points@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  16. 16. Results • Factor analyses on brand image questionnaires – Differences between banks; factor structure not fully robust, despite claims in Geuens et al. (2009) – Overall factor structure: 1. Responsibility 2. Activity 3. Emotionality, including the Aggression dimension 4. Simplicity – No contribution of regional character (RQ2)@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  17. 17. Results (RQ1) Responsibility Activity Emotionality Simplicity Pers Image Pers Image Pers Image Pers Image Argenta 6,00 4,58 3,67 3,70 2,50 2,80 4,50 4,81 Deutsche Bank 5,67 4,70 6,00 4,11 3,5 2,91 1,00 4,16 ING 6,33 4,69 5,67 4,69 2,75 3,25 4,50 4,08 KBC 5,33 4,93 5,00 5,07 3,00 2,97 2,50 4,00 Landbouw- krediet 7,00 4,49 6,00 3,46 3,50 2,78 4,50 4,89 Bank v Breda 6,67 4,50 5,67 3,87 2,25 2,98 4,50 3,98 BNP 6,33 4,08 6,00 4,56 2,50 3,02 2,00 3,75 Citibank 5,00 4,25 6,33 4,10 4,75 2,93 3,00 4,33 Dexia 3,67 4,78 6,00 4,73 3,75 2,71 4,00 4,15 Keytrade 5,33 4,36 7,00 3,85 4,00 3,44 4,00 3,97@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  18. 18. Results • Predicting respondents attitudes for banks (RQ3; regression analyses) – Best predictor, for all banks = responsibility image (seems rather obvious nowadays – adverse times) – Possibly banks do know the importance of this dimension: Empirical relation between expected attitudes and self-assessed responsibility; r = .64; However, reverse relation between self-assessed responsibility and actual attitudes; r = -.45!@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  19. 19. IMAGE (other-perceived) DESIRED PERSONALITY PERSONALITY (self-perceived)(self-perceived)@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  20. 20. Results • Attitudes: sender vs receiver – Note: r = -.43 ! Expected attitude Attitude Argenta 5,75 4,14 Deutsche Bank 5,00 4,24 ING 6,00 4,73 KBC 4,75 5,19 Landbouwkrediet 6,00 3,70 Bank van Breda 4,75 4,15 BNP Paribas Fortis 4,75 4,21 Citibank 5,00 3,92 Dexia 4,50 4,86 Keytrade 5,50 3,96@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  21. 21. TAKE HOME MESSAGE It seems as if banks knew what the key personality dimension was in adverse times However, they did not manage to self-perceive their personality adequately Procedure in this study is a tool to aid this introspective activity@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  22. 22. Further project plans • Apply more rigorously amongst different type of stakeholders: – Management – Actual customers – Potential customers – Non-customers • Apply for different brands on the product – service continuum • Apply in a B2B brand setting@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  23. 23. Questions and suggestions? and Thanks! for your attention@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image
  24. 24. Answering research questions • RQ1: Match between self- & other-perception – Low match – Too positive self-view on key dimension • RQ2: Sixth dimension ~ regional focus? – No data supporting the necessity of this dimension • RQ3: Personality predictive of attitudes? – Credibility was most predictive of attitudes – Seems as if key informants did have an idea about this – Too positive attitude expectations@TimSmitsTim @ABCEurope2012: Personality - Image

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