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Module - PM in Arts, Media, Entertainment

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Module - PM in Arts, Media, Entertainment

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Module - PM in Arts, Media, Entertainment

  1. 1. 1 [Insert your logo here]
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT Module: Project Management in Media, Arts & Entertainment Lecturer: Thorsten Kliewe Date: PRESENTATION SUPPORTED BY [Insert your logo here]
  3. 3. 3 [Insert your logo here] This video will give you a better understanding of what Project Management is all about Project management explained simply: a training video to help newcomers understand the core concepts of PM. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9LSnINglkQA
  4. 4. 4 [Insert your logo here] In this course you will be introduced to project management fundamentals By the end of this session you should be able: • to have an awareness of what project is; • to understand what project management is and how to apply it in delivering successful projects; • to have an understanding of core characteristics of project management processes; • to have an awareness of who project stakeholders are; • to have an awareness of who project managers are.
  5. 5. 5 [Insert your logo here] Table of contents • What is PROJECT? 1 • What is PROJECT MANAGEMENT?2 • PROJECT triple constraint 3 • PROJECT stakeholders 4 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT skills5 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT process and knowledge areas6 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT examples7 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT books8
  6. 6. “Operations keeps the lights on, strategy provides a light at the end of the tunnel, but project management is the train engine that moves the organization forward.” Joy Gumz Project Management Professional, Senior Director at Project Auditors LLC
  7. 7. 7 [Insert your logo here] The lectures in this Module follow the structure of “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” or PMBOK Guide because it represents a tried and tested framework. Many of the generic project management methodologies available refer to PMBOK Guide as a basic framework.
  8. 8. 8 [Insert your logo here] Aproject is a collaborative enterprise, involving research or design, that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim The Project Management Institute (PMI) is the professional association for project manager. In the latest edition of the “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” or PMBOK Guide (2013), the PMI defines a project as: “… a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce unique product, service, or result.” Core characteristics: • Temporary • Unique • Progressive elaboration
  9. 9. 9 [Insert your logo here] • Temporary Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. The end is reached when the project´s objectives have been achieved, or when it becomes clear that the project objectives will not or cannot be met, or the need for the project no longer exists and the project is terminated. Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration. However the duration of a project is finite; projects are not the ongoing efforts. • Unique Projects involve doing something that has not been done before and which is, therefore, unique. The presence of repetitive elements does not change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work. • Progressive elaboration Progressive elaboration is a characteristic of projects that integrates the concepts of temporary and unique. Because the product of each project is unique, the characteristics that distinguish the product or service must be progressively elaborated. Progressive means proceeding in steps, while elaborated means worked out with care and detail. These distinguishing characteristics will be broadly defined early in the project, and will be made explicit and detailed as the project team develops a better and more complete understanding of the product. Aproject is a collaborative enterprise, involving research or design, that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim
  10. 10. 10 [Insert your logo here] Projects are distinguished from operations and from programs • A project versus an operation The operations of an organization are continuing and repetitive activities that are executed to achieve its mission and sustain the business, but without a definable end to their performance and without a unique output – that is, it is not produced or provided only once. • A project versus a program A project differs from a program in that a program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements or related work outside the scope of discrete projects in program.
  11. 11. 11 [Insert your logo here] Project management is a methodical approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish The PMI defines a project management as: “… the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.” Project management is an interrelated group of processes that enables the project team to achieve a successful project. These processes manage inputs and produce outputs from specific activities. The progression from input to output is the nucleus of project management and requires integration and iteration.
  12. 12. 12 [Insert your logo here] Project management is often summarised in a triangle.The three most important factors are commonly called the triple constraint The three most important factors are time, cost and scope. These form the vertices with quality as a central theme. The triple constraint: • Projects must be within cost • Projects must be delivered on time • Projects must be within scope • Projects must meet customer quality requirements These constraints construct a triangle with geometric proportions illustrating the strong interdependent relation between these factors. Cost TimeScope Quality
  13. 13. 13 [Insert your logo here] Aproject team is a team whose members have different functions and are assigned to activities for the same project The project team is the group responsible for planning and executing the project. Their work involves: • Competing demands for: • scope • time • cost • quality • risk • Identified requirements.
  14. 14. 14 [Insert your logo here] Project stakeholders are entities that have interest in a given project Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion; they may also exert influence over the project and its results. Key stakeholders on every project include: • Project manager • Customer • Performing organization • Project team members • Sponsor
  15. 15. 15 [Insert your logo here] Project stakeholders are entities that have interest in a given project Key stakeholders on every project include: • Project manager – the individual responsible for managing the project. • Customer – the individual or organization that will use the project-s product. • Performing organization – the enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project. • Project team members – the group that is performing the work of the project. • Sponsor - the individual or group within or external to the performing organization that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project. In addition to these, there are many different names and categories of project stakeholders: • internal and external, • owners and funders, • sellers and contractors, • team members and their families, • governmental agencies, • media outlets, • individual citizens, • temporary or permanent lobbying organizations, • society, etc.
  16. 16. 16 [Insert your logo here] The key responsibility of the project manager is to successfully accomplish the project objectives • The project objectives can be accomplished by balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost. • Derivative responsibilities include: • Identifying the project requirements; • Establishing clear and achievable objectives; • Adapting the specifications, plans and approach to the different concerns and expectations of stakeholders. • The project manager must direct the project from its inputs, through its nucleus, to deliver of its outputs.
  17. 17. 17 [Insert your logo here] General management skills provide much of the foundation for building project management skills Among other topics general management includes: • Finance and accounting, sales and marketing, research and development, manufacturing and distribution. • Strategic, tactical, operational planning. • Organizational structures, organizational behaviour, personnel administration, compensation, benefits, career paths. • Managing work relationships through motivation, delegation, supervision, team building, conflict management, etc. • Managing oneself through personal time management, stress management, etc.
  18. 18. 18 [Insert your logo here] General management skills provide much of the foundation for building project management skills They are often essential for project manager. On any given project, skill in any number of general management areas may be required. These key general management skills are highly likely to affect most projects: • Leading • Communicating • Negotiating • Problem solving • Influencing the organization
  19. 19. 19 [Insert your logo here] Leading, communicating, negotiating, problem solving, influencing the organization are highly likely to affect most projects Leading involves: • Establishing directions – developing both a vision of the future strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision. • Aligning people – communicating the vision by words and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be needed to achieve the vision. • Motivating and inspiring – helping people energize themselves to overcome political, bureaucratic, and resource barriers to change. Communicating involves the exchange of information: • Sender-receiver models • Choice of media • Writing style • Presentation techniques • Meeting management techniques. Project Communications Management is the application of these broad concepts to the specific need of the project.
  20. 20. 20 [Insert your logo here] Leading, communicating, negotiating, problem solving, influencing the organization are highly likely to affect most projects Negotiating involves conferring with others to terms with them or reach an agreement. Agreements may be negotiated directly or with assistance, mediation and arbitration ate two types of assisted negotiation. Problem solving involves a combination of problem definition and decision-making. Problem definition requires distinguishing between causes and symptoms. Decision-making includes analysing the problem to identify viable solutions, and then making a choice from among them. Influencing the organization involves the ability to “get things done”. It requires an understanding of both the formal an informal structures of all the organizations involved: • the performing organization • customer • partners • contractors, etc.
