National Salary ComparisonECA Global Perspectives
ContentsIntroductionCalculating relative buying powerGross salaryNet salaryRelative buying powerUnderstanding the NSCImpli...
2ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonIntroductionWhat is the perfect mobilitypolicy?Persistent economic gloo...
3ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonAs companies’ populations of mobile employeesdiversify in terms of the ...
4ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Calculating relative buying powe...
5ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonSpainChinaTurkeySaudiArabiaArgentinaGreeceUnitedArabEmiratesMexicoSouth...
6ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 201302000040000600008000010000012000...
7ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonItalyFinlandSpainChinaArgentinaMexicoSouthAfricaTurkeyRussiaGreecePortu...
8 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison2000040000600008000010000012000...
9ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonArgentinaTurkeyPortugalNorwayDenmarkItalyIsraelSloveniaMoroccoGreeceCze...
10 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013
11The rankings are once again reshuffled when costof living indices are applied and the relative buyingpowers compared. In...
12 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonSimilar patterns can be found ...
13Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
14ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013To illustrate the example from ...
15ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison“good” and “bad” postings, with employeestending to resist the latter....
16ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013The NSC also highlights challen...
17Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
18Regional mobility – Asia in focusECA research shows that the number ofinternational assignments initiatedeach year by co...
19ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonMiddle managers in Hong Kong and Singaporecommand significantly larger...
20ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013It is clear that within this gr...
21Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
22ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 20132000050000400003000010000600007...
23ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonBrazilVenezuelaIsraelPortugalFinlandItalySloveniaTurkeyArgentinaTaiwan...
24ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 20131000002500002000001500005000030...
25ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonKazakhstanPolandRussiaNetherlandsItalyAustriaHungaryCanadaSlovakiaIrel...
26ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013The picture of relative buying ...
27ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonWriting a robust policyNo-one has yet devised, or ever will devise, a ...
28ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 20130200004000060000800001000001200...
29ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison10.09.08.07.06.05.04.03.02.01.00.0SalarymultiplierUnitedArabEmiratesIt...
30ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Effect on mobilityMultinational...
31ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonAn effect of this difference is that talented peoplefrom developing co...
32 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonFive year trendsThe mobility p...
33ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonMany companies are already likely to encounterdifficulties expatriatin...
34ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Steven KilfedderManager, Cost o...
35ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonECA International’s National SalaryComparison Survey contains a‘snapsh...
ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison36 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Other salary benchmarking tool...
37ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonSalary Trends SurveyThis survey contains information collected frommul...
ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison38 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Other data and services availa...
39ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonTraining and conferencesBrowse and book online for ECA’s training cour...
ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison40 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013
ECA International London +44 (0)20 7351 5000 Hong Kong +852 2121 2388 New York +1 212 582 2333 Sydney +61 (0)2 8923 5400ww...
ECA - National Salary Comparison - ed 2013
ECA - National Salary Comparison - ed 2013
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ECA - National Salary Comparison - ed 2013

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This free paper provides a snapshot comparison of the relative wealth of managers in 55 countries and shows at a glance whether an individual's spending power would be maintained if they moved to a different country to work on a local salary.

ECA's National Salary Comparison is a unique guide to how the differences in local pay levels, tax and cost of living between countries affects the mobility management options of employers. By looking beyond gross and net salaries to actual buying power at three different job levels this document brings into the spotlight the real issues to consider when devising a robust mobility policy.

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ECA - National Salary Comparison - ed 2013

  1. 1. National Salary ComparisonECA Global Perspectives
  2. 2. ContentsIntroductionCalculating relative buying powerGross salaryNet salaryRelative buying powerUnderstanding the NSCImplications for global mobilityRegional mobility – Asia in focusBuying power and seniorityRelative wealth – junior managerRelative wealth – executiveGDP vs. salary multiplierEffect on mobilityFive year trendsAbout the authorsAbout this reportUsing the NSC furtherOther salary benchmarking toolsAbout ECA264481114182228222430323435353537ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison
  3. 3. 2ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonIntroductionWhat is the perfect mobilitypolicy?Persistent economic gloom and the need formost companies to cut costs as a consequencehave not resulted in the reduced number ofinternational assignments many anticipated.On the contrary, stagnation in many companies’traditional markets has forced them to venture intomore buoyant economies elsewhere, requiring anexpansion in international operations rather than acurtailment. It is therefore more important thanever for companies to recruit and retain peoplewith the necessary skills and experience to fulfiltheir international ambitions.In an environment of intense competition forsuitably skilled staff, companies must be able tooffer a remuneration package that is competitivewhen recruiting from an increasingly global talentpool. Alternatively, or in addition, companies needa compensation approach that will motivateexisting talent to move to work in the countrywhere they are needed most. Organisations mustalso recognise that increased levels of mobilityoften lead to an increasingly cosmopolitanworkforce, with many different nationalitiesworking together in the same location.When designing or reviewing a remunerationpolicy that will promote mobility, the choicescompanies make are heavily influenced by the issueof equity which, broadly speaking, can be achievedin three main areas: with the employee’s colleaguesin their country of origin, with peers in the countrywhere they work, and finally equity with otherexpatriates. In reality, there is no “perfect”approach that delivers equity on all three fronts;companies must find the compromise that bestsuits the make-up of their mobile workforce.A company that wishes to achieve equity