2009 Passive House Presentation

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This slideshow was put together for a lecture at the University of MInnesota. It talks about PH for new construction and Deep Energy Reduction Retrofit projects.

The slideshow contains a lot of full-screen images but no subtitles, therefore omitting some of the information which would have been given verbally during the presentation.

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  • Thanks for inviting me to talk about Passive House Design Standard.
    Thank people for coming
    Excited to be here and talk about Passive House



    Quick background on my person:
    - German, lived here 7 years, family and house, worked with local firm for 6.5 years, have always been fascinated with architecture and how things work. Architectural degree more technical in Germany (engineer’s title), have had a fascination with efficient approaches to design.



    This talk: 2 sections (1) general benefits, (2) key summary of how to do it


  • Thanks for inviting me to talk about Passive House Design Standard.
    Thank people for coming
    Excited to be here and talk about Passive House



    Quick background on my person:
    - German, lived here 7 years, family and house, worked with local firm for 6.5 years, have always been fascinated with architecture and how things work. Architectural degree more technical in Germany (engineer’s title), have had a fascination with efficient approaches to design.



    This talk: 2 sections (1) general benefits, (2) key summary of how to do it


  • Thanks for inviting me to talk about Passive House Design Standard.
    Thank people for coming
    Excited to be here and talk about Passive House



    Quick background on my person:
    - German, lived here 7 years, family and house, worked with local firm for 6.5 years, have always been fascinated with architecture and how things work. Architectural degree more technical in Germany (engineer’s title), have had a fascination with efficient approaches to design.



    This talk: 2 sections (1) general benefits, (2) key summary of how to do it






  • Conservation became a resource!



    Wayne Schick’s Team at The Small Homes Council @ the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign develops the Lo-Cal House in 1974-76
    Walls: Double stud R-30, Roof: R-40



    Were built, still in operation



    We’ll get back to Urbana, Illinois later in the presentation
  • 1973, energy crisis spurred first wave of energy conserving designs



    Those dealing with buildings started to look at superinsulation, passive solar design concepts, and active solar systems.



    Smart, integrated design.



    Why solar? If we harness 0.02% of the sun’s energy that hits the earth, we can eliminate all fossil and nuclear fuels.
  • We are now seeing articles like this again in newspapers! People are starting to notice that conservation is a resource to reckon with.



    The term \"superinsulation\" was coined by Wayne Schick at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1976 he was part of a team that developed a design called the \"Lo-Cal\" house, using computer simulations based on the climate of Madison, Wisconsin.
    In 1978 the \"Saskatchewan House\" was built in Regina, Saskatchewan by a group of several Canadian government agencies. It was the first house to publicly demonstrate the value of superinsulation and generated a lot of attention. It originally included some experimental evacuated-tube solar panels, but they were not needed and were later removed.
    In 1979 the \"Leger House\" was built by Eugene Leger, in East Pepperell, Massachusetts. It had a more conventional appearance than the \"Saskatchewan House\", and also received extensive publicity.
    Publicity from the \"Saskatchewan House\" and the \"Leger House\" influenced other builders, and many superinsulated houses were built over the next few years, but interest declined as energy prices fell. Many US builders now use more insulation than will fit in a traditional 2x4 stud wall (either using 2x6 studs or by adding rigid foam to the outside of the wall), but few would qualify as \"superinsulated\".



    There is no set definition of superinsulation, but superinsulated buildings typically include:
    ▪Very thick insulation (typically R40 walls and R60 roof)
    ▪Detailed insulation where walls meet roofs, foundations, and other walls
    ▪Airtight construction, especially around doors and windows
    ▪a heat recovery ventilator to provide fresh air
    ▪No large windows facing any particular direction (unlike passive solar, which uses large windows facing the sun and fewer/smaller windows facing other directions).
    ▪No large amounts of thermal mass
    ▪No active or passive solar heat (but may have solar water heating and/or hot water heat recycling)
    ▪No conventional heating system, just a small backup heater
    Nisson & Dutt (1985) suggest that a house might be described as \"superinsulated\" if the cost of space heating is lower than the cost of water heating.
  • First superinsulated house that showed that airtight construction is feasible. It is equipped with a ventilation system with an air-to-air heat exchanger.
    Peak heat load at -10 degrees Fahrenheit is 3000 watts (10,640 Btu per hour)
    Walls: 12” thick, R-44 Roof: R-60