  21. 21. 21 [Insert your logo here] The context on which projects are performed, conceptually illustrated by the following figure Project Boundaries Project Inputs Project Initiator/ Sponsor Project Deliverables Project Records End Users Process Assets Planning Processes Executing Processes Initiating Processes Closing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 37
  22. 22. 22 [Insert your logo here] The context on which projects are performed, conceptually illustrated by the following figure This figure illustrates the project context, its conceptual boundaries, or scope lines, as well as the process groups required to manage the inputs and deliver the outputs. Project Boundaries Project Inputs Project Initiator/ Sponsor Project Deliverables Project Records End Users Process Assets Planning Processes Executing Processes Initiating Processes Closing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 37
  23. 23. 23 [Insert your logo here] The project management knowledge areas describe project management knowledge and practice in terms of their processes These processes have been organized into nine knowledge areas: • Project integration management • Project scope management • Project time management • Project cost management • Project quality management • Project human resource management • Project communications management • Project risk management • Project procurement management
  24. 24. “A project is complete when it starts working for you, rather than you working for it.” Scott Allen Project Management Professional, Social Media Professional
  25. 25. 25 [Insert your logo here] Project Management books • Project Management Institute (2013): A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Pennsylvania: New York: Project Mgmt Inst. • Stephen Barker, Rob Cole (2012): Brilliant Project Management: What the Best Project Managers Know, Do, and Say, 3rd Edition. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson. • Eric Verzuh (2012): The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Terry Schmidt (2009): Strategic Project Management Made Simple – Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Harold Kerzner (2013): Project Management: a Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 11th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Scott Berkun (2008): Making Things Happen: mastering Project Management. Sebastopol: O´Reilly Media Inc.
  26. 26. 26 [Insert your logo here] Key Takeaways • Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce unique product, service, or result. • Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. • Projects must be within cost. • Projects must be delivered on time. • Projects must be within scope. • Projects must meet customer quality requirements. • Project stakeholders are entities that have interest in a given project or may also exert influence over the project and its results. • General management skills provide much of the foundation for building project management skills.
  27. 27. 27 [Insert your logo here] THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  28. 28. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Module: Project Management in Media, Arts & Entertainment Lecturer: Thorsten Kliewe Date: PRESENTATION SUPPORTED BY [Insert your logo here]
  29. 29. 29 [Insert your logo here] This example will give you a better understanding of project management life cycle LARGE MULTINATIONAL PROJECT • US construction company won a contract to design and build the first cooper mine in northern Argentina. • There was no existing infrastructure for either the mining industry or large construction projects in this part of South America. Adrienne Watt (2014): Project Management. BC Campus Open Textbook. URL: http://opentextbc.ca/projectmanagement/
  30. 30. 30 [Insert your logo here] This example will give you a better understanding of project management life cycle • INITIATION – defining and finding objectives and a project leadership team to manage a large complex project in a remote area of a globe  three offices, procedures for getting work done, acquiring the appropriate permits, developing relationships. • PLANNING – project team developed an integrated project schedule that coordinated the activities of design, procurement and construction teams  detailed budget, design, equipment, materials, construction schedule, labour projections. • EXECUTING – project team accomplished the work defined in the plan and made adjustments when the projects factors changed  deliver of equipment and materials, labour was hired and trained, a construction site was built, all contraction activities were accomplished. • CONTROLLING – project team measured and monitored progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives. • CLOSURE – turning over the newly constructed plant to the operations team of the client  accounting books were closed, final reports written and distributed, the project was evaluated.
  31. 31. 31 [Insert your logo here] In this course you will be introduced to project managementlife cycle By the end of this session you should be able: • to have an understanding of the context on which projects are performed; • to have an awareness of project management processes; • to have an understanding how project management process interact with each other; • to have an awareness of which activities each process group include.
  32. 32. 32 [Insert your logo here] Table of contents • PROJECT MANAGEMENT context1 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT processes2 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT processes interaction 3 • PROJECT initiation 4 • PROJECT planning 5 • PROJECT execution 6 • PROJECT controlling 7 • PROJECT closing 8 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT examples9 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT books10
  33. 33. “For a project plan to be effective it must equally address the parameters of ‘activity time’ and ‘activity logic’. This logical relationship is required to model the effect schedule variance will have down stream in the project.” Ruby Burke Project Management Professional, Author, Consultant, Lecturer in PM
  34. 34. 34 [Insert your logo here] The context on which projects are performed, conceptually illustrated by the following figure Project Boundaries Project Inputs Project Initiator/ Sponsor Project Deliverables Project Records End Users Process Assets Planning Processes Executing Processes Initiating Processes Closing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 37
  35. 35. 35 [Insert your logo here] The context on which projects are performed, conceptually illustrated by the following figure This figure illustrates the project context, its conceptual boundaries, or scope lines, as well as the process groups required to manage the inputs and deliver the outputs. Project Boundaries Project Inputs Project Initiator/ Sponsor Project Deliverables Project Records End Users Process Assets Planning Processes Executing Processes Initiating Processes Closing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 37
  36. 36. 36 [Insert your logo here] Projects are composed of processes • A process is a series of actions bringing about a result. • Project management processes can be organized into five groups of one or more processes each: • Initiating processes • Planning processes • Executing processes • Controlling processes • Closing processes
  37. 37. 37 [Insert your logo here] The project management process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing • Project Initiation: everything that is needed to set-up the project before work can start. • Project Planning: detailed plan of how the work will be carried out including time, sot and resource estimates. • Project Execution: doing the work to deliver the product, service or desired outcome. • Project Control: ensuring that a project stays on track and taking corrective action to ensure it does. • Project Closure: formal acceptance of the deliverables and disbanding of all the elements that were required to run the project.
  38. 38. 38 [Insert your logo here] The project management process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing • Initiating defines and authorizes the project or a project phase. • Planning defines and refines objectives and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address. • Executing integrates people and other resources to carry out the plan. • Controlling regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives. • Closing formalizes acceptance of the product, service, or result and brings the project or a project phase to an a orderly end. There is one more phase at the beginning the project management process, which is not illustrated in the figure (slide 10): • Project Definition: defining the goals, objectives and critical success factors for the project
  39. 39. 39 [Insert your logo here] The process groups are linked by the results they produce • The result or outcome of one process group often becomes an input to another. • Among the central process groups the links are iterated. • Planning provides executing with a documented project plan early on, and then provides documented updates to the plan as the project processes. • These connections are illustrated by the following figure (arrows represent flow of information). Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 31
  40. 40. 40 [Insert your logo here] The project management process groups are not discrete, one time events • The project management process groups are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the project. • The following figure illustrates the relative depth, breadth, and interrelationship between these process groups. LevelofProcessInteraction Start Finish TIME Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 31
  41. 41. 41 [Insert your logo here] Several significant observations regarding the nature of project management can be made from this figure The breadth or range of project management is comprehensive – that is, it begins with initiating and continues through closing; these processes are coincident with the start and end of the specific project itself, respectively. Controlling occur throughout the duration of the project and have a range relatively similar to that of executing. Indicating a project´s temporary nature and the importance of the timing of the deliverable, closing begins relatively shortly after initiating concludes. Planning and controlling have a collective depth similar to that of executing, illustrating that these activities require a level of effort and have a implication similar to that of constructing the product, providing the service, or producing the result. LevelofProcessInteraction Start Finish TIME Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 31
  42. 42. 42 [Insert your logo here] Within each process group, the individual processes are linked by their inputs and outputs • Inputs – documents or documentable items that will be acted upon. • Tools and techniques – mechanisms applied to the inputs to create the outputs. • Outputs – documents and or documentable items that are a result of the process.