withhome country peers and minimise issues withrepatriation may use a home-based pay system(build-up or balance sheet approach) that maintainshome living standards no matter what location theemployee moves to. Such an approach will notdeliver equity with local peers in the host country,however, and can also result in employeesoriginating from different countries being paiddifferent salaries when working in the same country.It can also be difficult or unnecessary to identify asuitable “home” location for foreign employeesrecruited directly in the “host” country rather thanbeing assigned there, or individuals who are likelyto spend their career constantly moving from onecountry to the next with no intention ofrepatriating to a designated “home” country.If there is no requirement to link compensation toa home country and/or equity with host countrypeers is the company’s primary concern, this canbe achieved by referencing a local national marketrate for the jobs concerned. This policy may bemore straightforward to deliver and makes sensefor permanent moves, but is only likely to succeedwhere the employee experiences an increase or atleast a continuation of the standard of living theyhave come to expect in their previous country ofemployment. As our analysis shows later in thisreport, employees moving from certain countrieslike the USA will almost always experience areduction in buying power if they are paid thelocal market rate for an equivalent job in a differentcountry. In this case a purely local salary packagewill provide no incentive to move and will bedifficult to implement, probably necessitating theprovision of additional benefits such asaccommodation to make the overall package moreviable. As a counterpoint to this, nationals fromemerging markets where much lower salaries arepaid may find moves on local terms into moredeveloped locations extremely accommodating,with the converse problem of rising repatriationissues as perceived and actual wealth increases.© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013
  4. 4. 3ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonAs companies’ populations of mobile employeesdiversify in terms of the nationalities and levels ofseniority involved, it is unsurprising that ECA researchshows an increasing trend to using more than oneapproach to calculate appropriate compensationpackages. Numerous systems have been developedto try and harness the advantages of both the purehome and host approaches, such as calculating apackage using both systems and paying the moregenerous result, applying a safety-net where oneapproach falls short, or a hybrid approach thatuses distinct home and host country elements.Such approaches may help to deliver equity onmore levels but are rarely the most cost-effectivesolution, generally delivering the higher salarycalculated from a combination of approaches. Whilethis may not be the primary concern for a companythat considers employee mobility to be essential totheir operations, many of those with responsibilityfor expatriate pay are simultaneously under pressureto find more cost-effective ways of delivering it.The National Salary ComparisonThe different approaches to salary calculationsoutlined above produce very different results, andchoosing the right one can mean the differencebetween successful moves and costly failures.When designing or reviewing remunerationpolicies for mobile employees, ECA’s NationalSalary Comparison (NSC) provides a big-picturepointer to the remuneration issues companies willencounter, providing a unique guide to thedifference in local pay levels between countries.The NSC looks at typical salaries for locallyemployed staff around the world and comparesthem in terms of relative buying power, showingat one quick glance whether an individual’sspending power would be protected if moved towork in another country and paid a local salary todo a similar job.Over the next six pages, relative buying power iscalculated for 55 countries in three stages:1. The median gross salaries paid for a particularposition in the countries of interest areconverted to a common currency.2. The equivalent net salaries are calculated bydeducting income tax and social security.3. Cost of living indices are applied to the netsalaries to calculate relative buying power.The insights from this analysis can help usunderstand many issues related to global mobilityand the policy options open to managers of mobileemployees. Will a local salary be sufficient to providean employee with the purchasing power theyenjoyed in their previous location? If the employeeis eventually to be repatriated, does the proposedremuneration policy accommodate this? Does itcope with employees likely to be employed onconsecutive moves from one country to the next?Thinking through all of these issues and othersusing the NSC, even if they are not a currentconsideration, will make your policy far morerobust and pre-empt difficulties that may arise infuture as your business expands and develops.“As companies’ populations of mobile employees diversify in termsof the nationalities and levels of seniority involved, it is unsurprisingthat ECA research shows an increasing trend to using more thanone approach to calculate appropriate compensation packages”Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  5. 5. 4ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Calculating relative buying power020000400006000080000100000120000140000EURperannumSwitzerlandJapanAustraliaLuxembourgChileNorwayGermanyDenmarkUnitedStatesCanadaVenezuelaColombiaBelgiumBrazilNetherlandsAustriaSingaporeIrelandSwedenHongKongUnitedKingdomFranceItalyFinlandIsraelKoreaRepublicGross salary – middle manager
  6. 6. 5ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonSpainChinaTurkeySaudiArabiaArgentinaGreeceUnitedArabEmiratesMexicoSouthAfricaSloveniaPortugalRussiaTaiwanCzechRepublicMoroccoThailandHungarySlovakiaPolandKazakhstanMalaysiaIndonesiaEgyptPhilippinesRomaniaBulgariaUkraineIndiaVietnamGraph 1 shows the median basic gross salary paid to a middle manager (80 ECA points) in 55 countries (local salary data provided by TowersWatson). Salaries have been converted to euros at the exchange rate on 1 July 2012, as a common currency is necessary for a transparentcomparison between countries. The basic pay quoted excludes any performance-related bonus payments or other cash allowances and benefits asthese vary considerably from country to country, individual to individual and year to year.The graph shows that the highest gross salaries for this job level are paid in Switzerland, followed by Japan and Australia. At the other end of thescale, the local market rate for an equivalent position in Vietnam is over EUR 100 000 less.This simple inter-country comparison of gross salaries is misleading as an indicator of relative wealth, however, as it does not show what the salarycan buy in each country. The same salary in two countries might not buy the same quality of life, as the tax burden and cost of living vary widelyaround the world.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  7. 7. 6ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013020000400006000080000100000120000140000SwitzerlandJapanAustraliaLuxembourgUnitedStatesVenezuelaChileNorwayHongKongSingaporeColombiaCanadaGermanyBrazilDenmarkUnitedArabEmiratesIrelandSaudiArabiaFranceAustriaKoreaRepublicUnitedKingdomSwedenBelgiumNetherlandsIsraelEURperannumNet salary – middle manager
