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Passive House in a Cold Climate @ BBBB 2015 WI Conference

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This is the lecture I gave at the 2015 Better Business Better Buildings conference at Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin. It is a primer on the Passive House building energy standard and its application in new construction and retrofit in a cold North American climate zone.

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Passive House in a Cold Climate @ BBBB 2015 WI Conference

  1. 1. Passivhaus (pas′iv-ho̵us) Passive House
  2. 2. Building Performance, Measured Results Holistic Design for Sustainable Homes Stephan Tanner Tim Eian
  3. 3. Learning Objectives • Understanding performance based design and the Passive House building energy standard • Applying the Passive House standard in a cold climate • Systems and assemblies used in Passive House projects in a cold climate • Benefits of Passive House design in a cold climate
  4. 4. Milestones
  5. 5. “BioHaus” First certified Passive House in North America Photos: Cal Rice
  6. 6. Photos: Cal Rice
  7. 7. Photos: Cal Rice
  8. 8. “Passive House in the Woods” First certified Passive House and PHIUS+ in Wisconsin Net-energy positive TM Photos: Chad Holder
  9. 9. Photos: Chad Holder
  10. 10. Photos: Chad Holder
  11. 11. Photos: Chad Holder
  12. 12. Photos: Chad Holder
  13. 13. Photos: Chad Holder
  14. 14. “MinnePHit House” First certified EnerPHit project in a cold climate zone Photos: Paul Brazelton
  15. 15. Photos: Spaces Magazine
  16. 16. Photos: Spaces Magazine
  17. 17. 24th St. Passive House Education & Demonstration Photos: Paul Ziehm
  18. 18. Photos: Paul Ziehm
  19. 19. Photos: Paul Ziehm
  20. 20. Passivhaus - Passive House “A rigorous, voluntary building energy standard focusing on highest energy efficiency and quality of life at low operating cost.” The Passive House Standard is the most rigorous building energy standard in the world. Consultants, projects or building components that have obtained the right to carry the logo have committed themselves to design excellence and the Passive House energy performance criteria.
  21. 21. Think globally, build locally. Global Standard
  22. 22. Global Adoption
  23. 23. Third-Party Certified
  24. 24. Tool
  25. 25. Certifications RetrofitNew Construction Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, Germany 30+ certifiers worldwide
  26. 26. PHIUS+ United States TM Passive House Institute U.S., Chicago, Il Local raters and tie-in with other certifications New sovereign standard for the U.S.
  27. 27. • Conservation first • Minimize losses • Maximize gains Basic Concept
  28. 28. Active vs. Passive Passive: 4.75 kBtu/(sf yr)Active: 25-125 kBtu/(sf yr) 85 - 450 kWh/(m2 a), typically found in the U.S. 15kWh/(m2 a), maximum target Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001
  29. 29. Energy Footprint Heating (active) Hot water (active) Cooling (active) Household Electricity Heat & hot water (passive) • 90% less heating energy • 66% less total energy Code Passive House
  30. 30. Background
  31. 31. Energy Crisis
  32. 32. Illinois Lo-Cal House, 1974 Source: The Small Homes Council at the University of Illinois Conservation = Resource
  33. 33. Back To The Future Image Source: PHIUS
  34. 34. Saskatchewan Conservation House Saskatoon, Canada in 1977/78 Early Models Image Source: http://esask.uregina.ca
  35. 35. Passive Solar Designs
  36. 36. PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Energy per square foot and year targets Solar heat gains (passive) Solar heat gains (passive) and internal heat gains (passive) Shading devices control solar heat gains Shading devices and glazing control solar heat gains Thermal mass absorbs and stores solar energy Insulation and air tightness retain space conditioning energy Time-release of space conditioning energy Heat-recovery ventilation High temperature fluctuations Highest level of comfort Passive Solar Design vs. Passive House