  43. 43. 43 [Insert your logo here] Project Initiation ensures a successful projects start-up and gives a solid head start to achieving the projects objectives • Initiation – authorizing the project or phase. • Project initiation brings together: • Key foundational documents to define the project; • Business concurrence for the project; • Project sponsorship; • On-going project governance. Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes
  44. 44. 44 [Insert your logo here] Project Planning is an ongoing effort throughout the life of project • Planning defines and refines objectives and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address. • There are more processes in this section. • However, the project management is not primarily planning. • The amount of planning performed should be commensurate with the scope of the project and the usefulness of the information developed. Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes
  45. 45. 45 [Insert your logo here] Planning processes are divided into core processes and facilitating processes Core processes: • Some planning processes have clear dependencies that require them to be performed in essentially the same order on most projects (e.g. activities must be defined before they can be scheduled or costed) • These core planning processes may be iterated several times during any one phase of a project. Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes
  46. 46. 46 [Insert your logo here] Planning processes are divided into core processes and facilitating processes Core processes: • Some planning processes have clear dependencies that require them to be performed in essentially the same order on most projects (e.g. activities must be defined before they can be scheduled or costed) • These core planning processes may be iterated several times during any one phase of a project. They include for example: • Scope definition and planning • Activity definition, sequencing and duration Estimating • Schedule development • Risk management planning • Resource planning • Cost estimating and budgeting • Project plan development
  47. 47. 47 [Insert your logo here] Planning processes are divided into core processes and facilitating processes Facilitating processes: • Interactions among the other planning processes are more dependent on the nature of the project (e.g. there may be a little risk until after most of planning has been done - then team recognizes considerable risks). • Facilitating processes are performed intermittently and as needed during project planning, they are not optional. Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes
  48. 48. 48 [Insert your logo here] Planning processes are divided into core processes and facilitating processes Facilitating processes: • Interactions among the other planning processes are more dependent on the nature of the project (e.g. there may be a little risk until after most of planning has been done - then team recognizes considerable risks). • Facilitating processes are performed intermittently and as needed during project planning, they are not optional. They include for example: • Quality planning • Organizational planning • Staff acquisition • Communications planning • Qualitative and quantitative risk analysis • Risk response planning • Procurement planning
  49. 49. 49 [Insert your logo here] Project Execution builds the physical project deliverables and presents them to customer for signoff • This phase is usually the longest phase in project life cycle and typically consumes the most energy and the most resources. • Executing integrates people and other resources to carry out the plan. Includes for example: • Project plan execution • Quality assurance • Team development • Information distribution • Solicitation • Contract administration Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes
  50. 50. 50 [Insert your logo here] Project Controlling oversees all the tasks necessary to ensure that the project proceeds with minimal risk • Controlling regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives. • Controlling also includes taking preventive action in anticipation of possible problems. • These variances are fed into the control processes in the various knowledge areas. Includes for example: • Change control • Scope verification and change control • Schedule control • Cost control • Quality control • Performance reporting • Risk control
  51. 51. 51 [Insert your logo here] Project Closing represents the final stage of a project • Closing formalizes acceptance of the product, service, or result and brings the project or a project phase to an a orderly end. • Involves: • Handing deliverables to customer • Passing the documentation to the business • Cancelling supplier contracts • Releasing staff and equipment • Informing stakeholders of the closure of the project • Identifying the projects success and the lessons learned Initiating Processes Planning Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes Closing Processes
  52. 52. “Planning without action is futile, action without planning as a fatal.” Cornelius Fitchner Project Management Professional, Chair of the Project Management Institute Orange County Chapter
  53. 53. 53 [Insert your logo here] Project Management books • Project Management Institute (2013): A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Pennsylvania: New York: Project Mgmt Inst. • Stephen Barker, Rob Cole (2012): Brilliant Project Management: What the Best Project Managers Know, Do, and Say, 3rd Edition. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson. • Eric Verzuh (2012): The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Terry Schmidt (2009): Strategic Project Management Made Simple – Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Harold Kerzner (2013): Project Management: a Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 11th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Scott Berkun (2008): Making Things Happen: mastering Project Management. Sebastopol: O´Reilly Media Inc.
  54. 54. 54 [Insert your logo here] Key Takeaways • Project management processes can be organized into five groups: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, closing processes. • The process groups are linked by the results they produce. Within each process group, the individual processes are linked by their inputs and outputs. • The project management process groups are not discrete, one time events. • Initiation – authorizing the project or phase. • Planning defines and refines objectives and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address. • Project Execution builds the physical project deliverables and presents them to customer for signoff. • Project Controlling oversees all the tasks necessary to ensure that the project proceeds with minimal risk. • Closing formalizes acceptance of the product, service, or result and brings the project or a project phase to an a orderly end.
  55. 55. 55 [Insert your logo here] THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  56. 56. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT Module: Project Management in Media, Arts & Entertainment Lecturer: Thorsten Kliewe Date: PRESENTATION SUPPORTED BY [Insert your logo here]
  57. 57. 57 [Insert your logo here] In this course you will be introduced to project integration management By the end of this session you should be able: • to have an understanding of what project integration management is; • to have an awareness of which activities are performed; • to understand which processes are required for project integration management; • to understand what project management plan is and how to create it.
  58. 58. 58 [Insert your logo here] Table of contents • PROJECT integration management1 • PROJECT plan2 • PROJECT plan development3 • PROJECT plan execution4 • Integrated PROJECT change control5 • PROJECT documents6 • PROJECT examples7 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT books8
  59. 59. “Why do so many professionals say they are project managing, when what they are actually doing is fire fighting?” Colin Bentley Project Management Professional, One of the Authors of PRINCE2
  60. 60. 60 [Insert your logo here] Project Integration Management includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are coordinated • It involves making trade-offs among competing objectives and alternatives to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations. • The processes involved in Integration Management are primarily integrative: • Project Plan Development • Project Plan Execution • Integrated Change Control • These processes interact with each other and with other processes in the other knowledge areas of the project management.
  61. 61. 61 [Insert your logo here] Aproject management plan is a fundamental tool for the project manager to deliver the project successfully • A project plan is a strategic and formalized roadmap to accomplish the project´s objectives by describing how the project is to be executed, monitored and controlled. • A project plan will vary based on size, complexity, risk, and/or sensitivity of the project. • Implementing the project plan requires competency in all of the project management knowledge areas and is critical to the success of the project.
  62. 62. 62 [Insert your logo here] Aproject management plan is a fundamental tool for the project manager to deliver the project successfully The project plan is used to: • Guide project execution • Document project planning assumptions • Document project planning decisions regarding alternatives chosen • Facilitate communication among stakeholders • Define key management reviews as to content, extent and timing • Provide a baseline for progress measurement and project control
  63. 63. 63 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Development – integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document INPUTS • Other planning outputs • Historical information • Organizational policies • Constraints • Assumptions TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Project planning methodology • Stakeholder skills and knowledge • Project management information system (PMIS) • Earned value management (EVM) OUTPUTS • Project plan • Supporting detail
  64. 64. 64 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Development – Inputs • Other planning outputs. All of the outputs of the planning processes in the other knowledge areas are inputs to developing the project plan. • Historical information. The available historical information such as estimating databases, records of past project performance should have been consulted during the other project planning processes. • Organizational policies. Any and all of the organizations involved in the project may have formal and informal policies whose effects must be considered. • Constraint is an applicable restriction that will affect the performance of the project. • Assumptions - are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain. They affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the progressive elaboration of the project.
  65. 65. 65 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Development – Tools and Techniques • Project planning methodology is any structured approach used to guide the project team during development of the project plan (e.g. PRINCE2, see the lecture PRINCE2). • Project management information system (PMIS) consists of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management. A PMIS is typically one or more software applications and a methodical process for collecting and using project information (e.g. SharePoint, in- STEP Blue, MS Project etc.) • Stakeholder skills and knowledge. Every stakeholder has skills and knowledge that may be useful in developing the project plan. The project management team must create an environment in which the stakeholders can contribute appropriately. • Earned value management (EVM) is a technique used to integrate the project´s schedule and budget and to measure and report project performance from initiation to closeout.
