Subjects on Objects in Contexts:Using GICA method to quantify  epistemological subjectivity    Timo Honkela1, Juha Raitio1...
Subjects on Objects in Contexts:Using GICA method to quantify  epistemological subjectivityTimo Honkela    Juha Raitio   K...
Traditional representation of meaning:Generalized (non-contextual, non-subjective)   Gaines: “Designing Visual Languages f...
Meaning is contextual     red wine     red skin     red shirtGärdenfors: Conceptual SpacesHardin Color for Philosophers
Meaning is contextualWHITESNOW -WHITE?
Meaning is contextual●   “Small”, “big”●   “White house”●   “Get”●   “Every” - “Every Swede is tall/blond”●   etc. etc.
Learning meaning from context●   Self-Organizing Semantic Maps    (Ritter & Kohonen 1989)●   Latent Semantic Analysis●   L...
Learning meaning from context:Maps of words in Grimm fairy tales       Honkela, Pulkki & Kohonen 1995
Meaning is subjective
Meaning is subjective●   Good●   Fair●   Useful                       A proper theory of●   Scientific         meaning has...
Modeling variation of   meaning in a community of agentsHonkela: ICANN 1993Steels, Kaplan, Vogt, et al.:Language games    ...
Intersubjective Concept Spacesconcept       symbol                   concept         symbol                           (sha...
Intersubjective Concept Spaces                          (Honkela, Könönen, Lindh-Knuutila & Paukkeri 2008)Ci: N­dimensiona...
Gary B. Fogel11th of June, 2012   WCCI 2012
GICA:        Grounded     Intersubjective        Concept         AnalysisDescription of the method
Subjectifying: adding subjectiveviews into object-context matricesOutcome: Subject-Object-Context (SOC) Tensors
More on subjectification●   A central question in GICA is how to obtain the    data on subjectivity for expanding an objec...
Potential sources for subjectification●   Conceptual surveys:    ●   individual assessment of contextual        appropriat...
Flattening: unfolding 3-way tensor   for traditional 2-way analysis
GICA:   GroundedIntersubjective   Concept    AnalysisExamples of use
Case 1: Wellbeing concepts●   A conceptual survey was conducted among the    participants of the EIT ICT Labs activity “We...
Data collection                     CONTEXTS:OBJECTS:RelaxationHappinessFitnessWellbeingSUBJECTS:Event participants
MDS: Objects x Subjects                      Fitness
NeRV: Objects x Subjects                                                                                    FitnessNeRV:J....
SOM: Objects x Subjects
SOM: Distribution of contexts
SOM: Contexts
Case 2: State of the Union                 Addresses●   In this case, text mining is used for populating    the Subject-Ob...
SOM: Subjects (presidents)
SOM: Objects x Subjects
Analysis of the word health
Related research and    future plans
Our related research on subjectivity:User-specific difficulty assessment                           Paukkeri, Ollikainen & ...
Interoperability●   Current situation:    Formalization and harmonization of knowledge    representations (e.g. using XML)...
Enhanced communication, democratic and        participatory processes
Collaboration opportunities●   Theoretical work    ●   Interdisciplinary: brain research, psychology,        sociology, or...
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Timo Honkela: Subjects on objects in contexts: Using GICA method to quantify epistemological subjectivity

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We have developed a novel method, Grounded Intersubjective Concept Analysis (GICA), for the analysis and visualization of individual differences in language use and conceptualization. The GICA method first employs a conceptual survey or a text mining step to elicit to elicit from varied groups of individuals the particular ways in which terms and associated concepts are used among the individuals. The subsequent analysis and visualization reveals potential underlying groupings of subjects, objects and contexts.

In order to demonstrate the use of the GICA method, we present the results of two case studies. In the first case, a GICA analysis of health-related concepts is conducted. In the second one, the State of the Union addresses by US presidents are analyzed.

The GICA method can be used, for instance, to support education of heterogeneous audiences, public planning processes and participatory design, conflict resolution, environmental problem solving, interprofessional and interdisciplinary communication, product development processes, mergers of organizations, and building enhanced knowledge representations in semantic web.

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Timo Honkela: Subjects on objects in contexts: Using GICA method to quantify epistemological subjectivity