  37. 37. Energy per Square Foot and Year Gas mileage for buildings. Metrics
  38. 38. ≤ 4.75 kBtu/(sf yr) ≤ 15kWh/(m2 a) Total energy used to heat or cool a building. Space Conditioning Energy Targets ≤ 7.9 kBtu/(sf yr) ≤ 25kWh/(m2 a)
  39. 39. ≤ 38 kBtu/(sf yr) ≤ 120kWh/(m2 a) Total energy used to heat or cool a building. Source Energy Targets varies ≤ 120 kWh/(m2 a) + ((QH - 15 kWh/(m2 a)) * 1.2)
  40. 40. ≤ 3.17 Btu/(h sf) ≤ 10W/m2 Heating energy can be supplied through ventilation system. Heating Load Target (suggested)
  41. 41. ≤0.6 ACH50 Measured with a blower door in the field. Airtightness Targets ≤1.0 ACH50
  42. 42. EnerPHit offers a Component Track. Component Targets • Maximum U-values • Minimum R-values • SHGC requirements • Minimum heat-recovery rates
  43. 43. Predictable Outcome & Measurable Results Passive House Planning Package - PHPP
  44. 44. Performance-Based Design • More than a prescriptive checklist • Energy-modeled standards-based performance • Field testing • Third-party verification
  45. 45. Paradigm Shifts Incrementalism > Leapfrog Component > System Design in a vacuum > Integrated design
  46. 46. Source:TE Studio Schematic AIR-INTAKE HEAT RECOVERY VENITALTION SUPPLY AIR • bedrooms • living areas Let in winter sun to heat and block summer sun to cool. Significant insulation. High solar heat gain. Minimize heat loss through the building enclosure. External temperatures have no effect on internal comfort. The consistent temperature of the ground passively pre-heats ventilation air in the winter, and pre-cools and de-humidifies it in the summer. The amount of energy it takes to heat a Passive House building can be compared to the amount of heat a hair dryer generates EXTRACT AIR • baths • kitchen • aux. spaces EXHAUST CONTINUOUSLY SUPER-INSULATED & AIRTIGHT BUILDING ENVELOPE ADVANCED WINDOWS AND DOORS THERMAL BRIDGE-FREE DETAILS OPTIONAL EARTH TUBE HEAT RECOVERY VENTILATOR = ACTIVE SHADING = THERMOSTAT
  47. 47. Implementation
  48. 48. Continuous High R-Value Insulation
  49. 49. Source: Waltjen 2007 Compare to standard 2x4 wall
  50. 50. . - 9'-7 1/2" - 9'-8 1/4" CONNECT POLY MEMBRANE TO T.O. SLAB S PERIMETER DRAIN/ PASSIVE RADON VENT, OR SUMP, CONNECT TO VERT. RADON STACK THICKENED EDGE PER STRUC. ENG. TYPICAL SLAB ASSEMBLY > INTERIOR < - SCHEDULED FLOORING - STRUCTURAL CONCRETE SLAB: STRUCTURE INFILL AREAS WITHOUT STRUC. REQUIREMENTS WITH SAND, MIN. SLAB THICKNESS 4", VERIFY WITH STRUC. ENG. - (2) 6 MIL POLY MEMBRANE: VAPOR AND AIR BARRIER TAPE AND SEAL JOINTS & PROTRUSIONS AIRTIGHT - 10" EPS (COMPRESSION STRENGTH PER STRUCT. ENG.): INSULATION - BASE PER STRUC. ENG. > UNDISTURBED SOIL < ICAL ASSEMBLY SECTION
  51. 51. Thermal Bridge Free Construction
  52. 52. Understanding thermal bridges
  53. 53. Thermal bridge-free by design.
  54. 54. Continuous Airtightness
  55. 55. 11" EIFS 11" ICF INSULATED DUCT O.D. 180MM (LUEFTA) 2" ARMAFLEX PIPE INSULATION TAPE ICF TO DUCT, AIR-TIGHT CONNECTION SEALANT JOINT SCHEDULED WALL FINISH FILL GAPS WITH EXPANSION FOAM BRING INSULATION TIGHT TO PIPE STO GUARD WET FLASHING SYSTEM 12" PE PIPE, SLEEVE CUT BACK FINISH AND CAULK COMPRESSION TAPE INTERIOREXTERIOR REFERENCE DETAILS: - STO W 260 NOTE: - USE ONLY STO CERTIFIED SEALANT - COLOR MATCH CAULK TO FACADE COLOR SUGGESTED INSTALLATION: 1) INSTALL PIPE 2) INSTALL COMPRESSION TAPE 3) INSULATE TIGHT TO PIPE AND COMPRESS TAPE 4) INSTALL FINISH SYSTEM Airtightness starts with the design.
  56. 56. Once designed, airtightness is easily managed on site.
