The Scramble for Africa was the period between the 1880s and the start of World War I , when colonial empires in Africa were acquired faster than anywhere else on the globe. It is the canonical example of the New Imperialism . The latter half of 19th century saw the transition from an &quot;informal&quot; empire of control through economic dominance to direct control, marked from the 1870s on by the scramble for territory in areas previously regarded as under influence. The Berlin Conference regulated the imperial competition between Britain , France and Germany , defining &quot;effective occupation&quot; as the criterion for international recognition of colonial claims and codifying the imposition of direct rule, accomplished usually through armed force.
Anglo-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley led two major expeditions in East and Central Africa In 1871 he found and re-supplied the famed Scottish explorer David Livingstone, returning to the Indian Ocean coast the way he had come in 1872. Searching for the source of the Nile Then, between 1874 and 1877, Stanley successfully crossed the African continent from east to west, his party suffering great hardships along the way. The opening of Africa had began in earnest at the end of the 18th century. By 1835 , most of northwestern Africa had been mapped by Europeans. The greatest of the European explorers was David Livingstone , who charted the vast interior. By the end of the century, the source of the Nile had been charted by Europeans, the courses of the Niger and Congo Rivers had been traced, and the world now realized the vast resources of Africa. However, on the eve of the New Imperialist scramble for Africa, only ten percent of the continent was under the control of western nations. In 1875 , the two most important holdings were Algeria , administered by France , and Cape Colony , held by Britain. David Livingstone 's explorations, carried on by Henry Morton Stanley , galvanized the European nations into action. But at first his ideas found little support except from the Belgian king, Leopold II , who in 1876 had organized the International African Association . As an agent of the association, Stanley was sent to the Congo region, where he made treaties with several African chiefs and by 1882 obtained over 900,000 square miles (2,300,000 km²) of territory. Technological advancement facilitated overseas expansionism. Industrialization brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication, especially in the forms of steam navigation, railroads, and telegraphs. Medical advances were also key, especially medicines for tropical diseases. The development of malaria treatment enabled vast expanses of the tropics to be penetrated in the first place.
Rubber production Leopold II (of Belgium) (1835-1909) son of King Leopold I born in Brussels and originally named Louis Philippe Marie Victor In 1876 Leopold organized an international association to develop central Africa financed the expedition to the Congo River led by the British-American explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley from 1879 to 1884 Berlin West Africa Conference of 1884 and 1885, Leopold was recognized as sovereign of the Congo Free State, annexed to Belgium as the Belgian Congo in 1908, and now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire) Leopold incurred widespread criticism for his exploitation of the people and natural resources of Congo, and, because of international protests, he was forced to institute modest reforms. He was succeeded by his nephew Albert I. Interest in colonies Leopold fervently believed that overseas colonies were the key to a country's greatness, and worked tirelessly to acquire colonial territory for Belgium. Neither the Belgian people nor the Belgian government were interested, however, and Leopold eventually began trying to acquire a colony in his private capacity as an ordinary citizen. After a number of unsuccessful schemes for colonies in Africa or Asia, in 1876 he organized a private holding company disguised as an international scientific and philanthropic association. In 1879 , under the auspices of the holding company, he hired the famous explorer Henry Morton Stanley to establish a colony in the Congo region. Much diplomatic maneuvering resulted in the Berlin Conference of 1884-85, at which representatives of 14 European countries and the United States recognized Leopold as sovereign of most of the area he and Stanley had laid claim to. On February 5 , 1885 , the result was the Congo Free State (later the Belgian Congo , then Zaire , and now the Democratic Republic of Congo ), an area 76 times larger than Belgium, which Leopold was free to rule as a personal domain. Reports of outrageous exploitation and widespread human rights abuses (including enslavement and mutilation ) of the native population, especially in the rubber industry, led to an international protest movement in the early 1900s. Finally, in 1908, the Belgian parliament compelled the King to cede the Congo Free State to Belgium. Leopold II is still a controversial figure in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2005 his statue was taken down just hours after it was re-erected in the capital, Kinshasa. The Congolese culture minister, Christoph Muzungu decided to reinstate the statue, arguing people should see the positive aspects of the king as well as the negative. But just hours after the six-metre (20 foot) statue was erected in the middle of a roundabout near Kinshasa's central station, it was taken down again, without explanation.
The Berlin Conference 1884-1885 No African rulers were invited King Leopold considered himself a great statesman Note: what Belgium gets The General Act The General Act fixed the following points: The Free State of the Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society. Thus the territory of today's Democratic Republic of the Congo , some two million square kilometers, was made essentially the property of Leopold II. The 14 signatory powers would have free trade throughout the Congo basin as well as Lake Niassa and east of this in an area south of 5° N. The Niger and Congo Rivers were made free for ship traffic. An international prohibition of the slave trade was signed. The principle was set down that powers could only possess colonies if they actually possessed them (Principle of Effectivity). Any fresh act of taking possession on any portion of the African coast would have to be notified by the power taking possession, or assuming a protectorate , to the other signatory powers. It is also noteworthy that the first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to &quot; spheres of influence &quot; is contained in the Berlin Act. [ edit ] Consequences The Scramble for Africa sped up after the Conference. Within a few years, Africa was at least nominally divided up south of the Sahara . By 1895, only the settlements in Liberia, Orange Free State and Transvaal remained independent. Nonetheless, Abessinia was able to break free of Italian domination in 1896, becoming the only free native state. The large part of the Sahara was French, while after the quelling of the Mahdi rebellion and the ending of the Fashoda crisis , the Sudan remained firmly under joint British-Egyptian rulership. The Boer states were conquered by Great Britain in the Boer wars from 1899 to 1902. Morocco was divided between the French and Spanish in 1911 , and Libya was conquered by Italy in 1912 . The official British annexation of Egypt in 1914 ended the colonial division of Africa. By this point, all of Africa, with the exceptions of Liberia and Ethiopia were under European rule.