    There is no set definition of superinsulation, but superinsulated buildings typically include:
    ▪Very thick insulation (typically R40 walls and R60 roof)
    ▪Detailed insulation where walls meet roofs, foundations, and other walls
    ▪Airtight construction, especially around doors and windows
    ▪a heat recovery ventilator to provide fresh air
    ▪No large windows facing any particular direction (unlike passive solar, which uses large windows facing the sun and fewer/smaller windows facing other directions).
    ▪No large amounts of thermal mass
    ▪No active or passive solar heat (but may have solar water heating and/or hot water heat recycling)
    ▪No conventional heating system, just a small backup heater
    Nisson & Dutt (1985) suggest that a house might be described as \"superinsulated\" if the cost of space heating is lower than the cost of water heating.
  • Why don’t we have those buildings everywhere today?



    Problem: materials and products were not up to the task, yet (small issue)
    Mid-1980s, energy became cheaper again (big issue)
    No political mandate for energy-conservation measures (big issue)



    Some energy codes had been released. Most consumers felt that energy-code would take care of the issue—failed to notice that it did not.



    So we stopped making energy efficient houses almost entirely.
  • We added vinyl siding to a passive solar house from the mid-70s, and we forgot how it worked. Everybody who knew how to operate it, left. The people who own it now don’t know anything about it.



    Some buildings have been retrofit by taking the passive solar off and and adding traditional heating systems.



    Slowly the issue went away. Only few people continued to work on efficiency.



    The rest of the country focused on growth. Average new house grew from 1,660sf (1974) to 2,521SF (2007) +51%
    median is even at 2277 in 2007



    Bigger house, not better house!
  • We added vinyl siding to a passive solar house from the mid-70s, and we forgot how it worked. Everybody who knew how to operate it, left. The people who own it now don’t know anything about it.



    Some buildings have been retrofit by taking the passive solar off and and adding traditional heating systems.



    Slowly the issue went away. Only few people continued to work on efficiency.



    The rest of the country focused on growth. Average new house grew from 1,660sf (1974) to 2,521SF (2007) +51%
    median is even at 2277 in 2007



    Bigger house, not better house!
  • The Passive House standard originated from a conversation in May 1988 between Professors Bo Adamson of Lund University, Sweden, and Wolfgang Feist of the Institut für Wohnen und Umwelt Institute for Housing and the Environment in Germany



    Inspired by early work in the US



    Started with research projects



    Created Passive House Standard






    Inspiration: early work in the U.S.!Their concept was developed through a number of research projects [8], aided by financial assistance from the German state of Hessen. The eventual building of four row houses (terraced houses) was designed for four private clients by architects professor Bott, Ridder and Westermeyer.
    After the concept had been validated at Darmstadt, with space heating 90% less than required for a standard new building of the time, the 'Economical Passive Houses Working Group' was created in 1996. This developed the planning package and initiated the production of the novel components that had been used, notably the windows and the high-efficiency ventilation systems. Meanwhile further passive houses were built in Stuttgart (1993), Naumburg, Hesse, Wiesbaden, and Cologne (1997) [9].
    The products developed for the Passivhaus were further commercialised during and following the European Union sponsored CEPHEUS project, which proved the concept in 5 European countries over the winter of 2000-2001.
    While some techniques and technologies were specifically developed for the standard, others (such as superinsulation) were already in existence, and the concept of passive solar building design dates back to antiquity. There was also experience from other low-energy building standards, notably the German Niedrigenergiehaus (low-energy house) standard, as well as from buildings constructed to the demanding energy codes of Sweden and Denmark.
  • What does it look like?
    The first Passivhaus buildings were built in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1990, and occupied the following year.
    Who is in charge of Passive House standard?
    In September 1996 the Passivhaus-Institut was founded in Darmstadt to promote and control the standard.
    In November 2007, launch of the Passive House Institute US
  • The standard is not exclusive to residential construction. Passive House design is NOT an add-on or supplement to architectural design, but an integrated design process with the architectural design.[3] Although it is mostly applied to new buildings, it has also been used for retrofits.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Have we not seen this before?