  57. 57. Hygrothermal Performance
  58. 58. MIN.3'-0" 1'-6" 2" 9" 11 1/4" 4 3/4" 1" 2" EARTHEN PLASTER, TYP. NUDURA ICF (2-5/8" XPS—6" CONC—2-5/8" XPS), THICKNESS OF CONCRETE LAYER PER STRUCTURAL ENGINEER RESILIENT CHANNEL 5/8" WALL BOARD, TYP. 1/2" WALL BOARD, TYP. COMPACTED SOIL UNDISTURBED NATIVE SOIL 5-1/2" DENSE-PACK CELLULOSE INSULATION, 2X6 FRAMING @ 16" O.C. OR ADVANCED STICK FRAMING STO GUARD: AIR TIGHT, DIFFUSION OPEN 5/8" T&G OSB SHEATHING 5/8" OSB, AIR BARRIER, VAPOR RETARDER 3/4" FURR FRAMING (INSTALLATION) 5/8" WALL BOARD 14" I-JOIST @ 24" O.C. VENTILATION SPACE TAPERED FURR FRAMING 60 MIL REINFORCED EPDM MEMBRANE WITH STRIPPED-IN SEAMS PEDESTAL PAVER SYSTEM SLOPE 1/8" PER 1'-0" 5-1/2" DENSE-PACK CELLULOSE INSULATION, 2X6 FRAMING @ 16" O.C., OR ADVANCED STICK FRAMING GEO-TEXTILE FABRIC DE, MIN. 1/4" PER 1' SLOPE STO 1.0 / FINE (EIFS) 12" XPS INSULATION, DOW SQUARE EDGE, COMPRESSION STRENGTH PER STRUCTURAL ENGINEER 11" EPS (EIFS) POLY URETHANE GLUE CONNECTION 20 MIL POLY, SEAL JOINTS SCHEDULED 1/4" SELF-LEVELING COMPOUND WITH ELECTRIC IN-FLOOR HEATING MATS PER MECH. PLAN SCHEDULED FLOORING 3-1/8" INSULATED RIM 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION FOAM-PLUG @ SILL PLATE 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION (SOUND ATTENUATION) SCHEDULED BASE 4" CONCRETE SLAB (EXPOSED WHERE SCHEDULED) RESILIENT CHANNEL 5/8" WALL BOARD 3-1/8" INSULATED RIM, R-11 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION (SOUND ATTENUATION) 3/4 PLYWOOD SUBFLOOR SCHEDULED 1/4" SELF-LEVELING COMPOUND WITH ELECTRIC IN-FLOOR HEATING MATS PER MECH. PLAN SCHEDULED FLOORING SCHEDULED BASE 3/4 PLYWOOD SUBFLOOR SCHEDULED 1/4" SELF-LEVELING COMPOUND WITH ELECTRIC IN-FLOOR HEATING MATS PER MECH. PLAN SCHEDULED FLOORING SCHEDULED BASE AIR-TIGHT SEAL AT SILL STO FLEXYL BELOW-GRADE WATER PROOFING GRAVEL BACKFILL DRAIN TILE, DRAIN TO DAYLIGHT STEEL LANDSCAPE EDGING 11-7/8" I-JOIST @ 24" O.C. DENSE-PACK CELLULOSE INSULATION 3/4" PLYWOOD DECK @ 1/4" PER 1'-0" SLOPE 2" XPS WITH DRAINAGE CHANNEL FABRIC PROTECTION MAT FLAT ROOF FLASHING 2" EPS INSULATION (EIFS) CONTINUOUS VENTILATION SPACE, 2X8 @ 24" O.C. 5/8" PLYWOOD SHEATHING WIND WASH BARRIER (EIFS) FLASHING VENTILATION SLOTS UNDER FLASHING CONSTRUCTION LINE - OUTSIDE FACE OF ICF STO 1.0 / FINE (EIFS) 2X10 @ 24" O.C. FURR FRAMING, INSULATE CAVITIES TIGHTLY 1" EPS INSULATION (EIFS) 3-1/8" INSULATED RIM STO GUARD, AIR TIGHT, DIFFUSION OPEN 2" XPS INSULATION @ FOOTING, SEAL JOINTS 1/2" EXPANSION JOINT PER STO, INSULATE CAVITY STO FINISH COAT 11-7/8" I-JOIST 11-7/8" I-JOIST DRAINAGE PLANE? 