  66. 66. 66 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Development – Outputs Project plan commonly includes: • Project charter • A description of the project management approach or strategy • Scope statement with project objectives and deliverables • Work breakdown structure • Cost estimates, schedule, responsibility assignments • Major milestones and target dates • Key or required staff • Risk management plan • Open issues and pending decisions Supporting detail for project plan includes: • Outputs from other planning processes that are not included • Technical information • Documentation of relevant standards • Specifications from early project developments planning
  67. 67. 67 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Execution – carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein INPUTS • Project plan • Supporting detail • Organizational policies • Preventive action • Corrective action TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • General management skills • Product skills and knowledge • Work authorization system • Status review meetings • Project management information system • Organizational procedures OUTPUTS • Work results • Change requests
  68. 68. 68 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Execution – Inputs • Project plan – the formal, approved document used to manage project execution. • Supporting details – additional information for the project plan. • Organizational policies. Any and all of the organizations involved in the project may have formal and informal policies whose effects must be considered. • Preventive action is anything that reduces the probability of potential consequences. • Corrective action is anything done to bring expected future project performance in line with the project plan.
  69. 69. 69 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Execution – Tools andTechniques • General management skills such as leadership, communicating, and negotiating are essential to effective project plan execution. • Product skills and knowledge. The project team must have access to an appropriate set of skills and knowledge about the project´s product. • Work authorization system is a formal procedure for sanctioning project work to ensure that the work is done at the right time and in the proper sequence. The primary is typically written authorization to begin on a specific activity or work package. • Status review meetings are regularly scheduled meetings held to exchange information about the project. • Project management information system (PMIS) consists of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management. • Organizational procedures. Any and all of the organizations involved in the project may have formal and informal procedures that are useful during project execution.
  70. 70. 70 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Execution – Outputs • Work results are outcomes of the activities performed to accomplish the project. Information on work results is collected as part of project plan execution and fed into the performance reporting process. • Change requests are often identified while the work of the project is being done (e.g. to modify cost, or schedule estimates, etc.).
  71. 71. 71 [Insert your logo here] Integrated Change Control – coordinating changes across the entire project INPUTS • Project plan • Performance reports • Change requests TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Change control system • Configuration management • Performance measurement • Additional planning • Project management information system OUTPUTS • Project plan updates • Corrective actions • Lessons learned
  72. 72. 72 [Insert your logo here] Integrated Change Control – Inputs • Project plan provides the baseline against which changes will be controlled. • Performance reports provide information on project performance. They also alert the project team to issues that may cause problems in the future. • Change requests occur in many forms – oral or written, direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, legally mandated or optional, etc.
  73. 73. 73 [Insert your logo here] Integrated Change Control – Tools and Techniques • Change control system is a collection of formal, documented procedures that defines how project performance will be monitored, evaluated, and changed. Change control systems can include people responsible for approving or rejecting proposed changes. • Configuration management is subset of the change management control system and is used to ensure that the description of the project´s product is correct and complete. • Performance measurement help to assess whether variances from the plan require corrective actions. • Additional planning. Projects seldom run exactly according to plan. Some changes may require additional planning. • Project management information system (PMIS) consists of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management.
  74. 74. 74 [Insert your logo here] Project Plan Execution – Outputs • Project plan updates are any modification to the content of the project plan or the supporting detail. • Corrective action is anything done to bring expected future project performance in line with the project plan. • Lessons learned should be documented so that they become part of the historical database.
  75. 75. 75 [Insert your logo here] Project documentation is used to define the way we manage projects and the governance surrounding them Examples: • Activity attributes • Activity cost estimates • Activity list • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Charter • Contracts • Duration estimates • Forecasts • Milestone list • Performance report • Project funding requirements • Proposals • Procurement documents • Project organization structure • Quality control measurements • Quality checklists • Quality metrics • Resource breakdown structure • Resource requirements • Risk register • Roles and responsibilities • Stakeholder management strategy • Teaming agreements • Team performance assessment etc.
  76. 76. “Project management can be defined as a way of developing structure in a complex project, where the independent variables of time, cost, resources and human behaviour come together.” Ruby Burke Project Management Professional, Author, Consultant, Lecturer in PM
  77. 77. 77 [Insert your logo here] Project Management books • Project Management Institute (2013): A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Pennsylvania: New York: Project Mgmt Inst. • Stephen Barker, Rob Cole (2012): Brilliant Project Management: What the Best Project Managers Know, Do, and Say, 3rd Edition. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson. • Eric Verzuh (2012): The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Terry Schmidt (2009): Strategic Project Management Made Simple – Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Harold Kerzner (2013): Project Management: a Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 11th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Scott Berkun (2008): Making Things Happen: mastering Project Management. Sebastopol: O´Reilly Media Inc.
  78. 78. 78 [Insert your logo here] Key Takeaways • Project Integration Management includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are coordinated. • The processes involved in Integration Management are: Project Plan Development, Project Plan Execution, Integrated Change Control. • A project plan is a strategic and formalized roadmap to accomplish the project´s objectives by describing how the project is to be executed, monitored and controlled. • Project Plan Development – integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document. • Project Plan Execution – carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein. • Integrated Change Control – coordinating changes across the entire project. • Project documentation is used to define the way we manage projects and the governance surrounding them.
  79. 79. 79 [Insert your logo here] THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  80. 80. PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Module: Project Management in Media, Arts & Entertainment Lecturer: Thorsten Kliewe Date: PRESENTATION SUPPORTED BY [Insert your logo here]
  81. 81. 81 [Insert your logo here] In this course you will be introduced to project time management By the end of this session you should be able: • to have an understanding of what project time management is; • to have an awareness of which activities are performed; • to understand which processes are required for project time management; • to have an awareness of which tools can be used for project time management.
  82. 82. 82 [Insert your logo here] Table of Contents • PROJECT time management1 • ACTIVITY definition 2 • ACTIVITY sequencing 3 • ACTIVITY duration estimating4 • SCHEDULE development 5 • SCHEDULE control 6 • PROJECT examples 7 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT books8
  83. 83. “A plan is what, a schedule is when. It takes both a plan and a schedule to get things done.” Peter Turla Time-management Expert, President of the National Management Institute
  84. 84. 84 [Insert your logo here] ProjectTime Management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project • It involves determining the delivery dates and milestones whilst taking all of the known constraints into account. • The processes involved in Time Management are: • Define activities • Sequence activities • Estimate activity durations • Develop schedule • Control schedule • These processes interact with each other and with processes in the other knowledge areas.
  85. 85. 85 [Insert your logo here] ProjectTime Management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project Process Project Group Key Deliverables Define activities Planning Activity list Activity attributes Sequence activities Project schedule network diagrams Estimate activity duration Activity duration estimates Develop schedule Schedule baseline project schedule Control schedule Monitoring and controlling Work performance information Schedule forecasts
  86. 86. 86 [Insert your logo here] Time management planning should be carried out with the input of the project team that is going to actually do the work • Time management planning should be carried out with the input of the project team that is going to actually do the work. • This ensure that sequencing and activity duration estimates are realistic. Project Time Management Determine Delivery Dates Define Milestones
  87. 87. 87 [Insert your logo here] Activity Definition – identifying the specific tasks needed to be done in order to produce the project´s deliverables Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Work breakdown structure • Scope statement • Historical information • Constraints • Assumptions • Expert judgements TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Decompositions • Templates OUTPUTS • Activity list • Supporting detail • Work breakdown structure updates
  88. 88. 88 [Insert your logo here] Activity Definition – Inputs • Work breakdown structure defines each deliverable and the decomposition of the deliverable into work packages. • Scope statement includes the products scope description of the project deliverables and defines the product user acceptance criteria. • Historical information – activities which were required on previous, similar projects. • Constraints – factors that will limit the project managements team´s options. • Assumptions – are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain. • Expert judgement is required to assess the inputs to this process. Such expertise may be provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training.
  89. 89. 89 [Insert your logo here] Activity Definition – Tools andTechniques • Decomposition – in order to produce activity list it is necessary to divide work packages into smaller. Decomposition produce more manageable components to provide better management control. • Work package is the lowest level of the work breakdown structure and is defined as the effort required to produce a deliverable within a project. • Templates. An activity list from pervious project is often usable as a template for a new project. Work Packages – deliverable product based on Scope Activities – work that needs to be done to complete a work package
  90. 90. 90 [Insert your logo here] Activity Definition – Outputs • Activity list includes all activities that will be performed on the project. It should be organized as an extension to the Work Breakdown Structure to help ensure that it is complete. • Supporting detail for the activity list should be documented and organized as needed to facilitate its use by other project management processes. • Work breakdown structure updates. Any such updates must be reflected in work breakdown structure.