    Better known in the U.S.: Passive Solar Design. (Talk about differences in table)



    Summary: Passive House Design utilizes Passive Solar Design principles but takes it to a higher level, by adding more strategies to retain energy, utilize internal heat gains, and energy recovery to create an energy balance. It is a certified building standard—not just concept.



    Passive solar design
    Following passive solar building design techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain is secondary to minimizing the overall energy requirements.
    Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating in spring or autumn before normal solar shading becomes effective.
  • Traditionally, add as much energy as it takes to heat or cool



    BTW, that is a very common approach in most industries today - if we need to change a state of an object or environmental parameters, we usually do that by utilizing more energy to do so.



    Example: Air Conditioning: On hottest day with most solar energy, we use a lot of electricity (from mostly coal) to cool houses (instead of shading properly, and harnessing the sun’s energy)
  • Traditionally, add as much energy as it takes to heat or cool



    BTW, that is a very common approach in most industries today - if we need to change a state of an object or environmental parameters, we usually do that by utilizing more energy to do so.



    Example: Air Conditioning: On hottest day with most solar energy, we use a lot of electricity (from mostly coal) to cool houses (instead of shading properly, and harnessing the sun’s energy)
  • Due to the dramatic reduction in space-conditioning energy needs, it is referred to as a passive house,
    as opposed to utilizing active measures to keep it conditioned.



    The difference being mainly in the energy amount that utilized and the fact, that passive house utilizes mostly solar and internal heat gains (passive energy sources).

  • Economy: Significant conservation and improved performance = cost savings to the owner





    90%+ savings on space-conditioning energy, 75%+ savings on source energy (pending household use pattern)> highly reduced utility cost


    Federal tax credits, local utility company incentives (as applicable)


    Potentially reduced homeowner’s insurance (due to reduced mechanical system and quality construction)


    Benefits of energy efficiency mortgage


    Cost asymptote occurs when a traditional heating system is eliminated









  • Energy: Significant conservation and highly efficient operation





    Significantly less energy consumption


    Can be “fueled” by virtually any power source (future proof), Easier to “fuel” with renewable energy sources, cheaper to outfit with appropriately sized renewable energy sources, Crisis proof


    Renewables are smaller, hence more affordable. Zero site, or source energy, carbon neutrality, deep energy retrofit


  • Environment: Significant conservation and improved performance = significantly reduced environmental impact





    Up to 75% savings on source energy = smaller CO
    2
    footprint: Carbon-neutrality truly in reach. Don’t need a football field of PV panels


    Likely in use longer and maintained longer than average building, Less likely to need retrofit, reduction in energy used for construction and materials


  • Health: Improved indoor environmental quality = improved health





    Guaranteed mechanical air-exchange 24/7—365 days a year, Tempered air (heat recovery ventilation), Controlled humidity, Slow and steady air movement (quiet and without drafts)


    Indoor surfaces are near room temperatur, virtually no radiant heat-loss potential


    Improved daylighting and solar exposure


    Studies show less potential for asthma, allergies, sickness


    Significantly reduced exposure to CO, pollutants, VOCs. Virtually no potential for mold, no radiant heat loss, healthy humidity levels, little to no noise pollution


  • Comfort: Superinsulated building envelope = high level of comfort





    Indoor surfaces are near room-temperatur, virtually no radiant heat-loss potential


    Improved indoor environmental quality


    Extremely quiet inside due to superinsulation and high-performance windows


    very high (virtually no radiant heat loss, healthy humidity, fresh air, etc.)


  • Durability: High quality planning and construction = extremely durable building





    Energy modeling, quality-controlled construction, field testing > predictable results


    Advanced window technology, longevity


    Reduced mechanical system, less moving parts = less maintenance


    Owner training, “understand your building”, Owner’s manual, “pass on the knowledge”


    Certified building standard


  • Conscience: Most efficient building energy standard available today = clear conscience


  • Value: Best building energy standard available = incredible value





    Quality building, durability


    High performance building envelope


    Fully documented and certified


    Best starting point for an uncertain energy future


    sells up to 25% quicker, yields up to 10% more







  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • Minimize losses, maximize gains. Energy Balance!



