Hazard identification starts with the placard / label system and knowing what each hazard class represents.As a responder, we must protect ourselves first. Just like the job of recovery of an overturned vehicle has inherent dangers, the presence of hazardous materials on a scene adds another layer of danger that will significantly affect the outcome. The goal of the awareness training and refresher is to identify the hazardous materials, remind the responder of the dangers, and methods to prevent exposure.
1 – Statistics are from the Governor's Office of Highway Safety, State of Georgia and reflect the last year statistics have been published.2 – Hazardous materials statistics are from the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), part of the US DOT.
The breakdown shown covers calendar year 2009 in which 14,093 incidents involving hazardous materials were reported. As the results indicate, 81% of all reported incidents involved Flammable / Combustible or Corrosive products.
Motor fluids (oil, fuel – diesel primarily, antifreeze, hydraulic fluid) are all considered hazardous by definition under the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) standards established in 40 CFR. Therefore, these fluids need to be properly addressed on the accident scene from not only the traveling public’s safety but to the safety of the environment as well.
Placards and labels on containers are the outward identification system that can be used to determine what type of hazardous material may be in the load. Understanding what each hazard class represents and the dangers associated with them will aid in protecting you the responder on the scene.
Most operators / supervisors carry rain gear. Rain suits are typically made of impermeable fabrics and would provide moderate to excellent protection from all but the most aggressive chemicals. If rain suits are worn in a hazardous materials incident, they should be properly discarded to avoid additional contamination spread or personal injury at a later date.Because of the additional requirements, training, and medical needs for proper respirator usage, Towing / Recovery Operators are not advised to maintain respirators in excess of the readily available P100 rated mask. This do not address organic vapors, only particulate filtration.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AWARENESSREFRESHER TRAINING
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS REFRESHER Purpose of the Refresher Course To remind the responder of the hazardous material classifications Reinforce how to recognize, understand and protect from hazardous materials on a scene Cover the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that a Towing/Recovery Operator would have an use on a response
Accident Data In 20061 a total of 23,337 traffic accidents were reported involving trucks (Class 6 and larger) in the State of Georgia Nationally, 20,4322 transportation accidents were reported which involved hazardous materials for the same period.
Spilled motor fluids As a part of haz-mat awareness, responders need to be aware of the dangers associated with the motor fluids as well. By definition, these products in the tanks of the truck are exempt from the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) for the purpose of transport only. Once released and per 40 CFR regulations, these products are hazardous materials.
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Identification Placards (10” x 10”) are used on the outside of a truck or bulk containers (totes) A placard with the ID number is required if the shipment is considered a bulk shipment or in excess of 119 gallons per container. For non-bulk shipments in a truck (i.e. drums, boxes) a placard is required if the product weight is over 1,001 lbs. Labels (4” x 4”) are used on individual boxes/containers/drums and are required on any hazardous material shipment.
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Classes There are 9 hazard classes used to provide a warning regarding the package / vessel contents Each of the 9 classes represent specific hazards They are represented by color specific warning “sign” and numbers
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Classes: 1 Explosives (1.1 – 1.6) 6.1 (Inhalation hazard Zone A 2 Compressed Gases or B) Poison Inhalation 2.1 Flammable Hazard 2.2 Non-Flammable 6.1 other than (inhalation 2.3 Poison hazard, Zone A or B, Poison 3 Flammable / Combustible Gas) Liquids 6.2 Infectious Substance 4 Flammable / Combustible 7 Radioactive Solids (Red and Black and Blue) 5.1 Oxidizers 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous 5.2 Organic Peroxides Goods
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 1 - Explosives
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 2 – Compressed Gases
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 2 – Compressed Gases Division 2.2 – Oxygen Oxygen is a non-flammable compressed gas that will support combustion (like an oxidizer), however, is still in commerce as a compressed gas. Therefore, the product carries a compressed gas label similar to the oxidizer label (seen later).
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 3 – Flammable / Combustible Liquid Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids containing solids in solution or suspension that give off a flammable vapor at a temperature not more than 141o F (60.5°C), closed cup test, or not more than 150o F (65.6°C), open cup test, normally referred to as the flash point. Combustible liquids are greater than 141o F but less than 200o F - Gasoline, hair spray, ethanol, diesel fuel (combustible), alcohol
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 4 – Flammable Solids Flammable solids; substances liable to spontaneous combustion; and substances that in contact with water emit flammable gases This is broken down into 3 divisions: 4.1 Flammable Solids 4.2 Spontaneously Combustible 4.3 Dangerous When Wet
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Any material for which the specific activity is greater than 70 kBq/kg. Carbon-14, phosphorous-32, smoke detectors
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 8 – Corrosive Substances that, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue, or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport; they may also cause other hazards. Car / truck batteries, sodium hydroxide, Draino, sodium hypochlorite, detergents/soap concentrates
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Hazard Class 9 – Miscellaneous substances and articles that during transport present a danger not covered by other classes, and include substances that are transported or offered for transport at temperatures equal to or exceeding 100°C in a liquid state or at temperatures equal to or exceeding 240°C in the solid state. Dry Ice (carbon dioxide, solid), Air bag inflators, certain polystyrene beads, self defense spray – non pressurized, Lithium Batteries
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Additional Placards When two or more hazardous materials are being transported in which neither requires HC specific placarding, a Dangerous Placard may be displayed (when 2,205 lbs of the specific HC are reached, the hazard specific placard must be applied).
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Additional warnings Certain materials, while not identified in a hazard class, may pose a threat to marine life. These materials are identified as a Marine Pollutant. These items should never be allowed to enter a waterway or drainage system.
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Basic Safety Guidelines While on scene of a hazardous materials incident accident, how can I be exposed to the material? Product residual on a portion of the truck Product on the ground underneath the truck/trailer that is inaccessible due to the position of the truck Products that may rupture during recovery of a vehicle Airborne hazards continually stirred by the recovery efforts
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Basic Safety Guidelines As a recovery operator, what can I use to provide protection from chemical exposure? Safety glasses Rubber gloves Leather gloves / shoes will retain liquids which can cause immediate harm or cause a contact situation later Rain suit / poly coveralls Rubber over boots / rubber boots
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Basic Safety Guidelines Emergency Decon In most cases, the best policy is to wash down with clean water immediately!!!! Fire department, bottled drinking water Remove contaminated clothing / gloves, eyewear – anything that has been impacted by the product should be removed and disposed of – not reused! If eye contact has occurred, flush for long periods (15 minutes is recommended in many cases) Seek medical attention immediately to prevent long term exposure / contact issues
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Where can we find information on hazardous materials?
HAZ-MAT AWARENESS Emergency Response Guidebook This is a good initial response and information tool to aid in the identification of and protection from a hazardous material The ERG provides basic information which includes Potential hazards Public safety Protective clothing Evacuation Emergency response guidelines Spills / Leaks First Aid