  8. 8. 7ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonItalyFinlandSpainChinaArgentinaMexicoSouthAfricaTurkeyRussiaGreecePortugalTaiwanSloveniaCzechRepublicThailandSlovakiaKazakhstanMoroccoIndonesiaHungaryMalaysiaPolandEgyptBulgariaUkraineIndiaVietnamPhilippinesRomaniaGrossNetGraph 2 shows the corresponding net values of the gross salaries from Graph 1, calculated by deducting income tax and local social security and byadding family allowances. The tax position is that of a married employee with two children, using ECA’s standard tax assumptions for local nationals.Although the three highest paying countries remain unchanged when comparing net salaries, the relative positions of some other countries changesignificantly. Singapore and Hong Kong are respectively ranked 17th and 20th in terms of gross salary but move up to 10th and 9th position oncetheir comparatively low taxes are deducted. Germany, on the other hand, slides from 7th to 13th position and Denmark from 8th to 15th.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  9. 9. 8 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison200004000060000800001000001200001400000SaudiArabiaChileUnitedStatesLuxembourgSwitzerlandUnitedArabEmiratesMexicoGermanyAustraliaColombiaSouthAfricaHongKongCanadaUnitedKingdomSingaporeIrelandBrazilFranceNetherlandsJapanAustriaVenezuelaBelgiumSpainKoreaRepublicSwedenEURperannumRelative wealth – middle manager
  10. 10. 9ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonArgentinaTurkeyPortugalNorwayDenmarkItalyIsraelSloveniaMoroccoGreeceCzechRepublicFinlandChinaThailandTaiwanSlovakiaKazakhstanHungaryEgyptMalaysiaPolandRussiaIndiaVietnamIndonesiaUkraineBulgariaRomaniaPhilippinesGrossNetRelative Buying PowerGraph 3 shows net salaries adjusted for the value of the goods that can be purchased in each country, which is achieved by applying ECA’s cost ofliving indices.The following example has been calculated on a euro base, i.e. all salaries have been converted to euros and all cost of living indices have beenstated relative to the cost of the shopping basket in Belgium. ECA is able to compile the data using any country featured in this report as a basefor ease of use.Note that exchange rate movements will not influence the buying power position of countries relative to one another as any fluctuations in currencywill be cancelled out by changes in the cost of living differential.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  11. 11. 10 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013
  12. 12. 11The rankings are once again reshuffled when costof living indices are applied and the relative buyingpowers compared. Initially, a middle managerearning EUR 85 800 in Denmark appears to earn agenerous gross salary compared to many othercountries, with counterparts in the USA and Mexicoearning EUR 83 500 and EUR 56 100 respectively.We have already seen how Denmark slips eightplaces down the rankings to 15th place onceincome tax and social security has been deducted.When cost of living is taken into account, Denmarkslides considerably further down the rankings tolower than mid-table. The combination of highliving costs and a high tax burden means that theDanish manager has a RBP of just EUR 41 900compared to that of EUR 79 100 for the Americanmanager and EUR 65 300 for the Mexican.Comparatively moderate levels of taxation and costof living mean that the American’s generous grosssalary translates into even better buying power inrelation to peers from all but two other countries.The Mexican manager receives a much lower grosssalary than the Danish and US equivalents but thelow cost of living there propels Mexico up theranking in terms of relative wealth.ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonThe preceding graphs clearly illustratehow misleading a simple inter-countrycomparison of gross salaries can be.In the comparison of net salaries shown on pages6 and 7, the significant shift in the relativepositions of some countries provides a snapshotof contrasting approaches to taxation adoptedaround the world by governments with differentagendas. Hong Kong and Singapore haverespectively moved eleven and seven places up therankings; for many years both jurisdictions haveused low tax rates as part of broader strategies tocreate a business environment attractive to foreigninvestors. Many countries in Western Europe havetraditionally had a different focus, levying high taxand social security rates, particularly on wealthierindividuals, in order to meet high social welfarecosts. The maximum tax rate in Hong Kong, forexample, is 15%, compared to 51.5% in Denmark.On average, the Nordic countries of Norway,Sweden, Denmark and Finland slip four places in therankings when tax and social security is deducted,whereas the United States moves four places up therankings to take fifth place. Although lower taxesmake the US salary look like a better deal comparedto the Nordic salaries, the higher taxes in thesecountries are channelled into providing a highstandard of free education and universal healthcare.In the US, where public spending on these areas isless extensive, individuals may have to draw on theirlarger salaries to supplement the state provision.Understanding the NSCRelative positions of Denmark, USA and Mexico when comparing grosssalary, net salary and relative buying powerPosition in rankingCountry Gross Net RBPDenmark 8 15 31USA 9 5 3Mexico 34 31 7Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  13. 13. 12 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonSimilar patterns can be found throughout the NSC.While the moderate taxes levied in a high-payingcountry like Switzerland ensure that it also stays nearthe top of the graph in terms of RBP (despite highliving costs), a combination of high taxes and highliving costs means others like Japan drop down therankings. The reverse is true for some countries thatpay relatively low gross salaries but benefit from lowtaxation and low living costs. The graph places SaudiArabia highest in terms of relative wealth despite thefact that almost 30 countries award higher averagegross salaries, owing its position to the absence ofpersonal income tax and low cost of living. The UAEjumps from a moderate 33rd place to 6th in terms ofrelative wealth for the same reasons.Countries whose position in the rankings changesby ten places or more when comparing RBP ratherthan gross salary are shown below:Change in ranking when comparing gross salary and RBP relativebuying powerDeveloping countries such as India and Vietnam faremodestly on the scale of relative buying power dueto their low market rate salaries, however lower livingcosts in these countries mean middle managers thereare better off in terms of buying power than incountries like Ukraine, Bulgaria and Romania wheresimilar gross salaries are paid for this position.An additional point to consider when comparingthe relative buying power in various countries isthe family unit. This analysis compares individualsalaries in isolation, but in reality a Dutch expatriate,for example, is likely to be part of a dual incomehousehold, whereas the Saudi expatriate willprobably be the sole earner in his family. It is worthremembering that the Saudi salary on these graphsmost likely represents the income for the wholefamily, whereas the Dutch one might not. Theissue of dual careers and incomes and the spouse’srole in an international assignment are thereforevery important considerations when devising amobility policy.Saudi Arabia 30 1 29United Arab Emirates 33 6 27Mexico 34 7 27South Africa 35 11 24Norway 6 30 24Denmark 8 31 23Japan 2 20 18Finland 24 38 14Venezuela 11 22 11China 28 39 11Belgium 13 23 10Russia 38 48 10Change inCountry Gross RBP rankingPosition in ranking
