Unit 3 Latin America


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Unit 3 Latin America

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  • Rockies>Sierra Madre> Andes Llanos-large grassy treeless plains
  • Amazon- More water to the ocean than any other river More than the next seven rivers combined Parana- origins highlands of Brazil- fed by several rivers
  • Greater- Cuba Jamaica Hispaniola Puerto Rico Lesser- Windward and leeward islands
  • Dry climate zones Semarid Desert Mid latitude
  • Slash and burn in rain forest Inca and terrace farming Tourism a mixed blessing. Why? Jobs Absentee owners Strain on natural environment
  • See Mexican Independence PowerPoint from World Civ
  • African ——— Spaniard ——— Spaniard ——— Amerindian ——— African ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Mulatto Criollo Mestizo Zambo
  • In 1988 Canada and the United States signed the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement after the US Congress approved implementing legislation. The American government then entered into negotiations with the Mexican government for a similar treaty, and Canada asked to join the negotiations in order to preserve its perceived gains under the 1988 deal. [1] The international climate at the time favoured expanding trade blocs, and the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union was signed in 1992.
  • A maquiladora or maquila is a factory that imports materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then re-exports the assembled product, usually back to the originating country. A maquila is also referred to as a "twin plant", or "in-bond" industry. Currently about 1.3 million Mexicans are employed in maquiladoras. The term "maquiladora", in the Spanish language, refers to the practice of millers charging a "maquila", or "miller's portion" for processing other people's grain. [1]
  • 85 % children attend schools
  • Forced labor Disease Then Africans came
  • 1889 Cuban Ind 1902 self governing 1962 Jamaica
  • Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez  (Spanish pronunciation:  [ɡaˈβɾjel ɣarˈsia ˈmarkes] ) (born March 6, 1927 [1] ) is a  Colombian  novelist,  short-story  writer,  screenwriter  and journalist . García Márquez, affectionately known as "Gabo" throughout  Latin America , is considered one of the most significant authors of the  20th century . In 1982, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature . He pursued a self-directed education that resulted in his leaving law school for a career in journalism. From early on, he showed no inhibitions in his criticism of Colombian and foreign politics. In 1958, he married Mercedes Barcha; they have two sons,  Rodrigo  and Gonzalo. He started as a journalist, and has written many acclaimed non-fiction works and short stories, but is best-known for his  novels , such as  One Hundred Years of Solitude  (1967) and  Love in the Time of Cholera  (1985). His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style labeled as  magical realism , which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations. Some of his works are set in a fictional village called Macondo, and most of them express the theme of solitude.
  • A  favela  (Brazilian Portuguese for  slum ) is the generally used term for a  shanty town  in  Brazil . In the late  19th century , the first settlements were called bairros africanos  (African neighborhoods), and they were the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years, many freed  black slaves  moved in. However, before the first settlement called "favela" came into being, poor blacks were pushed away from downtown into the far suburbs. Most modern favelas appeared in the  1970s , due to  rural exodus , when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Without finding a place to live, many people ended up in a favela. [1]
  • The  Amazon rainforest  (Brazilian  Portuguese :  Floresta Amazônica  or  Amazônia ;  Spanish :  Selva Amazónica  or  Amazonia ), also known as  Amazonia , or the  Amazon jungle , is a  moist broadleaf forest  that covers most of the  Amazon Basin  of  South America . This basin encompasses seven million square kilometers (1.7 billion  acres ), of which five and a half million square kilometers (1.4 billion acres) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within  Brazil , with 60% of the rainforest, followed by  Peru  with 13%, and with minor amounts in  Colombia ,  Venezuela ,  Ecuador ,  Bolivia ,  Guyana ,  Suriname , and  French Guiana . States or departments in four nations bear the name  Amazonas  after it. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining  rainforests , and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest  in the world. The Amazon rainforest was short-listed in 2008 as a candidate to one of the  New7Wonders of Nature  by the  New Seven Wonders of the World  Foundation. As of February 2009 the Amazon was ranking first in Group E, the category for forests, national parks and nature reserves. [1]