    A building is already warm inside going from summer into fall and winter. Passive House minimizes heat loss through insulation, windows & doors, and heat-recovery ventilation therefore retaining space-conditioning energy very effectively. Passive House utilizes passive solar heat gains through windows. Passive House utilizes internal heat gains from people and appliances. Additional heat comes from a tiny backup system for peak heat-load



    PH is an integrated system - all components work in concert. It is not a “bolt-on solution” but it can incorporate bolt-on measures. WHOLE IS GREATER THAN SUM OF PARTS.



    Traditionally, add as much energy as it takes to heat or cool. (BTW, that is a very common approach in most industries today - if we need to change a state of an object or environmental parameters, we usually do that by utilizing more energy to do so). Example: Air Conditioning: On hottest day with most solar energy, we use a lot of electricity (from mostly coal) to cool houses (instead of shading properly, and harnessing the sun’s energy)


  • R-21 to R120+ (pending location)


  • thermally broken windows, all connections designed thermal-bridge free
    2 to 4-pane windows*, high solar heat gain
    solid or thermally broken frames*






















  • field tested with a sequence of three test, pressurized and depressurized
    impecable, continuous solid air-tight layer (i.e. OSB), thorough detailing, precise execution
    max. 0.6 ACH. Air-admittance valve.
  • Heart of the mechanical system, provides most of the energy (up to 10W/m2), 90%+ efficient, balanced and duct-blasted, short duct runs, insulated ducts
    Other mechanical systems: insulated pipes, central location, air admittance valves, energy and water saving appliances, potentially renewable sources
  • Proper orientation, solar exposure, proper summer and swing season shading, high solar heat gain glazing on south side.
    Near southern orientation, built-in shading
  • people, appliances, equipment






  • How do we measure the success?
    In Germany, we look at gas-mileage for homes. Instead of MPGs, we measure in kWh/m2 a or Btu/sf year
  • ≤ 15 kWh/(m2 a)
    U.S. housing stock ~175 kWh/(m2 a) or 58,580 BTU/(sf yr) up to 90% + improvement
    determined in PHPP
    Achieved with the help of: Superinsulated Building Envelope, very good windows and doors, air-tight and thermal bridge-free construction, passive solar heat gains, internal heat gains, and an very efficient backup heating system
  • ≤ 120 kWh/(m2 a)
    up to 75% + improvement
    determined in PHPP
    Achieved through conservation in both passive and active systems
  • How do we measure the success?



    In Germany, we look at gas-mileage for homes. Instead of MPGs, we measure in kWh/m2 a or Btu/sf year



    In U.S. we currently use a comparative model: HERS



    Problem: nobody really knows what the basis is and buildings are compared on a point basis. Nowhere does it directly relate back to energy.



    Limited use, but realtor associations are looking to use it for a “green” realty label, MN starting 2009. HERS is determined by HERS rater.









    HERS (Home Energy Rating System), controversial and not absolute- uses comparison not actual energy modeling or monitoring
    Ratings provides a relative energy use index called the HERS Index – a HERS Index of 100 represents the energy use of the “American Standard Building” and an Index of 0 (zero) indicates that the Proposed Building uses no net purchased energy (a Zero Energy Building). Zero Site energy, nor really a zero energy building though.






    What is a HERS Rating?
    A home energy rating involves an analysis of a home’s construction plans and onsite inspections. Based on the home’s plans, the Home Energy Rater uses an energy efficiency software package to perform an energy analysis of the home’s design. This analysis yields a projected, pre-construction HERS Index. Upon completion of the plan review, the rater will work with the builder to identify the energy efficiency improvements needed to ensure the house will meet ENERGY STAR performance guidelines. The rater then conducts onsite inspections, typically including a blower door test (to test the leakiness of the house) and a duct test (to test the leakiness of the ducts). Results of these tests, along with inputs derived from the plan review, are used to generate the HERS Index score for the home.
    The HERS Index
    The HERS Index is a scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code) scores a HERS Index of 100, while a net zero energy home scores a HERS Index of 0. The lower a home’s HERS Index, the more energy efficient it is in comparison to the HERS Reference Home.
    Each 1-point decrease in the HERS Index corresponds to a 1% reduction in energy consumption compared to the HERS Reference Home. Thus a home with a HERS Index of 85 is 15% more energy efficient than the HERS Reference Home and a home with a HERS Index of 80 is 20% more energy efficient.
    For more information, visit the RESNET Web site .
    Comparing the New HERS Index with the Old HERS Score
    For homes rated before July 1, 2006, the rating score is known as a “HERS Score.” The HERS Score is a system in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 1993 Model Energy Code) has a HERS Score of 80. Unlike the HERS Index, each 1-point increase in a HERS Score is equivalent to a 5% increase in energy efficiency. Please see the table below for a comparison of the HERS Score and the HERS Index.
  • How do we measure the success?



