Child Labor and Trafficking in the Developing World


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Child Labor and Trafficking in the Developing World

  1. 1. Child Labor and Trafficking in the Developing World Tim Berg
  2. 2. <ul><li>Trafficking of Children starts Several Ways: </li></ul><ul><li>˃ sold by their parents for little monetary value </li></ul><ul><li>˃ placed with family creditor as reimbursement </li></ul><ul><li>˃ promised a job that ends up under terrible conditions </li></ul><ul><li> while the mediator collects the child’s wages </li></ul><ul><li>˃ given to a person who promises a good education/job </li></ul><ul><li> for the child </li></ul><ul><li>(Aronowitz, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A total of 8.4 million children are involved in child trafficking, in forced or bonded labor, are soldiers, are prostitutes or involved in pornography or participate in illicit activities. Of these children, 68 percent are in bonded or forced labor ” (Edmonds and Pavcnik, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Trafficking in a growing industry and large source of activity and income for organized criminal networks, generating approximately $6 billion in 1993 (Aronowitz, 2001). </li></ul>Background Information
  3. 3. <ul><li>POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalization/Globalization of World Economy/Markets </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Operation of labor market and increase in </li></ul><ul><li> labor demand (Palley,2002) </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Necessity to reduce costs (cheap labor) </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Poorly educated parents make incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>decisions </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Children not educated on opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>available </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Human Capital is not developed </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Country </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Poor Economy </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Ethnic Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Discrimination/Classes of Society </li></ul><ul><li>These reasons motivate people to seek a better life. </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Inadequately protected human rights </li></ul><ul><li>(Satz,2002) </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Lack of Legislation(Aronowitz,2001) </li></ul><ul><li> • Low penalties for human trafficking </li></ul><ul><li> • little involvement between agencies of </li></ul><ul><li>country </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Poor Border Control </li></ul><ul><li>˃ Corruption </li></ul><ul><li> • Some governments benefit from trafficking(Aronowitz,2001) </li></ul>Symptoms of Child Labor Symptoms of Child Labor Symptoms of Child Labor Symptoms of Child Labor
  4. 4. <ul><li>Child labor is basically an indicator of Poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Most working children live in low-income countries ” (Edmonds and Pavcnik,2005). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Traditionally, countries of origin are developing nations ” (Aronowitz,2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Belief of better life (out of poverty) causes people to get involved with trafficking of their children </li></ul>The Link to Poverty
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Many Children who do not work do not attend school. Many of these ‘Nowhere’ children are likely to be girls ” (Satz 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Girls are more likely to work long hours than are boys (largely because of the additional domestic work performed by girls in most cultures) ” (Edmonds and Pavcnik, 2005). </li></ul>Women’s Status 74/m_13388968e66ac7782ed121fdac7fc7f9.jpg <ul><li>Women are the usual victims of sexual exploitation and trafficking. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used as domestic servants frequently as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are degraded in cultures that allow human trafficking and are left without many options. After being forced into prostitution, the majority of cultures will not accept the women and they are left helpless. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ethics and Morality <ul><li>Morality: </li></ul><ul><li>˃” child labor raises moral concerns </li></ul><ul><li>because of the weak agency of </li></ul><ul><li>children…but even if child labor were </li></ul><ul><li>fully informed and developed, it </li></ul><ul><li>would not be morally justified…if all </li></ul><ul><li>the options available are unjust ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Satz,2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Rights Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>˃human rights-” work is central activity of life…plays key role in personal development…should have </li></ul><ul><li>rights at work to ensure that work contributes positively to the aspects of human growth ” (Palley,2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue Ethics, Justice, Non-maleficence, and Categorical Imperative Theories/Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>˃” Forced labour…are subject to the control of soldiers and armed guards who will beat or shoot workers </li></ul><ul><li>who try to escape…Traffickers and enforcers have been know to use excessive violence against their </li></ul><ul><li>victims to maintain control (through) monitoring of whereabouts, threats against family, and actual </li></ul><ul><li>violence including burning, assaulting and raping the victim ” (Aronowitz,2001). </li></ul><ul><li>˃This statement illustrates violations of Virtue Ethics (not actions of good character), Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Theory (equality of treatment), Non-maleficence Principle (do no harm), and Categorical </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative (exploitation is wrong, people should not be treated as means to an end). </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Education (need for human capital) </li></ul><ul><li>˃inform parents about costs of child labor versus the benefits of education </li></ul><ul><li>˃strengthen education system, make it affordable, and have government </li></ul><ul><li>invest in it </li></ul><ul><li>(Satz,2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Markets </li></ul><ul><li>˃Improve living standards and average household income </li></ul><ul><li>˃”credit markets allow household to borrow against future earnings” </li></ul><ul><li>(Edmonds and Pavcnik,2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>˃Create laws supporting free markets </li></ul><ul><li>˃strengthen political institutions and avoid mass corruption </li></ul><ul><li>˃policies enforcing elimination of exploitative child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>It is not an easy task to solve child labor problems. Many developing countries’ governments are reluctant to stop it because the developed world was created with the use of child labor. </li></ul>Solving the Problem
  8. 8. Works Cited <ul><li>Aronowitz, Alexis A. “Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenomenon, the Markets that Drive It, and the Organisations that Promote It.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 9 (June 2001):163-195. 4 Nov. 2008 <http://www.>. </li></ul><ul><li>Edmonds, Eric V. and Nina Pavcnik. “Child Labor in the Global Economy.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19 (Winter 2005):199-220. 4 Nov. 2008 <http://www.>. </li></ul><ul><li>Palley, Thomas I. “The Child Labor Problem and the Need for International Labor Standards.” Journal of Economic Issues 36 (Sept. 2002):1-15. 4 Nov. 2008 <http://>. </li></ul><ul><li>Satz, Debra. “Child Labor: A Normative Perspective.” The World Bank Economic Review 17 (May 2002):297-309. 4 Nov. 2008 < 17/2/297>. </li></ul>