  91. 91. 91 [Insert your logo here] Activity Sequencing– sequencing activities according their dependencies, identifying and documenting logical relationships Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Activity list • Product description • Mandatory dependencies • Discretionary dependencies • External dependencies • Milestones TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Precedence diagramming method • Arrow diagramming method • Network templates OUTPUTS • Project network diagrams • Activity list updates
  92. 92. 92 [Insert your logo here] Activity Sequencing– Inputs • Activity list includes all activities that will be performed on the project. It should be organized as an extension to the Work Breakdown Structure to help ensure that it is complete. • Product description. Product characteristics often affect activity sequencing. • Milestones are significant points or events in the project. • Dependencies (mandatory, discretionary, external)  …
  93. 93. 93 [Insert your logo here] Mandatory, discretionary, external are dependencies used to define the sequence among the activities Category Dependency Explanation Example Mandatory vs. Discretionary Mandatory (hard logic) Involves physical limitations; contractual or legal obligations When constructing a new building, building the walls is dependent on laying the foundations Discretionary (soft logic) Based on knowledge best practices or preference A – furnish room 1; B – furnish room 2 (A can be before B, B can be before A, A and B can be independently performed) External vs. Internal External Outside of project team's control. Based on relationship of project activities outside project Testing activity in a software project can be dependent on the delivery of hardware from an external source Internal Within project team´s control. Based on relationship between project activities A – Questionnaire (draft); B - Questionnaire (translation)
  94. 94. 94 [Insert your logo here] Activity Sequencing– Tools and Techniques • Precedence diagramming method (PDM) is a method of constructing a project network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles to represent the activities and connects them with arrows that show the dependencies. • Arrow diagramming method uses arrows to represent the activities and connects them at nodes to show their dependencies. • Network templates can be used to expedite the preparation of project network diagrams. They can include an entire project or only a portion of it. Start A ED Finish CB F Start Finish A B C F E D
  95. 95. 95 [Insert your logo here] Activity Sequencing– Outputs • Project networks diagrams are schematic displays of the project´s activities and the logical relationships (dependencies) among them (see slide 16). • Activity list updates. Project network diagrams may reveal instances where an activity must be divided or otherwise redefined to diagram to correct logical relationships.
  96. 96. 96 [Insert your logo here] Activity Duration Estimating – taking information on project scope and resources and developing durations for input to schedule Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Activity list • Constraints • Assumptions • Resource requirements • Resource capabilities • Historical information • Identified risks TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Expert judgement • Analogues estimating • Quantitatively based durations • Reserve time OUTPUTS • Activity durations estimates • Basis of estimates • Activity list updates
  97. 97. 97 [Insert your logo here] Activity Duration Estimates – Inputs • Activity list is a documented tabulation which includes all activities that will be performed on the project. • Constraints – factors that will limit the project managements team´s options (imposed dates or key events and milestones). • Assumptions – are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain. • Resource capabilities. The duration of most activities will be influenced by the capabilities of the people and material resources assigned to them. • Resource requirements. The duration of most activities will be influenced by the resources assigned to them. • Historical information. Activities that were required on previous, similar projects may have information on durations of them. • Identified risks. The project team considers information on identified risks when producing estimates of activity durations, since risks can have an influence on duration.
  98. 98. 98 [Insert your logo here] Activity Duration Estimates – Tools and Techniques • Expert judgement. Durations are often difficult to estimate because of the number of factors that influence them. Expert judgement is required to assess the inputs to this process. • Analogous estimating means using the actual duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the duration of a future one. • Reserve time. Projects teams may choose to incorporate an additional time frame (contingency reserve, time buffer, etc.) that should be added to the activity duration as recognition of schedule risk. • Quantitatively based durations. The quantities to be performed for each specific work category (e.g. number of drawings) defined by the engineering/design effort, when multiplied by the productivity unit rate (e.g. hours per drawing) can be used to estimate activity durations.
  99. 99. 99 [Insert your logo here] Activity Duration Estimates – Outputs • Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. • Basis of estimates. Assumptions made in developing the estimates must be documented. • Activity list updates include activity attributes and assumptions made in developing the activity duration estimates.
  100. 100. 10 0 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Development – determining start and finish dates for project activities Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Project network diagrams • Activity duration estimates • Resource requirements • Calendars • Constraints • Assumptions • Risk management plan TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Schedule network analysis • Critical path analysis • Schedule compression OUTPUTS • Project schedule • Supporting detail • Schedule management • Resource requirements updates
  101. 101. 10 1 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Development – Inputs • Project networks diagrams are schematic displays of the project´s activities and the logical relationships (dependencies) among them (see slide 16). • Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. • Resource requirements. The duration of most activities will be influenced by the resources assigned to them. • Calendars. Project and resource calendars identify when work is allowed. A five-day workweek is an example of calendar usage. • Constraints – factors that will limit the project managements team´s options (imposed dates or key events and milestones). • Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain. • Risk management plan describes how risk identification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, response planning, monitoring, and control will be structured and performed during the project life cycle.
  102. 102. 10 2 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Development – Tools and Techniques • Schedule network analysis – graphic representation of the project´s activities, the time it takes to complete them, and the sequence in which they must be done. Project management software is typically used to create Gannt and PERT charts. • Critical Path Analysis – process of looking at all of the activities that must be completed, and calculating the “best line” – or critical path – to take so that you´ll complete the project in the minimum amount of time. • Schedule compression helps shorten the total duration of a project by decreasing the time allotted for certain activities. It's done so that you can meet time constraints, and still keep the original scope of the project. Two methods: • Crashing – this is where you assign more resources to an activity, thus decreasing the time it takes to complete it. • Fast-tracking – this involves rearranging activities to allow more parallel work.
  103. 103. 10 3 [Insert your logo here] AGantt chart is one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time Gantt charts: • assess how long a project should take, • determine the resources needed, • plan the order in which tasks should be completed • manage the dependencies between tasks. URL: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_03.htm
  104. 104. 10 4 [Insert your logo here] APERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project A PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events, or milestones in the project linked by labelled vectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project. The direction of the arrows on the lines indicates the sequence of tasks. URL: http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/definition/PERT-chart
  105. 105. 10 5 [Insert your logo here] The critical path is defined as the series of activities that have zero float The essential technique is to construct a model of the project that includes the following: • A list of all activities required to complete the project. • The time that each activity will take to completion. • The dependencies between the activities Using this information, critical path analysis calculates: • The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project. • The earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer.
  106. 106. 10 6 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Development – Outputs • Project schedule includes at least planned start and expected finish dates for each activity. May be represented in summary form or in detail, usually graphically using one of the following formats: • Project network diagrams • Bar charts • Milestone charts • Supporting detail for the project schedule includes documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. • Schedule management plan defines how changes to the schedule will be managed. • Resource requirements updates may have a significant effect on preliminary estimates of resource requirements.
  107. 107. 10 7 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Control – monitoring the status of and managing changes to the schedule baseline Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Project schedule • Performance reports • Change requests • Schedule management plan TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Schedule change control system • Performance measurement • Additional planning • Project management software • Variance analysis OUTPUTS • Schedule updates • Corrective action • Lessons learned
  108. 108. 10 8 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Control – Inputs • Project schedule, called schedule baseline, provides the basis for measuring and reporting schedule performance. • Performance reports provide information on schedule performance, such as which planned dates have been met and which have not. • Change requests may require extending the schedule or may allow accelerating it. • Schedule management plan defines how changes to the schedule will be managed.