    In Germany, we look at gas-mileage for homes. Instead of MPGs, we measure in kWh/m2 a or Btu/sf year



    In U.S. we currently use a comparative model: HERS



    Problem: nobody really knows what the basis is and buildings are compared on a point basis. Nowhere does it directly relate back to energy.



    Limited use, but realtor associations are looking to use it for a “green” realty label, MN starting 2009. HERS is determined by HERS rater.









    HERS (Home Energy Rating System), controversial and not absolute- uses comparison not actual energy modeling or monitoring
    Ratings provides a relative energy use index called the HERS Index – a HERS Index of 100 represents the energy use of the “American Standard Building” and an Index of 0 (zero) indicates that the Proposed Building uses no net purchased energy (a Zero Energy Building). Zero Site energy, nor really a zero energy building though.






    What is a HERS Rating?
    A home energy rating involves an analysis of a home’s construction plans and onsite inspections. Based on the home’s plans, the Home Energy Rater uses an energy efficiency software package to perform an energy analysis of the home’s design. This analysis yields a projected, pre-construction HERS Index. Upon completion of the plan review, the rater will work with the builder to identify the energy efficiency improvements needed to ensure the house will meet ENERGY STAR performance guidelines. The rater then conducts onsite inspections, typically including a blower door test (to test the leakiness of the house) and a duct test (to test the leakiness of the ducts). Results of these tests, along with inputs derived from the plan review, are used to generate the HERS Index score for the home.
    The HERS Index
    The HERS Index is a scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code) scores a HERS Index of 100, while a net zero energy home scores a HERS Index of 0. The lower a home’s HERS Index, the more energy efficient it is in comparison to the HERS Reference Home.
    Each 1-point decrease in the HERS Index corresponds to a 1% reduction in energy consumption compared to the HERS Reference Home. Thus a home with a HERS Index of 85 is 15% more energy efficient than the HERS Reference Home and a home with a HERS Index of 80 is 20% more energy efficient.
    For more information, visit the RESNET Web site .
    Comparing the New HERS Index with the Old HERS Score
    For homes rated before July 1, 2006, the rating score is known as a “HERS Score.” The HERS Score is a system in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 1993 Model Energy Code) has a HERS Score of 80. Unlike the HERS Index, each 1-point increase in a HERS Score is equivalent to a 5% increase in energy efficiency. Please see the table below for a comparison of the HERS Score and the HERS Index.
  • How do we measure the success?



    In Germany, we look at gas-mileage for homes. Instead of MPGs, we measure in kWh/m2 a or Btu/sf year



    In U.S. we currently use a comparative model: HERS



    Problem: nobody really knows what the basis is and buildings are compared on a point basis. Nowhere does it directly relate back to energy.



    Limited use, but realtor associations are looking to use it for a “green” realty label, MN starting 2009. HERS is determined by HERS rater.









    HERS (Home Energy Rating System), controversial and not absolute- uses comparison not actual energy modeling or monitoring
    Ratings provides a relative energy use index called the HERS Index – a HERS Index of 100 represents the energy use of the “American Standard Building” and an Index of 0 (zero) indicates that the Proposed Building uses no net purchased energy (a Zero Energy Building). Zero Site energy, nor really a zero energy building though.