Europeans look to Africa and Asia for natural resources When one country dominates the political social and economic structure of another weaker nation The motives of imperialism: national pride National pride begets racial pride, racism Social Darwinism Economic competition Spreading Christianity To civilize and westernize
Europeans hoped to continue to sell manufactured goods to Africa but did not so they turned to Africa for raw materials Cash crops- peanuts palm oil, cocoa Displaces crops for the families in the colonies Copper & tin Belgian Congo Gold and diamonds South Africa Rubber Belgian production- send workers into the dangerous Congo- not return with requisite rubber plants- cuts their hands off.
The Maxim gun- world’s first automatic gun 1869 The Steam engine- allowed for easier travel throughout Africa The ability to play rival groups off of each other The Maxim gun was the first self-acting machine gun . Whilst its predecessors, such as the Gatling and Gardner guns had a manual crank to power the mechanism for loading, firing and ejecting their cartridges , the Maxim gun used energy from its ammunition . Invented by American Hiram Maxim ( 1840 - 1916 ) in 1885 , it used the energy of each bullet's recoil force to eject the spent cartridge and insert the next one. Trials showed it could fire 500 rounds per minute, equivalent to the firepower of about 100 rifles. Compared to many modern machine guns, the Maxim was bulky and awkward, typically requiring a four to six man team to operate it. However, at the time it was the only alternative to slow firing bolt action rifles, and its extreme lethality was employed to devastating effect against obsolete charging tactics. It was adopted by the British Army in 1889 , and first used by Britain`s colonial forces in the Matabele war in 1893 - 1894 . In one engagement, 50 soldiers fought off 5,000 warriors with just four Maxim guns. The Maxim gun played a major role in the swift European colonization of Africa in the late 19th century . As it was put in a well-known jingle by Hillaire Belloc , Whatever happens, we have got The Maxim gun, and they have not. The design was purchased by several other European countries, setting off an arms and technology race. The Maxim gun first saw significant action in the Russo-Japanese War , where both sides bought vast numbers of Maxim's guns. Nearly 50 per cent of all casualties in the entire conflict were derived from Maxim guns. The German Army's Maschinengewehr and the Russian Pulemyot Maxima were both based on Maxim's invention. The 1906 version of the book Small Wars  notes that the Maxim gun is significantly more reliable than other guns of the period, a key issue with pre-1900 machine guns. On page 440 the author notes: &quot;The older forms are not suitable as a rule.... They jammed at Ulundi, they jammed at Dogali, they jammed at Abu Klea and Tofrek, in some cases with unfortunate results.&quot; A later, lighter model of the five man Maxim was ominously nicknamed the &quot; Devil's Paintbrush &quot; in reference to the sight of whole rows of charging soldiers being cut down in a line. Creator, Sir &quot;Hiram Stevens Maxim&quot; By World War I , many armies had moved on to lighter, even more reliable machine guns. On the Western Front , 90 per cent of bullet related casualties were inflicted by Maxim-type guns, including the Vickers machine gun which was an improved and redesigned Maxim introduced into the British Army in 1912 and remained in service until 1968 . Maxim also invented a pneumatic gun , a smokeless gunpowder , a mousetrap , and carbon filaments for light bulbs .
Hundreds of linguistic groups 1k different languages European controlled very little land Africans were effective in keeping our imperialist African trade networks African like the Chowke collected ivory and beeswax
Oxford De Beers Prime Minister of the Cape Colony The Rhodes Scholarship Cecil Rhodes used his great wealth made from mining diamonds in Africa, to extend British rule in southern Africa. Upon his death in 1902, much of Rhodes’s vast fortune went to the University of Oxford for the establishment of Rhodes scholarships. Clinton- a Rhodes scholar
The Zulus Shaka a Zulu chief Take an insignifigant tribe and convert it to a mighty empire of south aferica military genius Would succumb to British control
Boers Dutch farmers left over from the Dutch East India Trading Company Boer means farmer Clash with the British The Great Trek- a Boer exodus away from British come in contact with Zulu The Boer War “total war”, guerilla tactics A European War South Africa falls to the British Boer Commandos formed small military units. first assaulted African groups and then fought from 1899 to 1902 against the British.
“ scorthced earth policy” of removing Boer from their farms A Boer concentration camp full of men and women The conditions very unhealthy food rations were meagre. Women and children of menfolk who were still fighting were given smaller rations than others. measles , typhoid and dysentery . 27,927 Boers (of whom 22,074 were children under 16) and 14,154 black Africans had died of starvation , disease and exposure in the concentration camps . 25% of the Boer inmates 12% of the black African
Imperialism in Africa
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pptPlex Section Divider The Scramble The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
pptPlex Section Divider The Factors The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
What is Imperialism? <ul><li>The motives of imperialism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National pride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreading Christianity </li></ul></ul>
pptPlex Section Divider Sub Saharan African The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.