  14. 14. 13Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  15. 15. 14ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013To illustrate the example from page 11in terms of mobility, the gross salary amiddle manager would receive onmoving from Mexico to Denmark onlocal terms would appear to provideample reward for taking the post. But,in reality, this particular ‘pay rise’ wouldnot make the employee better off.Conversely, the immediate impression following amove from Denmark to Mexico would be that alocal Mexican salary is not an option; in relativewealth terms, though, the middle manager wouldactually experience an increase in buying power.Both the Mexican and Danish managers wouldexperience a significant increase in buying powerif employed in the US on a local salary; conversely,paying a US national a local salary in either Mexicoor Denmark will result in a decrease in relativewealth and so may not provide sufficient incentiveto move, in spite of the slightly higher gross salaryon offer in Denmark.One major advantage of a host-based salary systemis that employees of different nationalities workingtogether receive similar levels of pay to each otherand to local nationals, however the analysis showshow this approach can tend to encourage mobilityin one direction – upwards (i.e. from a country onthe right to another to its left on the relativebuying power chart). A company that operates ina broad range of countries may find itself with3000020000010000400005000010000060000700008000090000EURperannumUnited States Mexico DenmarkGross salary Net salary Relative Buying PowerImplications for global mobilityRelative wealth – middle manager
  16. 16. 15ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison“good” and “bad” postings, with employeestending to resist the latter. It is always going to bea challenge to move employees from countriestowards the left of the graph, like Switzerland andthe USA, to nearly any other country on purelylocal terms. The company may need to considercovering the costs of large items of expendituresuch as housing to top up the local package to alevel where the employee’s spending power isprotected; alternatively the company would needto use a different approach to calculating thepackage altogether. On the other hand the reversemove into Switzerland or the USA on local termswould result in an increase in relative wealth andis more likely to be perceived as a desirableassignment. Note that the composition of countriesoccupying the left hand side of the chart changesat different job levels, as competition forappropriately skilled staff in countries like Braziland Mexico at senior levels is more intense than inmore developed countries, and the salary offeredincreases significantly as a result (more on this in alater section).There are clear implications for organisationsplanning to have more than one nationality ofemployee working together in the same location.For example, a Japanese middle manager wouldbe wealthier in Australia on local terms; a Chileanwould not. A more generous package, perhapsproviding additional benefits or using a home-based approach, may be required to incentivise theChilean to move to Australia, but doing so wouldraise the issue of potential inequity with Australianand Japanese colleagues.200000400001200006000080000100000EURperannumChile Australia JapanGross salary Net salary Relative Buying PowerRelative wealth – middle managerQuestions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  17. 17. 16ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013The NSC also highlights challenges that mayarise moving an assignee between consecutiveappointments in different countries. This example,illustrated below, first looks at moving a middlemanager from China to Norway using the localmarket rate.The employee’s initial impression would be of asignificant rise in gross salary, from EUR 59 500 toEUR 87 600. In more realistic terms, the employeewould see an increase in their buying power, but bymuch less than they might expect: from EUR 36 600to EUR 42 300. This amount might still constitute ahealthy incentive towards making the move.Now consider the assignee’s next move fromNorway to South Africa. The senior managerwould see a steep drop in their gross salary, fromEUR 87 600 to EUR 55 500, less than he was earningin China. But, in terms of the measure of actualwealth, he is still moving upwards, as his buyingpower (EUR 36 600 at home) has actually increasedfrom EUR 42 300 in Norway to EUR 61 600 inSouth Africa.How would the assignee have felt if he had moved toSouth Africa first and then to Norway? The employeewould have experienced an increase in wealth initially,followed by a substantial drop on moving to Norway.It is also worth noting that a move back to Chinafrom either Norway or South Africa would result ina reduction in buying power. Paying expatriatesthe local market rate is likely to cause few problemswhile the employee continues to move up thebuying power ladder, but, mobility issues may arisewhen a subsequent posting to a country lowerdown the ladder, or repatriation, is required.Being ‘better-off’ is all about having greater buyingpower. One of the principal challenges in showingthe value of a local salary package is being able tocommunicate its actual buying power.3000020000010000400005000010000060000700008000090000EURperannumSouth Africa Norway ChinaGross salary Net salary Relative Buying PowerRelative wealth – middle manager
  18. 18. 17Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  19. 19. 18Regional mobility – Asia in focusECA research shows that the number ofinternational assignments initiatedeach year by companies headquarteredin Asia is increasing at a much fasterrate than companies based elsewherein the world. An examination ofresponses to ECA’s Expatriate SalaryManagement Survey also shows that,compared to the overall sample, themobile employee populations of Asiancompanies tend to be drawn from afewer number of (mostly Asian)countries, and that moves are morelikely to take place between countrieswithin the Asia region than beyond.Although in general the home-based approachcontinues to be the most widely used method forcalculating international assignment pay, host-based remuneration policies are particularlyprevalent among companies operating around eastand south-east Asia. In other words, a companybased in Asia is more likely to use a host basedapproach to pay expatriates working in Asiancountries than companies based elsewhere would,as the table below shows:When devising a policy to promote mobilitywithin a particular region rather than all aroundthe world, a host country approach is oftenconsidered in the first instance, as it is assumed(rightly or wrongly) that living costs, salaries andstandard of living will be broadly similar and thereis no need to consider common additional premiathat might be needed to incentivise moves furtherafield. Intra-regional moves are also more likelythan inter-regional moves to be arranged on apermanent rather than assignment basis, whichremoves any requirement to link the salary backto the country of origin.Another reason why host-based policies are morecommonly applied in locations like Hong Kong andSingapore is that competition for staff with theappropriate expertise means that it is common torecruit expatriates directly from the large pool offoreigners already working here, rather than havingthem assigned from elsewhere. There is no homecountry salary to reference so a market rate salaryin the country of employment must be used todevise an appropriate package.Does the NSC support a policy of paying employeesthe local market rate when they are mobile withina particular region? The graph facing comparesrelative buying power for the six ASEAN nationsincluded in the original middle manager analysis,plus Hong Kong, China and Taiwan.© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonChina Hong Kong SingaporeAsia HQ Entire sample Asia HQ Entire sample Asia HQ Entire sampleSalary systemHome-based 73 71 49 58 50 58Host-based 17 13 43 29 36 27Salary systems used to remunerate mobile employees working in aselection of Asian countries (%)The figures are taken from ECA’s MyExpatriate Market Pay survey conducted in 2012. The results do not add up to 100% assome companies use alternative policies such as a dual or hybrid approach which is not shown in this extract.