  • Environmentalists are concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from destruction of the forest, and also about the release of the  carbon  contained within the  vegetation , which could accelerate  global warming . Amazonian evergreen forests account for about 10% of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of the carbon stores in ecosystems [35] —of the order of 1.1 × 10 11  metric tonnes of carbon. [36]  Amazonian forests are estimated to have accumulated 0.62 ± 0.37 tons of carbon per hectare per year between 1975 and 1996. [36] One  computer model  of future  climate change  caused by  greenhouse gas  emissions shows that the Amazon rainforest could become unsustainable under conditions of severely reduced rainfall and increased temperatures, leading to an almost complete loss of rainforest cover in the basin by 2100. [37] [38]  However, simulations of Amazon basin climate change across many different models are not consistent in their estimation of any rainfall response, ranging from weak increases to strong decreases. [39]  The result indicates that the rainforest could be threatened though the 21st century by climate change in addition to deforestation. In 1989, environmentalist C.M. Peters and two colleagues stated there is economic as well as biological incentive to protecting the rainforest. One hectare in the  Peruvian Amazon  has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainably harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainably harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture. [40] As indigenous territories continue to be destroyed by deforestation and  ecocide , such as in the  Peruvian Amazon [41]   indigenous peoples ' rainforest communities continue to disappear, while others, like the  Urarina  continue to struggle to fight for their cultural survival and the fate of their forested territories. Meanwhile, the relationship between nonhuman primates in the subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland South American peoples has gained increased attention, as has ethno-biology and community-based conservation efforts. From 2002 to 2006, the conserved land in the Amazon Rainforest has almost tripled and deforestation rates have dropped up to 60%. About 1,000,000 square kilometres (250,000,000 acres) have been put onto some sort of conservation, which adds up to a current amount of 1,730,000 square kilometres (430,000,000 acres). [42]
  • Debt-for-nature swaps  are financial transactions in which a portion of a  developing nation 's foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in conservation measures. The concept of debt-for-nature swaps was first conceived by  Thomas Lovejoy  of the  World Wildlife Fund  in 1984 as an opportunity to deal with the problems of developing-nation indebtedness and its consequent deleterious effect on the environment. [1]  In the wake of the  Latin American debt crisis  that resulted in steep reductions to the environmental conservation ability of highly-indebted nations, Lovejoy suggested that ameliorating debt and promoting conservation could be done at the same time. A commercial debt-for-nature swap involves a  non-governmental organization  that purchases debt titles from commercial banks on the secondary market. The NGO transfers the debt title to the debtor country, and in exchange the country agrees to either enact certain environmental policies or endow a government bond in the name of a conservation organization, with the aim of funding conservation programs. Bilateral debt-for-nature swaps take place between two governments when one country forgives a portion of the public bilateral debt of a debtor nation in exchange for environmental commitments from that country. [2]  Examples of bilateral swaps would include the swaps executed by the USA under the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative and the Tropical Forest Conservation Act. Under the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative, the US Government forgave a portion of PL 480 debt and USAID debt and allowed the payments on the balance to go into national funds that financed environmental conservation. The Environmental Foundation of Jamaica was the first fund established under the EAI.
  • favelas Problem Moral- catholic church argued it is an issue of social justice Economic issue- poor have little education, rich have little in govt rules Political issue- disparity of rich and poor will only result in rebellion Solution Democracy Education Fill the gaps
  • Caudillos sometimes directed elected by the people Government of the few Censored Govt Limited freedoms
  • 24 July 1857 - 17 December 1935 nearly full-blooded  Native American barely literate cattle herder During his rule, most of the country's wealth ended up in the hands of Gómez, his henchmen, and  Wall Street
  • Juan Domingo Perón  (Spanish pronunciation:  [ˈxwan ðoˈmiŋgo peɾˈon]  October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an  Argentine   general  and  politician , elected three times as  President of Argentina , after serving in several government positions, including the Secretary of Labor and the Vice Presidency. He was overthrown in a military coup in 1955. He returned to power in 1973 and served for nine months, until his death in 1974 when he was succeeded by his third wife,  Isabel Martínez . Perón and his second wife,  Eva , were immensely popular amongst many of the Argentine people, and to this day they are still considered icons by the  Peronist Party . The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labor, while their detractors considered them demagogues  and dictators. The Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as  peronismo , which in present-day Argentina is represented mainly by the  Justicialist Party .