  109. 109. 10 9 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Control – Tools and Techniques • Schedule change control system defines the procedures by which the project schedule may be changed. • Performance measurement helps to assess the magnitude of any variations that do occur. Optimal performance is sustainably achieving multiple, often conflicting, objectives under changing conditions. • Additional planning. Prospective changes may require new or revised activity duration estimates, modified activity sequences. • Project management software is widely assist with schedule development (SAP, in- STEP Blue, etc.). • Variance analysis. Comparing target dates with the actual/forecast start and finish dates provides useful information for the detection of deviations and for implementing of corrective solutions in case of delays.
  110. 110. 11 0 [Insert your logo here] Schedule Control – Outputs • Schedule updates – any modifications to the schedule information that is used to manage the project. Revisions are changes to the schedule start and finish dates in the approved project schedule. • Corrective actions is anything done to bring expected future schedule performance in line with the project plan. • Lessons learned. The causes of variances, the reasoning behind the corrective action chosen should be documented, so that they become part of historical database.
  111. 111. “Time management is an oxymoron. Time is beyond our control, and the clock keeps ticking regardless of how we lead our lives. Priority management is the answer to maximizing the time we have.” John C. Maxwell Leadership Expert, Speaker, Author
  112. 112. 11 2 [Insert your logo here] Project Management books • Project Management Institute (2013): A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Pennsylvania: New York: Project Mgmt Inst. • Stephen Barker, Rob Cole (2012): Brilliant Project Management: What the Best Project Managers Know, Do, and Say, 3rd Edition. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson. • Eric Verzuh (2012): The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Terry Schmidt (2009): Strategic Project Management Made Simple – Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Harold Kerzner (2013): Project Management: a Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 11th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Scott Berkun (2008): Making Things Happen: mastering Project Management. Sebastopol: O´Reilly Media Inc.
  113. 113. 11 3 [Insert your logo here] Key Takeaways • Project Time Management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. • Time management planning should be carried out with the input of the project team that is going to actually do the work. • The processes involved in Time Management are define activities, sequence activities, estimate activity durations, develop schedule, control schedule. • Activity Definition – identifying the specific tasks needed to be done in order to produce the project´s deliverables. • Activity Sequencing – sequencing activities according their dependencies, identifying and documenting logical relationships. • Activity Duration Estimating – taking information on project scope and resources and developing durations for input to schedule. • Schedule Development – determining start and finish dates for project activities. • Schedule Control – monitoring the status of and managing changes to the schedule baseline.
  114. 114. 11 4 [Insert your logo here] THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  115. 115. PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Module: Project Management in Media, Arts & Entertainment Lecturer: Thorsten Kliewe Date: PRESENTATION SUPPORTED BY [Insert your logo here]
  116. 116. 11 6 [Insert your logo here] In this course you will be introduced to project quality management By the end of this session you should be able: • to have an understanding of what quality is; • to understand what project quality management is; • to have an awareness of processes involved; • to understand how to use tools and techniques required for each of processes.
  117. 117. 11 7 [Insert your logo here] Table of Contents • What is QUALITY? 1 • What is project QUALITY management?2 • QUALITY planning 3 • QUALITY assurance 4 • QUALITY control 5 • PROJECT examples 6 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT books7
  118. 118. “Quality in a service or product is not what you put into it. It is what the client or customer gets out of it.” Peter Drucker American management consultant, Professor, and Author
  119. 119. 11 9 [Insert your logo here] Quality means the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs • According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), quality is “the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.” • The requirements of a product or process can be categorized or given a grade that will provide a basis for comparison. • The quality is determined by how well something meets the requirements of its grade.
  120. 120. 12 0 [Insert your logo here] Project quality management is all of the processes and activities needed to determine and achieve project quality • Project Quality includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. • The processes involved are: • Quality Planning • Quality Assurance • Quality Control • These processes interact with each other and with processes in the other knowledge areas.
  121. 121. 12 1 [Insert your logo here] Quality Planning – identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Quality policy • Scope statement • Product description • Standards and regulations • Other process outputs TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Benefit/cost analysis • Benchmarking • Flow-charting • Design of experiments • Cost of quality OUTPUTS • Quality management plan • Operational definitions • Checklists • Inputs to other processes
  122. 122. 12 2 [Insert your logo here] Quality Planning – Inputs • Quality policy is the overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard to quality, as formally expressed by top management. The quality policy of the performing organization can be adopted “as it” for use by the project. • Scope statement is key input to quality planning since it documents major projects deliverables, as well as the project objectives that serve to define important stakeholder requirements. • Product description will often obtain details of technical issues and other concerns that may affect quality planning. • Standards and regulations. The project management team must consider any application area-specific standards or regulations that may affect the project. • Other process outputs. In addition to the scope statement and product description, processes in other knowledge areas may produce outputs that should be considered as part of quality planning.
  123. 123. 12 3 [Insert your logo here] Quality Planning – Tools and Techniques • Benefit/cost analysis. The primary benefit of meeting quality requirements is less rework, which means higher productivity, lower costs, and increased stakeholder satisfaction. • Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects to generate ideas for improvement and to provide a standard by which to measure a performance. • Flow chart is any diagram that shows how various elements of a system relate. Flowcharting techniques commonly used in quality management include: • Cause-effect diagrams • System or process flow charts • Design of experiments is a structured, planned method, which is used to find the relationship between different factors that affect a project and the different outcomes of the project. • Cost of quality refers to the total cost of all efforts to achieve product or service quality, and includes all work to ensure conformance to requirements, as well as all work resulting from non-conformance to requirements: • Prevention costs • Appraisal costs • Failure costs
  124. 124. 12 4 [Insert your logo here] Cost-benefit analyses are performed when there is a change that is pending to ensure the benefits from changes outweigh the costs • A cost-benefit analysis is a study to determine the relationships between the benefits and the costs of changes to processes, policies and procedures. • The costs should be stated in financial units. How to use? Step 1: determine all costs associated with the processes affected by a proposed change. Step 2: have these costs validated by accounting staff or by the appropriate financial group. Step 3: identify the changes to the processes and calculate the costs to execute the new process going forward. Step 4: determine the costs of implementing the changes to the process. Step 5: calculate the benefits projected from making these changes. Step 6: determine the cost-benefit ratio: divide the total of the projected benefits by the total costs. A higher the ratio of benefits to costs indicates a positive change. Step 7: communicate to management to obtain approval and implement the changes. Step 8: periodically assess and calculate whether the benefits and costs forecasted were realized and recalculate the cost-benefit analysis.
  125. 125. 12 5 [Insert your logo here] System or process flow charts show how various elements of a system interrelate • The main reason of using process flowchart is to show the sequential order of the separate steps of the process. • Procedures may be an acceptable way to document processes provided they describe inputs and outputs, appropriate responsibilities, controls and resources needed to satisfy project requirements. Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Project Management Institute, 2013, p. 100 Sample Process Flowchart
  126. 126. 12 6 [Insert your logo here] Cause-and-effect Diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories 1. Agree on a problem statement. 2. Brainstorm major categories of causes of the problem. 3. Brainstorm all the possible (primary) causes of the problem (they can relate to major categories). 4. Brainstorm secondary causes branching off the causes. 5. Focus on areas where ideas are few. Equipment Process People Effect Materials Environment Management Primary Cause Secondary Cause
  127. 127. 12 7 [Insert your logo here] Design of experiments allows for multiple input to ne manipulated determining their effect on a desired output (response) Use design of experiment when more than one input factor is suspected of influencing an output. How to use? • Acquire a full understanding of the inputs and outputs being investigated. A process flow diagram or process map can be helpful. • Determine the appropriate measure for the output. A variable measure is preferable. • An experimental plan is produced which tells the experimenter where to set each test parameter for each run of the test • The response is then measured for each run. • The method of analysis is to look for differences between response (output) readings for different groups of the input changes. • These differences are then attributed to the input variables acting alone (called a single effect) or in combination with another input variable (called an interaction). Design of experiment PDCA: • PLAN – form a hypothesis and create an experimental design. • DO – test the hypothesis. • CHECK – verify the replicability of the experiment. • ACT – make this proven hypothesis a part of standard.
