Individual behavior Ch 12


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Individual behavior Ch 12

  1. 1. Individual Behavior Chapter 12
  2. 2. How do perceptions affect individual behavior?Perception – the process through which people receive and interpret information from the environment
  3. 3. • Perceptual distortions can obscure individual differencesStereotype - assigns attributes commonly associated with a group to an individual.Halo effect – using one attribute to develop an overall impression of a person or situationSelective perception – focuses his attention on things consistent with existing beliefs, needs or actionsProjection – assigns personal attributes to individuals
  4. 4. • Perception can cause attribution errors as we explain events and problemsAttribution – process of creating explanations for eventsFundamental attribution error – overestimates internal factors and underestimates external factors as influences on someone’s behaviorSelf-serving bias – underestimates internal factors and overestimates external; factors as influences on someone’s behavior
  5. 5. • Impression management is a way of influencing how other perceive usImpression management – tries to create desired perception in the eyes of others
  6. 6. How do personalities influence individual behavior?Personality – profile of characteristics making a person unique from others• Big Five personality traits describe work- related individual differences
  7. 7. • The Myers-Briggs type indicator is a popular approach to personality development
  8. 8. • Self-monitoring and other personality traits influence work behaviorLocus of control – extent to which one believes happens under controlAuthoritarianism – degree to which a person defers to authority and accepts status differencesMachiavellianism – degree to which someone uses power manipulativelySelf-monitoring – degree to which someone is able to adjust behavior in response to external factors
  9. 9. • People with type-A personalities tend to stress themselvesStress – state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints and opportunitiesType-A personality – oriented toward extreme achieve, impatience and perfectionism
  10. 10. • Stress has consequences for work performance and personal healthConstructive stress – positive influence on effort, creativity and diligence in workDestructive stress – negative influence on one’s performanceJob burnout - physical and mental exhaustion from work
  11. 11. Workplace rage – aggressive behavior towards co-workers and work settingPersonal wellness – pursuit for a personal- heath promotion program
  12. 12. How do attitudes, emotions, and moods influence individual behavior?• Attitudes predispose people to act in certain waysCognitive dissonance – discomfort felt when behavior and attitude are inconsistent
  13. 13. • Job satisfaction – the degree to which an individual feels positive towards a job and work experience
  14. 14. • Job satisfaction influences behaviorWithdrawal behaviors – include absenteeism and turnoverOrganizational Citizenship behaviors – things people do to go the extra mile in their workEmployees management – strong sense of belonging and conviction with ones work and employer
  15. 15. • Job satisfaction has a complex relationship with job performance
  16. 16. • Emotions and moods are positive and negative states of mind that influence behaviorEmotional intelligence – ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectivelyEmotions – strong feelings directed towards someone or somethingMoods – generalized positive and negative feeling or states of mind Mood contagion – spill over of one’s negative and positive moods to others