  20. 20. 19ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonMiddle managers in Hong Kong and Singaporecommand significantly larger salaries than theircontemporaries in other Asian countries and enjoyconsiderably higher buying power. The buyingpowers are similar enough that employees mighthappily consider moving from one to another on alocal package. The remuneration package for amove from either of these countries to any othercountry in this group, however, is unlikely to beconsidered competitive if calculated on purely localterms; moves in the reverse direction are likely tobe considered quite attractive.Chinese gross salaries are the third highest in thisselection and they will catch up with Hong Kongby 2016 and Singapore two years later if salaryinflation continues at current rates. Rising livingcosts and much higher taxation mean that relativewealth is likely to continue to lag behind, however.Relative buying power in China is not significantlyhigher than in Thailand or Taiwan, which suggeststhat moves on local salaries between these threecountries could be a viable option. Similarly, theRBP for middle managers in Vietnam and Indonesiaare almost identical, enabling mobility between thetwo. At a different level of seniority, however, theseconclusions may not apply. In a later analysis wewill see, for example, that at the executive levelrelative buying power is higher in Vietnam than itis in China.30000200000100004000050000800006000070000EURperannumHong Kong Singapore China Thailand Taiwan Malaysia Vietnam Indonesia PhilippinesGross salary Net salary Relative Buying PowerRelative wealth – middle managerQuestions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  21. 21. 20ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013It is clear that within this group of countries somemoves on local terms could work very well, butwith a difference of nearly EUR 36 000 betweenthe highest and lowest RBP it is not a one-size-fits-all solution. In reality, although the host countryapproach is commonly applied by Asian companies,when we look in more detail at how the hostcountry package is derived we see many are actuallypaying the market rate salary for an expatriate ratherthan a local, or using a “local plus” approach thatpays the local market rate salary topped up with“expatriate” benefits such as assistance withhousing costs and international school fees.The figures are taken from ECA’s MyExpatriate Market Pay survey conducted in 2012.Type of host-based system used in a selection of Asian countries bycompanies headquartered in Asia (%)China Hong Kong SingaporeSalary systemExpatriate market rate 72 39 50Local market rate 0 33 14Local plus 28 28 36It is more common to pay mobile employees thelocal market rate salary in Hong Kong andSingapore, where a local salary provides a relativelyhigh buying power, than in China, where thebuying power would be much lower so thosebeing paid a local salary are in reality likely to bereceiving additional payments and benefits notpaid to equivalent local nationals.
  22. 22. 21Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  23. 23. 22ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 20132000050000400003000010000600007000080000900001000000LuxembourgUnitedStatesSwitzerlandSaudiArabiaGermanyAustraliaCanadaChileUnitedArabEmiratesIrelandUnitedKingdomSouthAfricaHongKongJapanBelgiumNetherlandsFranceAustriaColombiaSpainSingaporeSwedenNorwayDenmarkMexicoKoreaRepublicEURperannumJuniorRankingMiddle14233541586971382961016111412111312142015231619171818211910202421152226233024312572625Executive 14 8 16 3 19 21 34 2 5 36 17 9 12 42 49 30 26 32 4 39 7 52 53 54 1 41Relative wealth – junior managerBuying power and seniority
  24. 24. 23ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonBrazilVenezuelaIsraelPortugalFinlandItalySloveniaTurkeyArgentinaTaiwanMoroccoGreeceCzechRepublicChinaSlovakiaThailandHungaryKazakhstanMalaysiaPolandEgyptRussiaIndonesiaIndiaVietnamUkraineBulgariaRomaniaPhilippinesGrossNetRelative Buying Power271728222933302931383232333434283527364137353836393740394142424043444443454646474745484849515049515052485346544455436 10 50 40 55 31 47 15 11 51 24 25 20 23 35 22 33 27 38 28 13 29 45 37 18 48 46 44 43This section of the report looks at how relative buying powers vary at different levels of seniority. The chart below shows the RBPs for a juniormanager (50 ECA points), as against the previous showing a middle manager (80 ECA points), and the following showing executive level pay(140 ECA points).Between junior and middle managers, the biggest changes are in the South American countries of Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Venezuela andColombia which, along with Singapore and Turkey, move the most up the chart. That is to say, with seniority in these countries, relative buyingpower increases at a faster rate than average.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  25. 25. 24ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013100000250000200000150000500003000003500004000000MexicoChileSaudiArabiaColombiaUnitedArabEmiratesBrazilSingaporeUnitedStatesSouthAfricaVenezuelaArgentinaHongKongEgyptLuxembourgTurkeySwitzerlandUnitedKingdomVietnamGermanyCzechRepublicAustraliaThailandChinaMoroccoGreeceFranceEURperannumExecutiveRankingMiddle17223141056617715839111022112712121345144152816517141850198203721922402339243525362618Junior 25 8 4 19 9 27 21 2 12 28 35 13 47 1 34 3 11 51 5 39 6 42 40 37 38 17Relative wealth – executive
  26. 26. 25ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonKazakhstanPolandRussiaNetherlandsItalyAustriaHungaryCanadaSlovakiaIrelandIndiaMalaysiaSpainPortugalKoreaRepublicJapanPhilippinesRomaniaIndonesiaBulgariaSloveniaUkraineBelgiumIsraelTaiwanSwedenNorwayDenmarkFinlandGrossNetRelative Buying Power2743284729483019313232213344341335423616374938463924402941254220435544544551465347344852492350335141522653305431553844 46 48 16 32 18 43 7 41 10 50 45 20 30 26 14 55 54 49 53 33 52 15 29 36 22 23 24 31Looking at executive level positions the picture changes significantly compared with junior and middle managers. The relative rankings below thegraph show this clearly with the average country moving by around 16 positions between junior manager and executive levels.At executive level, half of the countries with the highest RBP are in Latin America and none is in Europe. In the bottom 10 of the rankings belowseven are European and all of them have a lower buying power than a Swiss middle manager.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  27. 27. 26ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013The picture of relative buying power variessignificantly by seniority of the employee.The preceding charts show the enormousdifferences between the relative situation forjunior managers (50 ECA points) and executivelevel positions (140 ECA points).Mexican executives have the highest relative buyingpower while their junior managerial colleagues arein the middle of their comparative chart. In factthat is true for many countries ranked by relativebuying power for executives; the top sevencountries are all higher in the ranking for executivepositions than for their junior manager positions.Four of those countries with the highest buyingpower at executive level are in South or CentralAmerica: Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Brazil.However, only one of them, Chile, is in the top 10as ranked by relative wealth for junior manager.While four of the 10 locations with the greatestrelative buying power for junior managers are inEurope there are none in the 10 locations withgreatest buying power for executive level positions.Paying local European salaries to all expatriates isno longer viable for all assignee nationalities or alllevels of seniority.The appearance of so many rich European countriestowards the bottom of the rankings of buying powermay be misleading in some respects. Many countrieswith the lowest relative buying power are there inpart because of the high taxes, but those taxes alsopay for many of the services such as healthcare,education and insurance, which have to be paidfor after taxes in some of the countries towards thetop of the rankings, such as the United States orLatin America, where social support is much lower.Mexican senior executives earn almost nine timesas much net as their junior manager colleagues.This enormous difference is common in many lessdeveloped nations and is partly explained by ashortage of suitable staff. The proportion of theworkforce which is qualified, experienced andable to fill the jobs at the higher end of themanagement scale is small. This has the effect ofpushing wages up at the top end of the market,hence increasing the multiple between employees.Developed countries on the whole have a greatersupply of labour which is both qualified andexperienced to occupy these managementpositions. Because there is no labour shortage atthis top end of the market the wages aresuppressed, represented by a low wage ratio. In lessdeveloped countries, the jump in salary from juniormanager to executive positions is greater than inthe developed world. This is clearly shown in thechart overleaf. Using Gross Domestic Product(GDP) per person as a proxy for the developmentof a country you can clearly see a link betweendevelopment and salary multiplier. The graph onthe following page makes the comparison clear andalso helps explain some of the differences alreadymentioned between the junior and executive levels.This difference in salary multiplier has a significantimpact on global mobility practice.