2" MIN.3'-0" 2" 9" 11 1/4" 4 3/4" 1" 1'-6" EARTHEN PLASTER, TYP. NUDURA ICF (2-5/8" XPS—6" CONC—2-5/8" XPS), THICKNESS OF CONCRETE LAYER PER STRUCTURAL ENGINEER RESILIENT CHANNEL 5/8" WALL BOARD, TYP. 1/2" WALL BOARD, TYP. COMPACTED SOIL UNDISTURBED NATIVE SOIL 5-1/2" DENSE-PACK CELLULOSE INSULATION, 2X6 FRAMING @ 16" O.C. OR ADVANCED STICK FRAMING STO GUARD: AIR TIGHT, DIFFUSION OPEN 5/8" T&G OSB SHEATHING 5/8" OSB, AIR BARRIER, VAPOR RETARDER 3/4" FURR FRAMING (INSTALLATION) 5/8" WALL BOARD 14" I-JOIST @ 24" O.C. VENTILATION SPACE TAPERED FURR FRAMING 60 MIL REINFORCED EPDM MEMBRANE WITH STRIPPED-IN SEAMS PEDESTAL PAVER SYSTEM SLOPE 1/8" PER 1'-0" 5-1/2" DENSE-PACK CELLULOSE INSULATION, 2X6 FRAMING @ 16" O.C., OR ADVANCED STICK FRAMING GEO-TEXTILE FABRIC GRADE, MIN. 1/4" PER 1' SLOPE STO 1.0 / FINE (EIFS) 12" XPS INSULATION, DOW SQUARE EDGE, COMPRESSION STRENGTH PER STRUCTURAL ENGINEER 11" EPS (EIFS) POLY URETHANE GLUE CONNECTION 20 MIL POLY, SEAL JOINTS SCHEDULED 1/4" SELF-LEVELING COMPOUND WITH ELECTRIC IN-FLOOR HEATING MATS PER MECH. PLAN SCHEDULED FLOORING 3-1/8" INSULATED RIM 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION FOAM-PLUG @ SILL PLATE 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION (SOUND ATTENUATION) SCHEDULED BASE 4" CONCRETE SLAB (EXPOSED WHERE SCHEDULED) RESILIENT CHANNEL 5/8" WALL BOARD 3-1/8" INSULATED RIM, R-11 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION 3-1/2" RECYCLED COTTON FIBER INSULATION (SOUND ATTENUATION) 3/4 PLYWOOD SUBFLOOR SCHEDULED 1/4" SELF-LEVELING COMPOUND WITH ELECTRIC IN-FLOOR HEATING MATS PER MECH. PLAN SCHEDULED FLOORING SCHEDULED BASE 3/4 PLYWOOD SUBFLOOR SCHEDULED 1/4" SELF-LEVELING COMPOUND WITH ELECTRIC IN-FLOOR HEATING MATS PER MECH. PLAN SCHEDULED FLOORING SCHEDULED BASE AIR-TIGHT SEAL AT SILL STO FLEXYL BELOW-GRADE WATER PROOFING GRAVEL BACKFILL DRAIN TILE, DRAIN TO DAYLIGHT STEEL LANDSCAPE EDGING 11-7/8" I-JOIST @ 24" O.C. DENSE-PACK CELLULOSE INSULATION 3/4" PLYWOOD DECK @ 1/4" PER 1'-0" SLOPE 2" XPS WITH DRAINAGE CHANNEL FABRIC PROTECTION MAT FLAT ROOF FLASHING 2" EPS INSULATION (EIFS) CONTINUOUS VENTILATION SPACE, 2X8 @ 24" O.C. 5/8" PLYWOOD SHEATHING WIND WASH BARRIER (EIFS) FLASHING VENTILATION SLOTS UNDER FLASHING CONSTRUCTION LINE - OUTSIDE FACE OF ICF STO 1.0 / FINE (EIFS) 2X10 @ 24" O.C. FURR FRAMING, INSULATE CAVITIES TIGHTLY 1" EPS INSULATION (EIFS) 3-1/8" INSULATED RIM STO GUARD, AIR TIGHT, DIFFUSION OPEN 2" XPS INSULATION @ FOOTING, SEAL JOINTS 1/2" EXPANSION JOINT PER STO, INSULATE CAVITY STO FINISH COAT 11-7/8" I-JOIST 11-7/8" I-JOIST DRAINAGE PLANE? WuFi Analysis
  59. 59. 0.000# 500.000# 1000.000# 1500.000# 2000.000# 2500.000# '1# 0# 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# water&vapor&pressure&in&pa& sd&in&m& "Glaser&Diagram"&Winter& p_s(T)# p_(x)# Glaser Diagram 0" 1000" 2000" 3000" 4000" 5000" 6000" )1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" water&vapor&pressure&in&pa& sd&in&m& "Glaser&Diagram"&Summer& p_s(T)" p_(x)"
  60. 60. High-Performance Windows And Doors