    What is a HERS Rating?
    A home energy rating involves an analysis of a home’s construction plans and onsite inspections. Based on the home’s plans, the Home Energy Rater uses an energy efficiency software package to perform an energy analysis of the home’s design. This analysis yields a projected, pre-construction HERS Index. Upon completion of the plan review, the rater will work with the builder to identify the energy efficiency improvements needed to ensure the house will meet ENERGY STAR performance guidelines. The rater then conducts onsite inspections, typically including a blower door test (to test the leakiness of the house) and a duct test (to test the leakiness of the ducts). Results of these tests, along with inputs derived from the plan review, are used to generate the HERS Index score for the home.
    The HERS Index
    The HERS Index is a scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code) scores a HERS Index of 100, while a net zero energy home scores a HERS Index of 0. The lower a home’s HERS Index, the more energy efficient it is in comparison to the HERS Reference Home.
    Each 1-point decrease in the HERS Index corresponds to a 1% reduction in energy consumption compared to the HERS Reference Home. Thus a home with a HERS Index of 85 is 15% more energy efficient than the HERS Reference Home and a home with a HERS Index of 80 is 20% more energy efficient.
    For more information, visit the RESNET Web site .
    Comparing the New HERS Index with the Old HERS Score
    For homes rated before July 1, 2006, the rating score is known as a “HERS Score.” The HERS Score is a system in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 1993 Model Energy Code) has a HERS Score of 80. Unlike the HERS Index, each 1-point increase in a HERS Score is equivalent to a 5% increase in energy efficiency. Please see the table below for a comparison of the HERS Score and the HERS Index.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • OUTLOOK AND POTENTIAL



    Bringing it back to the issue of climate change, energy independence, affordability (utility bill).



    There is not a better starting point than Passive House - it requires the least amount of energy, it is the easiest building type to get to any of the aforementioned states.



    Goals should be set upfront with homeowner.
  • Don’t need them, optional.



    Solar hot water is great way to go.



    Climate and site play a role. PV can help offset energy: site, source, cost, CO2 neutral
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings


  • Let’s talk more about details of Passive House Design.



    A house build to current energy code in Minnesota could potentially qualify as a Passive House in California.
  • Let’s talk more about details of Passive House Design.



    A house build to current energy code in Minnesota could potentially qualify as a Passive House in California.
  • Let’s talk more about details of Passive House Design.



    A house build to current energy code in Minnesota could potentially qualify as a Passive House in California.




































  • First Passive House in urban setting. First in Twin Cities. Affordable Housing. 3112 6th St. N, Eco Village, Hawthorne, North Minneapolis



    PH design lends itself well to affordable housing:
    - low and predictable operating cost
    - high survivability (doesn’t cool off)
    - empowerment through design (don’t just give people anything, give them something really good)



    Thank MinneAppleseed for their support of Passive House design. Enjoying that process much of bringing hope to a community that is lacking attention, resources, opportunity.


  • Member Architecture Institute of America, Passive House Consultant, Adopter Architecture 2030 Challenge, Member USGBC (LEED),