  28. 28. 27ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonWriting a robust policyNo-one has yet devised, or ever will devise, a single system for remunerating mobile employees, as allorganisations have different business needs and mobility patterns.The NSC is a big–picture pointer to the remuneration issues companies will encounter when designingor reviewing their mobility policy. Using it whilst thinking through some of the issues below (which isby no means an exhaustive list) will make your policy far more robust and pre-empt difficulties thatmay arise in future. Companies should consider possible expansion and development of the business sothat certain scenarios are accounted for even if they are not a current consideration.Why do you have mobile employees?n Business needn Career developmentn Employee requestHow many nationalities make up the mobile workforce?From which countries do your mobile employees originate? And in which countries dothey work?What levels of seniority are required to be mobile?Do you need to achieve equity…n …with employees in the home location?n …with local employees in the host location?n …with expatriate employees in the host location?n …with expatriate employees in any location?What sort of mobility patterns exist within your organisation?n International assignments (i.e. out and back)n Permanent transfers or indefinite assignmentsn Permanently mobile/career expatsn Hiring of expatriates locallyAre employees with a partner and/or family required to be mobile?n Will their family join them on assignment?n Is there a dual career issue to consider?What happens at the end of an international assignment?n Employee is repatriatedn Employee moves on to another assignmentn Employee is localisedn Employment is terminatedAre you at risk of losing mobile employees to competitors?How much complexity can you realistically manage?Do you need to strike a balance between incentivising mobility and controlling costs?Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  29. 29. 28ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013020000400006000080000100000120000AverageGDPperperson(USDperannum)MexicoVietnamEgyptPhilippinesRomaniaRussiaBulgariaIndiaUkraineIndonesiaPolandChileKazakhstanBrazilThailandColombiaArgentinaMalaysiaCzechRepublicChinaHungaryTurkeyGreeceMoroccoSlovakiaVenezuelaSingaporeSaudiArabiaGDP vs. salary multiplier
  30. 30. 29ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison10.09.08.07.06.05.04.03.02.01.00.0SalarymultiplierUnitedArabEmiratesItalySouthAfricaHongKongPortugalSloveniaKoreaRepublicTaiwanFranceUnitedKingdomSpainAustriaNetherlandsIsraelUnitedStatesJapanGermanyAustraliaFinlandIrelandBelgiumSwitzerlandLuxembourgCanadaSwedenDenmarkNorwayThis chart shows the inverse correlation between the disparity of pay between junior and executive levels (the ‘salary multiplier’) and the grossdomestic product (GDP) of the country in which the salary is paid.The blue line shows the difference between net salaries for junior managers and executives and the green columns show the average GDP perperson. The countries with the highest multiplier tend to be towards the top of the executive buying power graph, but lower for junior positions.Meanwhile, those on the right of the graph, where the gap in salaries is smaller, will tend to be towards the top of the junior manager relativebuying power graph, but lower in the executive graph.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  31. 31. 30ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Effect on mobilityMultinational companies in developing countries areoften forced to overcome the local managementlabour shortage by employing managers expatriatedfrom other countries. This may even be cheaperthan employing the in-demand local talent whilealso helping to up-skill local junior managers toeventually take their place.The level of seniority will have a significant effecton the best choice of salary package for assignees.This is shown clearly if we look at a hypotheticalJapanese company that has operations in Egypt,Brazil and Singapore. If they wish to bring newjunior managers to work in the Japan office it isnot a problem to offer a Japanese local salary as allpotential employees from overseas would be betteroff in terms of buying power as the chart belowshows. However, if the company tried to do thesame with their executive level employees theirstaff would be unlikely to agree to the move asthey would feel worse off (as the chart oppositedemonstrates). While gross salaries in Japan arehigh, the high cost of living means that theexecutive salary would not have the same buyingpower as it would have had in the home country.In the case of Egypt this is despite the fact that thenet salary on offer in Japan is 80% higher than thehome country equivalent.200000400008000060000EURperannumEgypt Brazil Singapore JapanGross salary Net salary Relative Buying PowerRelative wealth – junior manager
  32. 32. 31ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonAn effect of this difference is that talented peoplefrom developing countries will often move abroadwhen they are young to gain experience indeveloped countries. Salaries are high and whenthey return to their home country they find theycan command higher salaries due to the highdemand for experienced executives.A further consequence of the high relative buyingpower for senior positions in many developingcountries is that it makes them very expensive toexpatriate. Understandably they want to retaintheir standard of living during any assignment,which can be very costly if moving to a moreexpensive country. ECA’s cost of living data showsthat Japan is more than twice as expensive asBrazil. Providing a senior Brazilian with a salarywhich could maintain their very high RBP inexpensive Japan would be very costly.Countries where a host based salary system is mostlikely to succeed are likely to have a high relativebuying power at all levels of seniority. This is truefor example of the US, UAE, Singapore and HongKong which are all countries where host basedsalaries are particularly common. All of thesecountries are in similar relative positions in termsof buying power at all levels and they are allcountries where the relative wealth is highcompared to others in their region and in Europe.500000100000300000150000200000250000EURperannumJapan Egypt Singapore BrazilGross salary Net salary Relative Buying PowerRelative wealth – executiveQuestions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  33. 33. 32 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonFive year trendsThe mobility picture presented by thisreport is not static; as salaries, inflationand exchange rates change so do acompany’s mobility options.As the chart below shows, in 2007 the buyingpower of an executive in China was 57% that of asimilar level employee in the United States. Now itis over 75%. At junior manager level in 2007 anemployee in China had a buying power of lessthan a third of their US equivalent, now it is closerto 40%. With salary inflation in China running ataround 8% per year according to ECA’s SalaryTrends Survey, but only 3% in the US, it is likelythat this gap will continue to close. If the gapbetween US and Chinese buying power continues toclose at the same rate, by 2017 Chinese executiveswill be better off than their US counterparts. Thiswould make it difficult for US companies to offerlocal salaries to Chinese executives.20%0%40%80%100%120%60%Junior manager Middle manager Executive2007 2012 2017 (at current trend)Chinese employee buying power as a percentageof US employees at same seniority