  1. 1. Subjects on Objects in Contexts:Using GICA method to quantify epistemological subjectivity Timo Honkela1, Juha Raitio1, Krista Lagus1, Ilari T. Nieminen1, Nina Honkela2, Mika Pantzar3 1 Aalto University (former Helsinki University of Technology)Department of Information and Computer Science (former Neural Networks Research Center, Adaptive Informatics Research Center) 2 University of Helsinki 3 National Consumer Research Center Finland
  2. 2. Subjects on Objects in Contexts:Using GICA method to quantify epistemological subjectivityTimo Honkela Juha Raitio Krista LagusIlari T. Nieminen Nina Honkela Mika Pantzar
  3. 3. Traditional representation of meaning:Generalized (non-contextual, non-subjective) Gaines: “Designing Visual Languages for Description Logics” http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~gaines/reports/KBS/VLL/
  4. 4. Meaning is contextual red wine red skin red shirtGärdenfors: Conceptual SpacesHardin Color for Philosophers
  5. 5. Meaning is contextualWHITESNOW -WHITE?
  6. 6. Meaning is contextual● “Small”, “big”● “White house”● “Get”● “Every” - “Every Swede is tall/blond”● etc. etc.
  7. 7. Learning meaning from context● Self-Organizing Semantic Maps (Ritter & Kohonen 1989)● Latent Semantic Analysis● Latent Dirichlet Allocation● WordICA● etc. etc. Honkela, Pulkki & Kohonen 1995
  8. 8. Learning meaning from context:Maps of words in Grimm fairy tales Honkela, Pulkki & Kohonen 1995
  9. 9. Meaning is subjective
  10. 10. Meaning is subjective● Good● Fair● Useful A proper theory of● Scientific meaning has to take● Democratic this into account.● Sustainable (opposite to the view given by V. Cherkassky● etc. about an hour ago)
  11. 11. Modeling variation of meaning in a community of agentsHonkela: ICANN 1993Steels, Kaplan, Vogt, et al.:Language games (Lindh-Knuutila, Lagus & Honkela, SAB06) Related to e.g. Steels and Vogt on language games
  12. 12. Intersubjective Concept Spacesconcept symbol concept symbol (shared) space space space space context C1 S1 C2 S2  observations signal Sender d Receiver (Honkela, Könönen, (agent 1) (agent 2) Lindh-Knuutila & Paukkeri 2008)
  13. 13. Intersubjective Concept Spaces (Honkela, Könönen, Lindh-Knuutila & Paukkeri 2008)Ci: N­dimensional  ξ: si ∈ Si → Cmetric concept  An individual space  mapping function  from symbols to  concepts Observing f1 and after symbol S: symbol space, selection process, agent 1 The vocabulary of an φi: Si → D communicates a symbol s*agent that consists of  An individual  to agent 2 as signal d.  When agent discrete symbols mapping from agent  2 observes d, it maps it  to some  is vocabulary to the  s2 ∈ S2  by using the function φ ­11.  λ : Ci × Cj → R, i ≠ j signal space D and  Then it maps the symbol to some A distance between  an inverse mapping point in its concept space by using two points in the  φ­1 i from the signal  ξ2.  If this point is close to its concept spaces of  space to the symbol  observation f2 in the sense of λ, different agents space the communication process has  succeeded.
  14. 14. Gary B. Fogel11th of June, 2012 WCCI 2012
  15. 15. GICA: Grounded Intersubjective Concept AnalysisDescription of the method
  16. 16. Subjectifying: adding subjectiveviews into object-context matricesOutcome: Subject-Object-Context (SOC) Tensors
  17. 17. More on subjectification● A central question in GICA is how to obtain the data on subjectivity for expanding an object- context matrix into the tensor that accounts additionally for subjectivity.● The basic idea is that for each element in the object-context matrix one needs several subjective evaluations.● Specifically, the GICA data collection measures for each subject si the relevance xijk of an object oj in a context ck
  18. 18. Potential sources for subjectification● Conceptual surveys: ● individual assessment of contextual appropriateness● Text mining: ● statistics of word/phrase-context patterns● Empirical psychology: ● reaction times, etc.● Brain research
  19. 19. Flattening: unfolding 3-way tensor for traditional 2-way analysis
  20. 20. GICA: GroundedIntersubjective Concept AnalysisExamples of use
  21. 21. Case 1: Wellbeing concepts● A conceptual survey was conducted among the participants of the EIT ICT Labs activity “Wellbeing Innovation Camp” that took place between 26th and 29th of October 2010 in Vierumäki, Finland.● The participants were asked to fill in a data matrix that consisted of the objects as rows and the contexts as columns.● Each individual’s task was to determine how strongly an object is associated with a context, using Likert scale from 1 to 5
  22. 22. Data collection CONTEXTS:OBJECTS:RelaxationHappinessFitnessWellbeingSUBJECTS:Event participants
  23. 23. MDS: Objects x Subjects Fitness
  24. 24. NeRV: Objects x Subjects FitnessNeRV:J. Venna, J. Peltonen, K. Nybo, H. Aidos, and S. Kaski. Information Retrieval Perspective to NonlinearDimensionality Reduction for Data Visualization. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 11:451-490, 2010.
  25. 25. SOM: Objects x Subjects
  26. 26. SOM: Distribution of contexts
  27. 27. SOM: Contexts
  28. 28. Case 2: State of the Union Addresses● In this case, text mining is used for populating the Subject-Object-Context tensor● This took place by calculating the frequencies on how often a subject uses an object word in the context of a context word ● Context window of 30 words
  29. 29. SOM: Subjects (presidents)
  30. 30. SOM: Objects x Subjects
  31. 31. Analysis of the word health
  32. 32. Related research and future plans
  33. 33. Our related research on subjectivity:User-specific difficulty assessment Paukkeri, Ollikainen & Honkela, Information Processing & Management, 2012
  34. 34. Interoperability● Current situation: Formalization and harmonization of knowledge representations (e.g. using XML)● Future possibility: Meaning negotiation between systems based on SOC tensors and further developments Context data is important!
  35. 35. Enhanced communication, democratic and participatory processes
  36. 36. Collaboration opportunities● Theoretical work ● Interdisciplinary: brain research, psychology, sociology, organization research, etc. ● Methodological – Formulation in different theoretical frameworks – Analogical development with crisp>fuzzy: “objective”>subjective● Experimental ● Case studies● Research visits, tutorials, workshops● GICA workshop/summer school in 2013 in Finland

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