  61. 61. ALKATOUT RESIDENCE TYPICAL WINDOW JAMB Date printed: 1/24/13 NOTE: VERIFY DIMENSIONS, OBSERVE MANF. INSTRUCTIONS TE STUDIO, LTD. 212 2ND ST. SE #222 MINNEAPOLIS, MN 55414 612-246-4670 4" ROUGH OPENING AIRTIGHT CONNECTION SEAL GAP WITH LOW EXPANSION FOAM FROM EXTERIOR SCHEDULED TRIM WRB CONNECTION TAPE WBR TO WINDOW FRAME WITH SIGA WIGLUV CONTINUOUS INSULATION EPS INSULATION BLOCK, GLUE INTO PLACE WRB CONNECTION CAULK JAMB TO WINDOW, MATCH COLOR OF TRIM WINDOW SET POINT AIRTIGHT CONNECTION TAPE WINDOW FRAME TO WINDOW BUCK WITH TAPE PER MANF. EXTENSION JAMB, SITE AIRTIGHTNESS TAPE SHEATHING TO WINDOW BUCK WITH SIGA WIGLUV TAPE 3/4" PLYWOOD BUCK ALUMINUM SILL PAN BELOW WOOD WINDOW SILL BELOW 2 2 2 6 2 2 INSIDE OUTSIDE OPTIWIN ALU2WOOD WINDOW 5/4X6 EXTERIOR TRIM, TYP. SCALE: 3" = 1'-0" Proper install starts with a detailed design.
  62. 62. Understanding specifications
  63. 63. Passive Solar Heat Gains
  64. 64. Covers over 50% of the heat demand.
  65. 65. Solar Facade
  66. 66. Shading
  67. 67. Power is nothing without control. Windows = Heaters
  68. 68. Internal Heat Gains
  69. 69. Image Source: Sony Pictures Covers over 10% of the heat demand.
  70. 70. Balanced Heat-Recovery Ventilation
  71. 71. Image Sources: Lüfta, Zehnder
  72. 72. Heating, Cooling & Dehumidification
  73. 73. DN UP 5 1.3 1.4 1.21.1 REF DNUP CLO POWDER T TLIV/DIN/KI
  74. 74. Image Source: Fujitsu
  75. 75. Efficient Appliances and Equipment
  76. 76. Source: Ecodrain Source: Sun Frost Source: Lighting Ever
  77. 77. Optional Monitoring
  78. 78. Optional Renewable Energy Systems
  79. 79. Benefits & Solution
  80. 80. Comfort
  81. 81. Health
  82. 82. Quality of Construction
  83. 83. $ Economy
  84. 84. Z LEED Net Energy Positive Passive House Carbon Neutral (operation) HERS INDEX Carbon Neutral (everything) To Zero and Beyond
  85. 85. Ecology & Resources Image Source: dreamstime.com
  86. 86. Society
  87. 87. Image Source: Blu Climate Change
  88. 88. Sustainability
  89. 89. Summary
  90. 90. • Best certified and third party verified voluntary building standard in the industry • Well-defined targets for heating and source energy, and airtightness • Energy modeled = predictable performance • 90% less heating demand than standard • up to 66% or more overall energy savings than standard = energy independence • Smallest carbon footprint in the industry • Incredible comfort and health • True value for owners and society • Smart use of resources like building materials, energy, operating dollars • Best insulation from an uncertain energy future • Over 2 decades of proven performance • Thousands of built projects all over the world • Commercial and residential, new and retrofit • Best starting point for net-zero, plus-energy and carbon-neutrality with smallest renewable systems • Global solution • Best life cycle approach for fiscally and ecologically sustainable real estate Passive House
  91. 91. Resources passiv.de passipedia.org passivehouse-international.org phius.org phaus.org phamsp.org TM
  92. 92. Thank You! intep.us | intep.com Building Performance, Measured Results Holistic Design for Sustainable Homes testudio.com

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