  • 2009 Passive House Presentation

    1. 1. Certified Passive House™ and the related Logo is a certification mark owned by the Passive House Institute US | PHIUS and is used by permission.
    2. 2. Passive House An introduction by Tim Eian, Certified Passive House Consultant Certified Passive House™ and the related Logo is a certification mark owned by the Passive House Institute US | PHIUS and is used by permission.
    3. 3. Origins & Motivation
    4. 4. Conservation = Resource Illinois Lo-Cal House, 1974
    5. 5. Passive Solar Designs
    6. 6. Back to the Future
    7. 7. First Superinsulated Building Envelope Saskatchewan Conservation House Saskatoon, Canada in 1977
    8. 8. What happened?
    9. 9. The Focus Shifted
    10. 10. The Focus Shifted
    11. 11. Passive House Founders Prof. Bo Adamson Dr. Wolfgang Feist Sweden Germany
    12. 12. First Passive House & PHI 1990 1996: PHI - Passiv Haus Institut Source: Passiv Haus Institut
    13. 13. “Passivhaus” Passive House Building Energy Standard A rigorous, voluntary building energy standard focusing on highest energy efficiency and quality of life at low operating cost.
    14. 14. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard
    15. 15. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    16. 16. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    17. 17. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    18. 18. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    19. 19. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    20. 20. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    21. 21. Passive Solar design vs. Passive House standard PASSIVE SOLAR PASSIVE HOUSE Building design concept Certified building energy standard “Unlimited” energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year Utilization of solar heat gains and internal heat Utilization of solar heat gains (passive) gains (passive) Utilization of shading devices to control solar Utilizes shading devices and glazing to control heat gains solar heat gains Use of thermal mass for absorption and storage Use of superinsulation for retention of space of solar energy conditioning energy Use of thermal mass for time-release of space Use of ventilation system for distribution and conditioning energy (passive convection/radiation recovery of heating energy or active distribution with mechanical system)
    22. 22. Basic Design Principle
    23. 23. Basic Design Principle First: Minimize losses
    24. 24. Basic Design Principle First: Minimize losses Then: Maximize gains
    25. 25. Active vs. Passive “Active” Heating “Passive” System with System 10 kW+ small post heater 1 kW 85 - 400 max. 15 kWh/m2 kWh/m2 Building Stock Passive House Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001
    26. 26. Economy Capitalized costs in Euro Elimination of traditional heating system Ultra low-energy building Low-energy building Passive House Space-Conditioning Energy in kWh/(m2 a) “Gas-Mileage for Buildings” Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001
    27. 27. Energy Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001 *) compared to standard-practice code-compliant construction
    28. 28. Energy 90%+ reduction in space-conditioning energy consumption* 75%+ reduction in source-energy consumption* Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001 *) compared to standard-practice code-compliant construction
    29. 29. Environment
    30. 30. Health
    31. 31. Comfort
    32. 32. Durability
    33. 33. Conscience
    34. 34. Value
    35. 35. Quality of Life
    36. 36. Paradigm Shifts • INCREMENTALISM IS DEATH! • LEAPFROG • SYSTEM VS. COMPONENT
    37. 37. Paradigm Shifts • INCREMENTALISM IS DEATH! • LEAPFROG • SYSTEM VS. COMPONENT
    38. 38. Paradigm Shifts • INCREMENTALISM IS DEATH! • LEAPFROG • SYSTEM VS. COMPONENT
    39. 39. How does it work? Source: Krapmeier & Dressler 2001
    40. 40. Superinsulated Envelope Source: Waltjen 2007
    41. 41. Advanced Windows & Doors Source: Waltjen 2007
    42. 42. Advanced Windows & Doors Image Source: PHI Protokollband Nr. 24 (2003)
    43. 43. Thermal Bridge Free Details Source: Waltjen 2007
    44. 44. Air-Tightness
    45. 45. Air-Tightness n50 ≤ 0.6 ACH
    46. 46. Energy Recovery Ventilation
    47. 47. Passive Solar Heat Gains
    48. 48. Internal Heat Gains Copyright: Sony Pictures
    49. 49. Backup Heater
    50. 50. Backup Heater
    51. 51. Optional Renewables Design: Gumprecht Architekten
    52. 52. High-Efficiency Appliances Source: Ecodrain Source: Sun Frost
    53. 53. “Gas-Mileage for Buildings”
    54. 54. “Gas-Mileage for Buildings” Energy per square foot and year
    55. 55. Space-Conditioning Energy Energy used to heat or cool a building
    56. 56. Space-Conditioning Energy Energy used to heat or cool a building ≤ 4,750 Btu/(sf yr)
    57. 57. Source Energy Energy made at the provider (source)
    58. 58. Source Energy Energy made at the provider (source) ≤ 11.1 kWh/(sf yr)
    59. 59. Close to Zero LEED
    60. 60. Close to Zero LEED Net Energy Positive
    61. 61. Energy Goals NET ZERO SITE ENERGY (ZEB U.S.), desirable minimum level Energy produced on site = energy consumed on site Grid-tied building
    62. 62. Energy Goals OFF-THE-GRID, expensive Energy produced on site = energy consumed on site Building is not tied to the grid
    63. 63. Energy Goals NET ZERO UTILITY BILL, sales-pitch level $-value of energy sold = $-value of energy purchased
    64. 64. Energy Goals NET ZERO SOURCE ENERGY, true zero energy level Energy produced on site = energy consumed at provider including energy content of raw materials, conversion and distribution