  • National Reorganization Process ruled  Argentina  from 1976 to 1983 known simply as  la última junta militar  (the last  military junta ) or  la última dictadura  (the last  dictatorship ), because several of them existed throughout its history. seized political power during the  March 1976 coup , amid violent factional conflicts between supporters of recently deceased  President   Juan Domingo Perón . The junta continued the  Dirty War . After losing the  Falklands War  to the  United Kingdom  in 1982, mounting public opposition to the junta led to its voluntarily relinquishing power in 1983.
  • The  Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo  ( Spanish :  Asociación Madres de Plaza de Mayo ) is an association of  Argentine   mothers  whose children " disappeared " during the  Dirty War , the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983. human rights activists in order to achieve a common goal. For over three decades, the Mothers have fought for the right to re-unite with their abducted children. wear white head scarves with their children's names embroidered, to symbolize the blankets of the lost children. The name of the organization comes from the  Plaza de Mayo  in central  Buenos Aires , where the bereaved mothers and grandmothers first gathered. They gather every Thursday afternoon for a half hour walk around the plaza. [ citation needed ] The Mothers' association was formed by women who had met each other in the course of trying to find their missing sons and daughters, who were abducted by agents of the Argentine government during the years known as the  Dirty War  (1976–1983), many of whom were then tortured and killed. The 14 founders of the association,  Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti , Berta Braverman, Haydée García Buelas, María Adela Gard de Antokoletz, Julia Gard, María Mercedes Gard and Cándida Gard (4 sisters), Delicia González, Pepa Noia, Mirta Baravalle, Kety Neuhaus, Raquel Arcushin, Sra. De Caimi, started the demonstrations on the Plaza de Mayo, in front of the  Casa Rosada  presidential palace, on 30 April 1977. Villaflor had been searching for one of her sons and her daughter-in-law for six months. She was taken to the ESMA  concentration camp  on 10 December 1978. [ citation needed ] The military has admitted that over 9,000 of those kidnapped are still unaccounted for, but the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo say that the number is closer to 30,000, 500 of those given to military related families and the remaining number dead. The numbers are hard to determine due to the secrecy surrounding the abductions. Three of the founders of the mothers of the Plaza de Mayo have also "disappeared". After the fall of the military regime, a civilian government commission put the number of disappeared at close to 11,000. [ citation needed ] In January 2005, the  body  of  French  nun  Leonie Duquet , a supporter of the organization, was exhumed, without an established identity. Duquet's disappearance had caused international outrage towards the Argentine military government.  DNA  tests concluded, on August 30 of that year, that the body exhumed in January was that of Duquet. [ citation needed ] Azucena Villaflor's remains, together with those of two other pioneer Mothers, Esther Careaga and María Eugenia Bianco, were also identified by a forensics team in mid-2005. Villaflor's ashes were buried at the foot of the May Pyramid in the Plaza on 8 December 2005. [ citation needed ] The Mothers' association seek to keep the memory and spirit of their disappeared children alive, through the creation of an independent university, bookstore, library and cultural center. Through these projects, subsidised and free education, health and other facilities are offered to the public and students, promoting the revolutionary ideals of many of their children. This has made their headquarters an important focal point for progressive leaders visiting Buenos Aires, including Hugo Chavez, Tabare Vazquez, and Brazil's Lula.
  • Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín  (March 12, 1927 – March 31, 2009) Argentine  lawyer, politician and statesman President of Argentina  from December 10, 1983, to July 8, 1989. was the first democratically-elected president of Argentina following the military government known as the  National Reorganization Process . awarded the  Prince of Asturias Award  for International Cooperation in 1985, among numerous other such recognitions. [1]
  • Goivernor of province of la rioja Campaigning as a maverick within his own party defeated longtime Peronist leader  Antonio Cafiero elected President on May 14, 1989, succeeding  Raúl Alfonsín . His campaign was centered on vague promises of a "productive revolution" and a  "salariazo"  (jargon for big salary increases), aimed at the  working class , the traditional constituents of the  Peronist Party .  Jacques de Mahieu , a French ideologue of the Peronist movement (and former  Vichy  Collaborationist), was photographed campaigning for Menem. [4] Under Menem significant economic revovery
  • The mothers with President Néstor Kirchner.
  • Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign in favor of his wife Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. Winning by a landslide that October, she became the first woman elected President of Argentina and in a disputed result,  Fabiana Ríos , a center-left ( ARI ) candidate in Tierra del Fuego Province became the first woman in Argentine history to be elected governor.
  • Marta Teresa Smith de Vasconcelos Suplicy March 18, 1945) Brazilian   politician  and  psychologist . She was  Mayor of São Paulo , 2001–2004, as a member of the Brazilian  Workers' Party (PT) . She served as the Brazilian Minister of Tourism between March 14, 2007 and June 4, 2008, when she resigned to run for mayor of  São Paulo .
  • Unit 3 Latin America

    1. 1. All sections to appear here
    2. 2. pptPlex Section Divider Landforms and resources The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    3. 8. <ul><li>Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Madre </li></ul>
    4. 9. <ul><li>Mountainous </li></ul><ul><li>Hilly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guyana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul></ul>
    5. 10. <ul><li>plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argentina </li></ul></ul>
    6. 11. <ul><li>Savannas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul></ul>
    7. 12. <ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argentina </li></ul></ul>
    8. 13. <ul><li>Orinoco </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Parana </li></ul>
    9. 14. <ul><li>Greater Antilles </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser Antilles </li></ul>
    10. 19. pptPlex Section Divider Human Environment Interaction The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    11. 20. <ul><li>Slash and burn </li></ul><ul><li>Terrace farming </li></ul><ul><li>Push and pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages </li></ul></ul>
    12. 23. pptPlex Section Divider Mexico The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    13. 25. <ul><ul><li>Cultural hearth </li></ul></ul>
    14. 28. <ul><li>Maya </li></ul>
    15. 32. <ul><li>Aztec </li></ul>
    16. 33. <ul><li>Aztec </li></ul>
    17. 34. <ul><li>Aztec </li></ul>
    18. 35. <ul><li>Hernan Cortez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1519 </li></ul></ul>
    19. 37. <ul><li>Creoles </li></ul><ul><li>Meztizo </li></ul><ul><li>Mullatos </li></ul>
    20. 43. <ul><li>Francisco Madero </li></ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa </li></ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata </li></ul>
    21. 44. <ul><li>Francisco Madero </li></ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa </li></ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata </li></ul>
    22. 45. <ul><li>Francisco Madero </li></ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa </li></ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata </li></ul>
    23. 46. <ul><li>1929-2000 </li></ul>
    24. 47. <ul><li>National Action Party </li></ul>
    25. 49. <ul><li>Diego Rivera </li></ul>
    26. 50. <ul><li>Diego Rivera </li></ul><ul><li>Frida Kahlo </li></ul>
    27. 51. <ul><li>Churrigueresque </li></ul>
    28. 55. <ul><li>The education imparted by the Federal State shall be designed to develop harmoniously all the faculties of the human being and shall foster in him at the same time a love of country and a consciousness of international solidarity, in independence and justice. Said education must be free of bias. (As per the full definition of the word &quot;Laica&quot; as used in the original document) </li></ul>
    29. 56. pptPlex Section Divider Central America and the Caribbean The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    30. 62. <ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Santeria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voodoo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rastafarianism </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 63. <ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Santeria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voodoo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rastafarianism </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 64. <ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calypso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reggae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal economy </li></ul></ul>