  34. 34. 33ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonMany companies are already likely to encounterdifficulties expatriating workers from China toEurope on host country salaries. In fact, the buyingpower of a Chinese executive is already greaterthan their French, Italian, Spanish and Japanesecounterparts, among others. Malaysia and Indiaare also countries where executive-level pay affordsincreasing wealth. Executives’ buying power thereis greater than that in Spain and Japan, which wasnot the case five years ago.There have been other dramatic changes in thepast 5 years that have changed the mobilitylandscape dramatically. UK executives used to havea buying power around 25% higher than theirEgyptian counterparts, making a local UK salarydesirable for Egyptian assignees to the UK, forexample. Now, however, the position is reversedand they would be more than 10% worse off on aUK local salary than if they remained in Egypt.Not all changes have been in the developing world.The relative position of the UK and Australia hasalso changed significantly in the last five years.Australian middle managers are now slightly betteroff than their UK counterparts after a 10% swing.However, at the executive level, Australian RBP isnow almost identical to that in the UK while fiveyears ago it was less than 70% of it.Companies with a policy of offering a local salaryto nationals of other countries run the risk ofcircumstances changing to make their policyobsolete. It is therefore essential to monitor themobility situation regularly using reports like theNSC just as a company would review their cost ofliving allowance on a regular basis.“If the gap between US and Chinese buying power continues toclose at the same rate, by 2017 Chinese executives will be better offthan their US counterparts”Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  35. 35. 34ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison© Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Steven KilfedderManager, Cost of Livingand Remuneration ServicesSteven joined ECA in 2008 after completing hisMasters degree in International Studies fromUniversity of Sydney. After his undergraduate jointdegree in Economics and Geography from UniversityCollege London, Steven moved abroad to teachEnglish as a second language in the Czech Republic.He also taught ESL and business skills courses for theBritish Council in Azerbaijan, Myanmar and Vietnam.After joining ECA Steven first worked in the LocationRatings team, analysing the relative quality of lifefor expatriates in many of the countries he hadrecently lived and worked in. He then moved tothe Remuneration department where he has beenheavily involved in the expansion and redevelopmentof the MyExpatriate Market Pay report. In addition tomanaging Remuneration, Steven now also managesthe Cost of Living team, overseeing the productionand publication of the data. He has also writtenseveral articles and delivered presentations onexpatriate compensation and benefits issues.Rebecca DarlingHead of ProductionRebecca is responsible for the production teamsthat research, analyse and publish the informationforming ECA’s core data offering, including cost ofliving, tax and social security, accommodation andbenefits, location allowances and expatriateremuneration. In addition to ensuring timely andaccurate publication of ECA’s data, she also workson the development of new product features andportfolios.Manager of Tax Services at ECA between 2002 and2006, Rebecca then worked as a consultant at Ernst& Young before returning to ECA in 2008. Duringher time at Ernst & Young she gained extensiveexperience of cross-border tax treatment of shareincentive schemes and managing the assignmentlifecycle including calculating compensation,assignment letters, assignee briefings, vendormanagement, payroll and repatriation.Rebecca has an MA in Natural Sciences fromQueens’ College, University of Cambridge and is amember of the ATT.About the authors
  36. 36. 35ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonECA International’s National SalaryComparison Survey contains a‘snapshot’ comparison of the relativewealth of managers in 55 countries.By comparing local market rate salaries paid tomanagers on a gross and net basis and after havingapplied the relevant cost of living differentials, theresulting ‘relative buying power’ or ‘relative wealth’is the most representative inter-country comparisonof locally-employed managers’ salaries. In terms ofinternational mobility, it highlights the importanceof establishing an appropriate remunerationpackage when moving an employee between anytwo locations and provides an easy-to-use guide towhen and where it is or is not appropriate totransfer assignees on a local pay basis.ECA pointsECA points are part of a job evaluation system thatmeasures the influence, scope and responsibilitiesof a job. They can be used to correlate with othersystems including Hay points. For further details,please contact us.Use of this documentThis material is protected by copyright law. Youmay not copy, redistribute, republish or otherwisemake available the material to third parties withoutthe prior written consent of ECA. In the event thatsuch consent is granted, you must not modify thematerial in any way, you must make aware of theserestrictions any person to whom you provide anyof the material and you must acknowledge ECA asthe source of any of the material.The content of this document is for generalinformation only and in the absence of specificadvice from ECA International as to its applicationto specific circumstances ECA International is notresponsible for any loss caused by reliance placedupon it.Where stated, local salary information in this reporthas been compiled with reference to data providedby Towers Watson.Towers Watson Data Services is a leading provider ofcompensation, benefits and employment practicesinformation to the global employer community,compiling annual survey reports on pay, benefit andemployment practices of local and multinationalcompanies across all major industry sectors.Whilst every effort has been taken to verify theaccuracy of the information quoted in this report,neither Towers Watson nor its affiliates can acceptany responsibility or liability for reliance by anyperson on this information.For further information about Towers Watson:www.towerswatson.comUsing the NSC furtherThe survey results in this document have beencalculated on a euro base, i.e. all salaries havebeen converted to euros and all cost of livingindices have been stated relative to the cost ofthe shopping basket in Belgium.Re-basing the data to different country bases willchange the outcomes, as does looking at differentlevels of seniority as this document begins toillustrate.ECA is able to compile the information using anycountry featured in this report as a base for easeof use, and can provide advice on formulatingpolicy and salary systems to achieve yourbusiness objectives.If you would like any help with interpreting andapplying the data, or wish to view the results onan alternative base country, please contact us ateca.uk@eca-international.com or telephone+44 (0)20 7351 5000.About this reportQuestions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  37. 37. ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison36 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Other salary benchmarking tools availablefrom ECAECA provides a number of surveys into salaryprovision for local and expatriate staff. In additionto providing exceptional insight into policy,practice and market rates, the surveys can formthe basis of bespoke salary analysis for companiesby our Consultancy team. For more information,please contact us.MyExpatriate Market Pay SurveyECA’s unique MyExpatriate Pay Survey focuses onsalaries and benefits for international assigneesaround the globe. The reports include detailedbreakdowns of actual expatriates’ assignmentsalaries and benefits packages as well as graphicalcomparisons enabling you to see where yourorganisation stands in this highly competitive field,both in relation to your own as well as otherindustry groups.The survey will enable you to:• Monitor market positions• Establish remuneration policy• Benchmark expatriate compensation and benefitspackages• View economic summaries for an indication ofpresent business climate, predictions for futuregrowth or upcoming problems• View details of all expatriate salaries and benefitssurveyed• Match jobs accurately through job evaluationEach report is individually designed to show youhow the salary and benefits information yousupplied compares with that of the otherparticipating companies, representing over10,000+ assignees across all countries.The personalised MyExpatriate Market Payreports feature:• Actual salary comparison graphs and look-uptables• Comparison of salaries within your sector usingdynamic graphs• Breakdown of policy and benefits provision ona country-specific basis• Detailed benefits information on a job-by-jobbasis for total remuneration comparisons• Local salary comparison graphs for severalcountries• NEW: Listings now downloadable to excel inthe results section of the online report. Simplyclick the “Download listings” button on thelistings page.This survey is conducted annually between Julyand September. Results are free to participants.For further details about this, and all of ECA’ssurveys, please go to www.eca-international.com> MyECA > Surveys
  38. 38. 37ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonSalary Trends SurveyThis survey contains information collected frommultinational companies about actual and predictedsalary increases for the current and forthcomingyears. Including data analysis in the context ofeconomic conditions (including price inflation), thissurvey is used by international companies formonitoring and benchmarking company salarylevels in local markets around the world.This survey is conducted in August and Septemberevery year and the results are free to participants.For further details about this, and all of ECA’ssurveys, please go to www.eca-international.com >MyECA > SurveysExpatriate Salary Management SurveyConducted biennially, this survey examines howdifferent drivers affect salary management policyand charts developments in use of pay systems.Survey results are free to participants. For furtherdetails about this, and all of ECA’s surveys, please goto www.eca-international.com > MyECA > SurveysAbout ECA International(www.eca-international.com)ECA is the world’s leader in the development andprovision of solutions for the management andassignment of employees around the world. Ourhighly skilled teams help to ensure that businesses’international assignments operate efficiently andcost-effectively.Delivering data, expertise, systems and support informats which suit its clients, ECA’s offer includes acomplete ‘out-source’ package of calculations,advice and services for companies with littleinternational assignment management experienceor resource; subscriptions to comprehensive onlineinformation and software systems for companieswith larger requirements; and custom policy andsystem development projects for companies whomanage thousands of international assigneesaround the world.Accessing data and informationECA’s services can be accessed online through asubscription to ECA data or on an ad-hoc basisthrough the online shop at www.eca-international.com. Purchasers can downloadsample documents and calculations prior tocompleting any transaction.Sample data, reports and calculations can beviewed free by registering to use the website.Additionally, ECA can offer a consultancy servicewhere we can provide a full support and advisoryservice to multinational clients.Questions? Please email us at eca.uk@eca-international.com or call us. Contact details on page 39.
  39. 39. ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison38 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013Other data and services available from ECARegistered users of ECA’s website can access anumber of reports and services online.Calculations and reports available tobuy onlineIndividual reports CalculationsAccommodation Reports Location AllowancesCountry Profiles Gross-to-NetDaily Rates Net-to-GrossExpatriate Salary Management Survey Build-upManaging Mobility SurveySalary Trends SurveysTax ReportsChoosing A Salary SystemOnline data, tools and information availableby subscriptionSee the full range of available online data,tools and information according to yoursubscription (or trial data if you haven’tsubscribed) in the MyECA section of thewebsite, including:Reports CalculatorsAccommodation Reports Build-upBenefits Reports Cost of LivingCost of Living Reports Location AllowancesCountry Profiles Short-term AllowancesCountry Security Reports TaxDaily Rates Exchange RatesExpatriate Market Pay Reports Inflation RatesLabour Law ReportsLocation RatingsSalary Trends SurveysSocial Security ReportsTax Reports
  40. 40. 39ECA Global Perspectives National Salary ComparisonTraining and conferencesBrowse and book online for ECA’s training courses,discussion groups and conferences.SurveysTake part in selected ECA surveys and get theresults free. See Surveys in the MyECA section ofwww.eca-international.com.Further services available from ECAECA’s world-class data and years of experience inthe international assignment arena mean that it isperfectly placed to provide a broad range ofsolutions designed to your particular needs,including:• policy design and review• assignment costings• individual salary calculations and assignmentletters• benchmarking surveys• customised data• system design and implementation• standard and custom software, programs andapplications.For more information, please seewww.eca-international.com or contact us.Contact usFor help, queries or to find out moreabout ECA’s services, please visitwww.eca-international.com,email eca@eca-international.comor call us:London+44 (0)20 7351 5000Hong Kong+852 2121 2388New York+1 212 582 2333Sydney+61 (0)2 8923 5400@ecaintlecaintlblog.wordpress.comECA International
  41. 41. ECA Global Perspectives National Salary Comparison40 © Employment Conditions Abroad Ltd 2013
  42. 42. ECA International London +44 (0)20 7351 5000 Hong Kong +852 2121 2388 New York +1 212 582 2333 Sydney +61 (0)2 8923 5400www.eca-international.com Join the conversation! Follow us on twitter @ECAintl LinkedIn and ecaintlblog.wordpress.com

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