  128. 128. 12 8 [Insert your logo here] Quality Planning – Outputs • Quality management plan should describe how the project management team will implement its quality policy. It provides input to the overall project plan, and must address quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement for the project. • Operational definitions describe, what something is and how it is measured by the quality control process (e.g. it is enough to say that meeting the planned schedule dates is a measure of management quality; it is also must be indicated whether every activity must start and finish on time, whether individual activities will be measured, or only certain ones, etc.). • Checklist is a structured tool, usually item specific, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed. Many organizations have standardized checklists available to ensure consistency in frequently performed tasks. • Inputs to other processes. The quality planning process may identify a need for further activity in another area.
  129. 129. 12 9 [Insert your logo here] QualityAssurance – evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Quality management plan • Results of quality control measurements • Operational definitions TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Quality planning tools and techniques • Quality audits OUTPUTS • Quality improvement
  130. 130. 13 0 [Insert your logo here] QualityAssurance – Inputs • Quality management plan should describe how the project management team will implement its quality policy. It provides input to the overall project plan, and must address quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement for the project. • Results of quality measurements are records of quality control testing and measurement in a format for comparison and analysis . • Operational definitions describe, what something is and how it is measured by the quality control process.
  131. 131. 13 1 [Insert your logo here] QualityAssurance – Tools and Techniques • Quality planning tools and techniques can be used for quality assurance as well: • Benefit/cost analysis • Benchmarking • Flow-charting • Design of experiments • Cost of quality • Quality audit is a structured review of other quality management activities. The objective is to identify lessons learned that can improve performance of this project or of other projects within the performing organization.
  132. 132. 13 2 [Insert your logo here] QualityAssurance – Outputs • Quality improvement includes taking action to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project to provide added benefits to the project stakeholders. In most cases, implementing quality improvements will require preparation to change requests or taking of corrective action.
  133. 133. 13 3 [Insert your logo here] Quality Control – monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactoryresults Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Work results • Quality management plan • Operational definitions • Checklists TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Inspection • Control charts • Pareto diagrams • Statistical sampling • Flow-charting • Trend analysis OUTPUTS • Quality improvement • Acceptance decisions • Rework • Completed checklists • Process adjustments
  134. 134. 13 4 [Insert your logo here] Quality Control – Inputs • Work results are the outcomes of the activities performed to accomplish project and include both process and product results . Information about the planned or expected results (from the project plan) should be available along with information about the actual results. • Quality management plan should describe how the project management team will implement its quality policy. It provides input to the overall project plan, and must address quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement for the project. • Operational definitions describe, what something is and how it is measured by the quality control. • Checklist is a structured tool, usually item specific, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed. Many organizations have standardized checklists available to ensure consistency in frequently performed tasks.
  135. 135. 13 5 [Insert your logo here] Quality Control – Tools and Techniques • Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and testing undertaken to determine whether results conform to requirements. Inspection may be conducted at any level. • Control charts are graphic display of the results, over time, of a process. They are used to determine if the process is “in control”. • Pareto diagram is a histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by type or category of identified cause. • Statistical sampling involves choosing part of population of interest of inspection (e.g. selecting 10 engineering drawings at random from a list of 80). • Flow chart shows how various elements of a system relate (cause-effect diagrams, system or process flow charts) and is used in quality control to help analyze how problems occur. • Trend analysis involves using mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical events.
  136. 136. 13 6 [Insert your logo here] Pareto chart is used to graphically summarize and display the relative importance of the differences between groups of data • Decide what categories you will use to group items; • Decide what measurement is appropriate. Common measurements are frequency, quantity, cost and time. • Decide what period of time the chart will cover. • Collect the data, recording the category each time. • Subtotal the measurements for each category. • Determine the appropriate scale for the measurements you have collected. • Construct and label bars for each category. Example shows how many customer complaints were received in each of five categories. Nancy R. Tague’s (2005): The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition. ASQ Quality Press, p. 376.
  137. 137. 13 7 [Insert your logo here] Quality Control – Outputs • Quality improvement includes taking action to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project to provide added benefits to the project stakeholders. • Acceptance decisions. The items inspected will be either accepted or rejected (may require rework). • Rework is action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming item into compliance with requirements or specifications . • Completed checklists. If checklists are used, the should become part of the project´s records. • Process adjustments involve immediate corrective or preventive action as a result of quality control measurements.
  138. 138. “Productivity and efficiency can be achieved only step by step with sustained hard work, relentless attention to details and insistence on the highest standards of quality and performance” Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata French-born Indian Aviator, Business Tycoon
  139. 139. 13 9 [Insert your logo here] Project Management books • Project Management Institute (2013): A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide, 5th Edition. Pennsylvania: New York: Project Mgmt Inst. • Stephen Barker, Rob Cole (2012): Brilliant Project Management: What the Best Project Managers Know, Do, and Say, 3rd Edition. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson. • Eric Verzuh (2012): The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Terry Schmidt (2009): Strategic Project Management Made Simple – Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Harold Kerzner (2013): Project Management: a Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 11th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Scott Berkun (2008): Making Things Happen: mastering Project Management. Sebastopol: O´Reilly Media Inc.
  140. 140. 14 0 [Insert your logo here] Key Takeaways • Quality means the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. • Project quality management is all of the processes and activities needed to determine and achieve project quality. • Project Quality includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken: Quality Planning, Quality Assurance, Quality Control. • Quality Planning – identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. • Quality Assurance – evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. • Quality Control – monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results.
  141. 141. 14 1 [Insert your logo here] THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  142. 142. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Module: Project Management in Media, Arts & Entertainment Lecturer: Thorsten Kliewe Date: PRESENTATION SUPPORTED BY [Insert your logo here]
  143. 143. 14 3 [Insert your logo here] In this course you will be introduced to project human resource management By the end of this session you should be able: • to have an understanding of what project human resource management is; • to understand which activities are performed; • to understand which processes are required for project human resource management; • to have an awareness of which tools can be used for project human resource management and how to use them.
  144. 144. 14 4 [Insert your logo here] Table of Contents • PROJECT human resource management1 • Organizational PLANNING 2 • STAKEHOLDER analysis 3 • STAFF acquisition 4 • TEAM development 5 • TUCKMAN´s model of group development6 • PROJECT examples 7 • PROJECT MANAGEMENT books8
  145. 145. “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.” Henry Ford American Industrialist, Founder of The Ford Motor Company
  146. 146. 14 6 [Insert your logo here] Project Human Resource Management includes the processes to make the most effective use of the people involved • The purpose of Project Human Resource Management is to ensure that the project has sufficient human resources, with the correct skill set and experience, for the project to be successfully completed. • The processes involved are: • Organizational Planning • Staff Acquisition • Team Development • These processes interact with each other and with processes in the other knowledge areas.
  147. 147. 14 7 [Insert your logo here] ProjectTime Management includes the processes to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project Process Project Group Key Deliverables Organizational Planning Planning Human Resource (HR) Plan Staff Acquisition Execution Project Staff Assignments Team Development Team Performance Assessments • Projects require specialized resources with the skills, competencies and experience to fill a variety of critical roles. • Some of the many topic include: • Leading, communicating, negotiating, and others; • Delegating, motivating, coaching, mentoring, and the other subjects related to dealing with individuals; • Team building, dealing with conflict, and other subjects related to dealing with groups; • Performance appraisal, recruitment, retention, labor relations, health and safety regulations, and other subjects related to administrating the human resource function.
