Greek Theater New2


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  • Greek Theater New2

    1. 1. GREECE Understanding culture and art
    2. 2. YOUR GOALS ARE TO Understand the elements of Greek theater. Recognize how Greek ideals permeated Greek culture Explain the art of rhetoric and the value of persuasion Identify fallacies of reasoning . . . .
    3. 3. Corinth
    4. 4. Corinth
    5. 5. Corinth
    6. 6. ANCIENT GREEK PERIOD Theban Plays Oedipus, OaC, Antigone
    7. 7. Greeks believed: <ul><li>MAN IS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Throughout history, all great civilizations have tried to connect themselves to the Greeks: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The White House
    10. 13. What is Philosophy?
    11. 14. Age-Old Profound Questions What is Real and What is Not? Why Are We Here? How Did We Get Here? Where Are We Headed? .
    12. 15. Profound Questions Are often simple YET… Are philosophically “deep.” . . .
    13. 16. Their Answers Are sometimes simple YET… Often paradoxical or even unknowable. . . .
    14. 18. “ The UNEXAMINED LIFE is not worth living. ” Socrates before his death in 399 B.C.
    15. 20. <ul><li>WHAT IS BEAUTY ? </li></ul>Aesthetics
    16. 21. <ul><li>WHAT IS TRUTH ? </li></ul>Epistemology
    17. 22. What is…
    18. 23. <ul><li>WHAT IS GOOD </li></ul><ul><li>THINKING ? </li></ul>Logic
    19. 24. <ul><li>WHAT IS REALITY ? </li></ul>Metaphysics
    20. 25. <ul><li>WHAT IS RIGHT ? </li></ul>Ethics
    21. 26. <ul><li>WHAT FORM OF GOVERNMENT IS BEST ? </li></ul>Politics
    22. 29. POLITICS
    23. 33. The Greeks wished to maintain ideal proportions when building any room or like structure from the ground up.
    24. 34. Today: The Parthenon in Athens (Int.)
    25. 35. the Fibonacci Series 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, . .
    26. 36. GREEK DRAMA
    27. 37. <ul><li>DRAMA: a literary composition written to be performed by actors in which a central character called a tragic protagonist or hero suffers some serious misfortune which is not accidental and therefore meaningless, but is significant in that the misfortune is logically connected with the hero's actions. </li></ul>
    28. 38. SOPHOCLES <ul><li>496 BC to 406 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Son of wealthy Athenian merchant </li></ul><ul><li>Lived during golden age of Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important figure in society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes cultural spokesperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted playwright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote primarily tragedies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Witnessed decline of Athens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote Oedipus at Colunus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 39. 496-406 B.C. “ Fortunate Sophocles who after a long life died, a happy and a gifted man after writing many fine tragedies he made a good end, having endured no evil. ” Phrynichas, Greek Comic Poet
    30. 40. GREEK THEATER <ul><li>Plays were held at amphitheater for the Feast of Dionysius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tregedy means “goat lamentaion”—dionysis was a satyr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God of wine and ecstasy </li></ul></ul>
    31. 44. GREEK THEATER <ul><li>Theater used a chorus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theater itself began as chorus—singers—and then one person stepped out and sang solo  protagonist. (Remaining chorus was antagonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorus reflects what the audience is thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ color commentary” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides background and spectacle </li></ul></ul>
    32. 45. GREEK THEATER <ul><li>Characters wore a mask—called a “persona” </li></ul><ul><li>Faces reflected a variety of characters and their emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Masks contained “megaphone” to amplify their voices </li></ul>
    33. 47. Skene
    34. 48. Ekkyklema
    35. 49. From Aristotle’s Poetics The Six Aspects of Tragedy
    36. 50. From Aristotle’s Poetics The Six Aspects of Tragedy * <ul><li>PLOT </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTER </li></ul><ul><li>SPECTACLE </li></ul><ul><li>SONG </li></ul><ul><li>DICTION </li></ul><ul><li>THOUGHT </li></ul>
    37. 51. From Aristotle’s Poetics The Six Aspects of Tragedy <ul><li>PLOT </li></ul><ul><li>Plot is the way the incidents are presented to the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Must be “whole” –beginning/ middle and end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive moment-  begins cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be complete and have “unity of action” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No “deus ex machina” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No “episodic plots” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plot can be simple or complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catastrophe (cata/strophe): change in fortune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perepetia: a reversal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anagnorisis: recognition </li></ul></ul>
    38. 52. Contemporary Short Story Pattern
    39. 54. From Aristotle’s Poetics The Six Aspects of Tragedy <ul><li>CHARACTER </li></ul><ul><li>Personal motivations intricately connected to cause/ effect aspect of plot </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist should be renowned and prosperous  change from good to bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamartia: a tragic flaw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characters should have the following qualities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good or fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness of character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True to life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary or probable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealized/ ennobled </li></ul></ul>
    40. 55. From Aristotle’s Poetics The Six Aspects of Tragedy <ul><li>THOUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to theme </li></ul><ul><li>DICTION </li></ul><ul><li>Word choice is proper and appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on style and use of literary devices (metaphor) </li></ul><ul><li>SONG </li></ul><ul><li>Musical element of the play </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the chorus </li></ul><ul><li>SPECTACLE </li></ul><ul><li>* Production for effect </li></ul>
    41. 56. Persuasion and Rhetoric
    42. 57. David’s Death of Socrates: Neoclassical Period (1787)
    43. 58. Rhetoric <ul><li>Taught to Greek farmers to make their cases at court. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle described rhetoric as ‘the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary: the art of speaking or writing effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be negative—”baseless talk or writing” </li></ul></ul>
    44. 59. Rhetoric <ul><li>ETHOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal based upon the character of the speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on reputation of author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OLD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAMILY NAME </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOBILITY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TITLE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESUME </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APPEARANCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PATHOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal based upon emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be wary of becoming mindless in the face of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pity, shame, indignation, anger </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 60. Rhetoric <ul><li>LOGOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal based on logic or reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDUCTIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific to general </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of observations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John was late and his hair was messy  He overslept. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEDUCTIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General to specific </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of syllogism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) premise + 2) premise  conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 61. <ul><li>FALLACIES of REASONING </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ad Hominem Circumstantial </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ad Hominem Tu Quoque </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ad Populem (Appeal to Belief) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Burden of Proof </li></ul><ul><li>5. Appeal to Ridicule </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>7. Division </li></ul>
    47. 62. <ul><li>AD HOMINEM CIRCUMSTANTIAL </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Lumpy can’t possibly be right about his plan to help the poor because he’s never known what it’s like to be hungry. </li></ul>
    48. 63. <ul><li>AD HOMINEM </li></ul><ul><li>TU QUOQUE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>“ That hypocrite of a cop who gave us a ticket for speeding was completely in the wrong for doing so because I saw that very same officer breaking the speed limit herself just yesterday!” </li></ul>
    49. 64. <ul><li>BURDEN of PROOF </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Joe B: “I think we should provide money to the flood victims in New Orleans.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lumpy: “But that’s not a good idea since we’re starving ourselves.” </li></ul><ul><li>Joe B: “But how can you possibly against helping others?” </li></ul>
    50. 65. <ul><li>BANDWAGON </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Hazing the freshman together isn’t a big deal. Anyway, you should do it if only because if you don’t, the team won’t ever trust you ever again. </li></ul>
    51. 66. <ul><li>DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>That ball is green; therefore the atoms that make up the ball are also green. </li></ul>