    33. 65. <ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calypso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reggae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal economy </li></ul></ul>
    34. 66. <ul><li>Exporting crops </li></ul><ul><li>Panama Canal </li></ul>
    35. 68. pptPlex Section Divider Spanish Speaking South America The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    36. 74. <ul><li>Simon Bolivar </li></ul><ul><li>Jose de San Martin </li></ul>
    37. 75. <ul><li>Salvador Allende </li></ul><ul><li>Augusto Pinochet </li></ul>
    38. 76. <ul><li>Salvador Allende </li></ul><ul><li>Augusto Pinochet </li></ul>
    39. 77. <ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriel Garcia Marquez </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>charango </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arts and crafts </li></ul>
    40. 78. <ul><li>Venezuela and Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina- pampas with grain and livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Uruguay- soybeans cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Chile- mining </li></ul>
    41. 79. <ul><li>South America </li></ul><ul><li>Chile’s education system </li></ul>
    42. 80. pptPlex Section Divider Brazil The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    43. 82. <ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas </li></ul>
    44. 84. <ul><li>Dom Pedro </li></ul>
    45. 87. <ul><ul><li>Brasilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oscar Niemeyer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 88. <ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Bauxite </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic power of the Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>… and now oil ! </li></ul>
    47. 89. <ul><li>Migration to the interior and the cities </li></ul><ul><li>Carnival </li></ul><ul><li>Samba </li></ul><ul><li>Capoeira </li></ul>
    48. 90. <ul><li>Copacabana Beach </li></ul>
    49. 93. pptPlex Section Divider Challenges for Latin America The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    50. 94. <ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul>
    51. 95. <ul><li>Education </li></ul>
    52. 98. <ul><li>Caudillo </li></ul><ul><li>Oligarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Juntas </li></ul>
    53. 100. pptPlex Section Divider Latin American History The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
    54. 101. <ul><li>Bolivian Military Juntas  (1970-1971 and 1980-1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Nigerian Military Juntas  (1966–1979 and 1983–1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Military Junta  (1967–1974), also known as  The Regime of the Colonels </li></ul><ul><li>Peruvian Military Junta  (1968-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilian Military Junta  (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Argentine Military Junta  (1976-1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Government Junta of Chile  (1973–1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Derg  in Ethiopia (1974–1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Junta of National Reconstruction  in Nicaragua (1979–1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador  (1979–1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Military Council of National Salvation  in Poland (1981–1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Haitian Military Junta  (1991–1994) </li></ul><ul><li>State Peace and Development Council  in Myanmar (formerly known as  Burma ) (1988–present), known as the  State Law and Order Restoration Council  from 1988 to 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>National Salvation Junta  ( Portuguese :  Junta de Salvação Nacional ) in Portugal (1974–1976) </li></ul><ul><li>National Reorganization Process  in Argentina (1976-1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Military-run Governments  in Thailand (1932-1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Aftermatch of Thammasart University's accused communists crackdown  in Thailand (1976-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>National Peace Keeping Council  in Thailand (1991-1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Council for National Security  in Thailand (2006–2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Mauritanian Military Junta  (2008-2009) </li></ul>
    55. 103. <ul><li>Juan Peron </li></ul>
    56. 105. <ul><li>Mothers of Plaza de Mayo </li></ul>
    57. 106. <ul><li>Raul Alfosin </li></ul>
    58. 107. <ul><li>Carlos Menem </li></ul>
    59. 108. <ul><li>President Néstor Kirchner </li></ul>
    60. 109. <ul><li>President Cristina Kirchner </li></ul>
    61. 110. <ul><li>Marta Suplicy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sao Paulo </li></ul></ul>