  148. 148. 14 8 [Insert your logo here] Organizational Planning – identifying, documenting, assigning project roles, responsibilities, reporting relationships Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Project interfaces • Staffing requirements • Constraints TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Templates • Human resource practices • Organizational theory • Stakeholder analysis OUTPUTS • Role and responsibility assignments • Staffing management plan • Organizational chart • Supporting detail
  149. 149. 14 9 [Insert your logo here] Organizational Planning – Inputs • Project interfaces include: • Organizational interfaces – formal and informal reporting relationships among different organizational units; • Technical interfaces – formal and informal reporting relationships among different technical disciplines; • Interpersonal interfaces – formal and informal reporting relationships among different individuals working on the project. • Staffing requirements define what kinds of competencies are required from what kind of individuals or groups and in what time frames. Staffing requirements are a subset of overall resource requirements. • Constraints are factors that limit the project team´s options. Common factors that may constrain how the team is organized include: • Organizational structure of the performing organization; • Collective bargaining agreements; • Preferences of the project management team; • Expected staff assignments.
  150. 150. 15 0 [Insert your logo here] Organizational Planning – Tools and Techniques • Templates. Using the role and responsibility definitions or reporting relationships of a similar project can help expedite the process of planning. • Human resource practices. Many organizations have a variety of policies, guidelines, and the procedures that can help with planning. • Organizational theory, which describes how organizations can be structured, could be used for organizational planning. • Stakeholder analysis. The identification of stakeholders and the needs of the various stakeholders should be analysed to ensure that their needs will be met.
  151. 151. 15 1 [Insert your logo here] Stakeholder analysis is the technique used to identify the key people who have to be won over The benefits of using stakeholder-based approach are that: • You can use the opinions of the most powerful stakeholders to shape your projects at an early stage; • Gaining support from powerful stakeholders can help you to win more resources; • By communicating with stakeholders early and frequently, you can ensure that they fully understand what you are doing and understand the benefits of your project. • You can anticipate what people´s reaction to your project may be, and build into your own plan the actions that will win people´s support. Identify Prioritize Understand
  152. 152. 15 2 [Insert your logo here] Step 1 – identify your stakeholders; Step 2 – prioritize your stakeholders; Step 3 – understand your key stakeholders Step 1 – to brainstorm who your stakeholders are – to think of all people: • Who are affected by your work, • Who have influence or power over it, • Who have an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion. Step 2 – to map stakeholders and classify them by their power and by their interest. Step 3 – to know more about stakeholders (a good way to do it is to talk to them directly). Keep satisfied Keep informed Monitor (minimum effort) Manage closely Interest Power Low Low High High
  153. 153. 15 3 [Insert your logo here] Step 3 – understand your key stakeholders Key questions that can help you to understand your stakeholders: • What financial or emotional interest do they have in the outcome of your work? • What motivates them most of all? • What information do they want from you? • What is the best way of communicating your message to them? • What is their current opinion of your work? • Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their opinion of you? • If they are not likely to be positive, what will win them around to support your project? • If you don't think you will be able to win them around, how will you manage their opposition? • Who else might be influenced by their opinions?
  154. 154. 15 4 [Insert your logo here] Organizational Planning – Outputs • Role and responsibilities assignments. Project roles and responsibilities must be assigned to the appropriate project stakeholders. Project roles and responsibilities should be closely linked to the project scope definition. • Staffing management plan describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team. • Organization chart is any graphic display of project reporting relationships. • Supporting detail usually includes: • Job descriptions; • Training needs, etc. Project Manager Hardware Leader Software Leader Production Leader Engineer 1 Engineer 2 Engineer 3 Programmer 1 Programmer 2 Line Leader 1 Line Leader 1 Line Leader 1 Project Organization Chart
  155. 155. 15 5 [Insert your logo here] Aresponsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is often used to link roles and responsibilities to the project scope definition Output – Role and responsibilities assignments • High level RAM can define which particular team is responsible for each component of the work breakdown structure  • Lower level RAM is used within the group to assign roles and responsibilities for specific activities to particular individuals  R – responsible for doing the work A – accountable for the work being done C – must be consulted for input I – must be kept informed of progress and results Funktion Project Sponsor Project Manager Developer Analyst Project initiation R Establish project plan R Collate user requirement R Define tech. requirements R Develop software tools R Test software R Install Software R Funktion Project Sponsor Project Manager Developer Analyst Project initiation C A R Establish project plan I A R C C Collate user requirement I A I R Define tech. requirements I A I R Develop software tools I A R C Test software I A C R Install Software C A C R
  156. 156. 15 6 [Insert your logo here] StaffAcquisition– getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Staffing management plan • Staffing pool description • Recruitment practices TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Negotiations • Preassignment • Procurement OUTPUTS • Project staff assigned • Project team directory
  157. 157. 15 7 [Insert your logo here] StaffAcquisition– Inputs • Staffing management plan describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team. • Staffing pool description. When the project management team is able to influence or direct staff assignments, it must consider the characteristics of the potentially available staff. This includes for example: • Previous experience; • Availability; • Competences and proficiency. • Recruitment practices. Organizations involved in the project may have policies, guidelines or procedures governing staff assignments.
  158. 158. 15 8 [Insert your logo here] StaffAcquisition– Tools and Techniques • Negotiations. Staff assignments must be negotiated on most projects (e.g. with responsible functional managements, other project managements teams). • Preassignment. In some cases staff can be preassigned to the project (e.g. when the project is a result of competitive proposal, or project is an internal project of the organization). • Procurement management can be used to obtain the services of specific individuals and groups to perform project activities.
  159. 159. 15 9 [Insert your logo here] StaffAcquisition– Outputs • Project staff assigned. The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned (full time, part time). • Project team directory lists all the project team members and other stakeholders. May be formal or informal, based on needs of the project.
  160. 160. 16 0 [Insert your logo here] Team Development – developing individual and group competencies to enhance project performance Project Time Management Determine Delivery dates INPUTS • Project staff • Project plan • Staffing management plan • Performance reports • External feedback TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Team-building activities • General management skills • Reward and recognition • Collocation • Training OUTPUTS • Performance improvements • Input to performance appraisals
  161. 161. 16 1 [Insert your logo here] Team Development – Inputs • Project staff. The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned. • Project plan describes the technical context within which team operates • Staffing management plan describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team. • Performance reports provide feedback to the project team about performance against the project plan. • External feedback. The project team must periodically measure itself against the expectations of those outside the project.
  162. 162. 16 2 [Insert your logo here] Team Development – Tools and Techniques • Team-building activities include actions taken specifically and primarily to improve team performance and interpersonal relationships among key stakeholders. • General management skills provide much of the foundation for building project management skills (e.g. leading, communicating, negotiating, problem solving, influencing the organisation). • Reward and recognition systems are formal management actions that promote or reinforce desired behaviour. To be effective such systems must make the link between project performance and reward clear, explicit and achievable. • Collocation involves placing all (or almost) of the most active project team members in the same place to enhance their ability to perform as a team (it makes communication easier, engenders a sense of team identity). • Training includes all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team. If the project team members lack necessary management of technical skills, such skills must be developed as part of the project, or steps must be taken to restaff the project appropriately.
  163. 163. 16 3 [Insert your logo here] Tuckman´s model describes the process of team development, which consists of four stages One of the most influential studies in team-building area is Tuckman´s group model. This model states that the group development should occur in four stages, which are necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face up the changes, to work, and to deliver results. FORMING • Make contact and bonding • Develop trust • Establish base level expectations • Identify similarities • Agree on common goals STORMING • Identify power and control issues • Gain skills in communication • Identify resources • Express differences od ideas and opinions • React to leadership NORMING • Members agree about roles and processes • Decisions are made through negotiation and consensus building PERFORMING • Achieve effective and satisfying results • Members find solutions to problems using appropriate controls • Members work collaboratively • Members care about each other • The group establishes a unique identity TASKS BEHAVIORS • Each step builds on the previous one. • Each step prepares for the performing stage. • Skipping any step effect performing negatively. • With every new challenge, the process repeats.!

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