    65. 65. Energy Goals NET POSITIVE ENERGY (NPE): Energy produced on site > energy consumed on site
    66. 66. Energy Goals NET ZERO ENERGY EMISSIONS (ZEB ouside U.S.), sustainability level: CO2 offset on site ≥ CO2 generated in source energy production at provider to deliver site energy
    67. 67. Energy Goals SAVE-THE-PLANET LEVEL Net Zero Energy Emissions + Net Positive Energy
    68. 68. Save-the-planet house Design: MB Planungs GmbH
    69. 69. Save-the-planet house Design: MB Planungs GmbH Energy produced on site ≥ 3x energy consumed on site
    70. 70. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control
    71. 71. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP)
    72. 72. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program
    73. 73. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed
    74. 74. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed • Calculations are transparent and customizable
    75. 75. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed • Calculations are transparent and customizable • Field testing
    76. 76. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed • Calculations are transparent and customizable • Field testing • Site supervision by Passive House Consultant
    77. 77. Air-tight Construction Source: PHIUS
    78. 78. Think globally, Build locally.
    79. 79. Think globally, Build locally. Passive House Standard performance requirements are always the same, no matter where the building is built.
    80. 80. Think globally, Build locally. Passive House Standard performance requirements are always the same, no matter where the building is built. Climate zone and a building’s distinctive location impact the design significantly.
    81. 81. Think globally, Build locally. Passive House Standard performance requirements are always the same, no matter where the building is built. Climate zone and a building’s distinctive location impact the design significantly. Therefore, Passive Houses will look differently depending on where they are located.
    82. 82. Retrofits
    83. 83. Retrofits Yes, we can!
    84. 84. Retrofits Yes, we can! > Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits: DERR
    85. 85. Retrofits Yes, we can! > Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits: DERR 70%+ reduction of site energy consumption
    86. 86. Retrofits Yes, we can! > Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits: DERR 70%+ reduction of site energy consumption Significant CO2 reduction
    87. 87. Retrofits Yes, we can! > Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits: DERR 70%+ reduction of site energy consumption Significant CO2 reduction Tremendous nation-wide energy-savings potential for existing building stock
    88. 88. Retrofits Yes, we can! > Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits: DERR 70%+ reduction of site energy consumption Significant CO2 reduction Tremendous nation-wide energy-savings potential for existing building stock We can overcome energy obsolescence!
    89. 89. How does it work?
    90. 90. DERR - In a nutshell
    91. 91. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.)
    92. 92. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition)
    93. 93. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open
    94. 94. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building
    95. 95. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building • Establish air-tightness layer
    96. 96. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building • Establish air-tightness layer • Add (exterior) insulation package
    97. 97. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building • Establish air-tightness layer • Add (exterior) insulation package • Install new doors and windows
    98. 98. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building • Establish air-tightness layer • Add (exterior) insulation package • Install new doors and windows • Add heat-recovery ventilation system
    99. 99. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building • Establish air-tightness layer • Add (exterior) insulation package • Install new doors and windows • Add heat-recovery ventilation system • Adequately size mechanical system
    100. 100. DERR - In a nutshell • Assess viability of existing building and level of existing obsolescence (energy, siding, roofing, windows, etc.) • Set energy goals (typ. 70%+ improvement over existing condition) • Assess moisture transfer through shell and design assemblies that will be air-tight but diffusion open • Demo and prepare existing building • Establish air-tightness layer • Add (exterior) insulation package • Install new doors and windows • Add heat-recovery ventilation system • Adequately size mechanical system • Add renewable energy package as desired
    101. 101. Exterior insulation package
    102. 102. TE Studio & Passive House Building design for new construction, remodels, additions Energy optimizations, building analysis, consulting
    103. 103. beautiful, resource-efficient building design Tim Eian, assoc. AIA Certified Passive House Consultant TE Studio, Ltd. 3429 Benjamin St. NE Minneapolis, MN 55418 www.timeian.com 612-246-4670 tim@timeian.com Blog: www.timeian.com/blog Certified Passive House™ and the related Logo is a certification mark owned by the Passive House Institute US | PHIUS and is used by permission.
    104. 104. The Book
    105. 105. Resources • www.passivehouse.us • www.passiv.de • www.timeian.com/blog

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