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Gained control through diplomacy and military Used forced to put down rebellion Royal Niger Company- palm oil Berlin Conference gave Niger as a protectorate for UK Eventually claimed Niger as a colony 250 ethnic groups lived there- UK allowed Hausa Fulani to control (British used indirect control).
Diplomatic and military means to control the country Persuaded leaders to sign treaties of protection Gained control of palm oil trade claimed Nigeria as a colony appointed local officials to keep control
Europeans had superior arms Except Ethiopia, all residence fails Samouri Toure- would resist the French in Mali for 16 years Joined military when his mother was captured and enslaved- hoped to find his mother Developed strong military skills Magi Magi rebellion In German East Africa- 1905- believed magic water would turn bullets to water Germans recorded 75k deaths 150k would die in subsequent famine
Menelik II became emperor in 1889 Played Italians French and British against each other Understood the scramble for Africa Large arsenal of weapons Signs treaty with Italy later discovered different meanings in the two treaties, Would allow Italians to claim all of Ethiopia as a protectorate As Italian approach northern Ethiopia, Menelike II declares war Battle of Adowa rom G.N. Sanderson, “The Foreign Policy of Negus Menelik” in the Journal of African History, Vol. 5, 1964. Reprinted in Alvin M. Joseph, Jr., ed., The Horizon History of Africa (New York: American Heritage, 1971), 429. During the 1890s, Menelik heard about the modern method of executing criminals using electric chairs , and he ordered 3 for his kingdom. When the chairs arrived, Menelik learnt they would not work, as Ethiopia did not yet have an electrical power industry . Rather than waste his investment, Menelik used one of the chairs as his throne, sending another to his &quot;second&quot; ( Lique Mekwas ) Abate Ba-Yalew .  During a particularly devastating famine caused by Rinderpest early in his reign, Menelik personally went out with a hand-held hoe to furrow the fields to show that there was no shame in plowing fields by hand without oxen, something Ethiopian highlanders had been too proud to consider previously. He also forgave taxes during this particularly severe famine. A contributing factor to his death may have been his habit of eating pages from the Bible when he was ill. Shortly before his death, he is reported to have consumed the entire Books of Kings . 
<ul><li>1889 to 1913, Emperor Menelik II ruled Ethiopia, the only African nation to resist colonization. He wrote the following letter to the caliph of the Sudan to express his opposition to European expansion and his desire to strengthen his alliance with the Sudan. How did Menelik II intend to resist European attempts to colonize his country? </li></ul><ul><li>This is to inform you that the Europeans who are present round the White Nile with the English have come out from both the east and the west, and intended to enter between my country and yours and to separate and divide us. And I, when I heard of their plan, dispatched an expedition, sending detachments in five directions. The group [of Europeans] who are near are the English and the French, who are located in the direction from which the Belgians came. And do you remember when I sent to you Kantiba Jiru, you wrote to me by him that you have men in the direction from which the Belgians came?; and I ordered the chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>of [my] troops that if they met with them, they were to parley with them and explain [my] intention. And now I have ordered my troops to advance towards the White Nile. And perhaps [if] you heard the news from merchants or from others you might misunderstand my action, [so now] I have written to you so that you would understand the object [of this expedition]. </li></ul><ul><li>And you look to yourself, and do not let the Europeans enter between us. Be strong, lest if the Europeans enter our midst a great disaster befall us and our children have no rest. And if one of the Europeans comes to you as a traveler, do your utmost to send him away in peace; and do not listen to rumors against me. All my intention is to increase my friendship with you, and that our countries may be protected from [their] enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Questions </li></ul><ul><li>1. According to Menelik II, what was the Europeans’ plan? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What steps did Menelik II take in response to the Europeans’ plan? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Making Inferences Based on your reading of this letter, what can you infer about the methods some European countries used to control African land and peoples? </li></ul>Letter from Menelik II
What are the negative and positive effects of colonial rule?