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Journal of Educational Media, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2001




Information and Communication
Technologies and the Changing
Role of the Teacher
STEVE WHEELER
University of Plymouth, UK



ABSTRACT      This paper examines the changing role of the teacher in the use of educational
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Several key issues are explored,
including the effects of ICT on teaching and learning, the changing role of the teacher in
constructivist learning environments, and the new skills teachers may be expected to acquire
in order to make fruitful use of the new technologies. The author argues that the introduction
of ICT into schools is raising fundamental questions about the nature of teaching and
learning, and may even be challenging our conception of ‘time and place’. The paper offers
evaluation of ICT uses in elementary schools in the USA and primary schools in England.
It concludes with descriptions of emerging technologies (including relevant website addresses)
and the possible contribution these may make to promoting ‘any time, any place’ learning
opportunities for the future.



Introduction
Teachers are living in a time of general uncertainty where rapid changes in pro-
fessional practice are commonplace. The present situation has arisen due to a
number of factors, including economic instability, technological innovations and
political initiatives. One of the most pervasive changes in professional practice is
emerging as a result of the implementation of Information and Communications
Technologies (ICT). All change is accompanied by uncertainty, but change can also
be instrumental in raising important questions, and this eld of enquiry is no
exception. One essential question currently being asked is: what will be the long-
term impact of the introduction of ICT into the classroom? Another equally
important question being raised is: what kind of skills will teachers need to acquire
in order to be effective in an ICT supported learning environment? Change may
bring uncertainty, but the introduction of ICT into the classroom brings one thing
of which we can all be certain—teachers will need to adapt to change if they are to
survive and keep pace with new methods and technologies. This paper will address

ISSN 1358-1651 (print)/ISSN 1469-9443 (online)/01/010007-11
Ó 2001 Taylor & Francis Ltd
 DOI: 10.1080/1358165001200692 92
8   S. Wheeler

these two important questions by highlighting the experiences of teachers using ICT
in the South West of England, and offering some further examples of established
ICT teaching and learning applications in schools in the USA Midwest. The paper
concludes by discussing current and future trends in learning technology develop-
ment.


ICT and Learning
A great deal of research and development has been conducted to bring Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) to its present state of learning application.
Although ICT has been an integral part of the National Curriculum for over a
decade, some commentators argue that there is still no consistency in its use (Selwyn
& Bullon, 2000). In the context of teaching and learning, Jones and Knezek (1993)
argue that ICT should be seen as a means of improving ef ciency in the educational
process. However, this may be a limited view, given that ICT is changing the very
nature of teaching and learning. For adherents of the new technologies, the intro-
duction of ICT into the classroom has engendered an entirely new and positive
dimension to the art of teaching. Moreover, it has been shown that the use of
computers in education can generally help to improve memory retention, increase
motivation and generally deepen understanding (Dede, 1998). ICT can also be used
to promote collaborative learning, including role playing, group problem-solving
activities and articulated projects (Forcheri & Mol no, 2000). Yet the use of ICT
requires a great deal of investment from teachers in terms of time, effort and general
commitment. The issues are concisely summed up in the following statement:
    ‘Network technology creates enormous possibilities but demands high
    levels of skill from its users. The issue is not just technical mastery of
    network use, but above all the cognitive skills of presenting and developing
    meaningful questions, and interpreting information by integrating it with
    previously accumulated knowledge and giving it an appropriate context.’
    (Sinko & Lehtinen, 1999, p. 17)
Generally, ICT seems to be encouraging new approaches to working and learning,
and new ways of interacting (Balacheff, 1993) and a large percentage of teachers
have shown enthusiasm to learn more about it potential (Williams et al., 1998,
2000). However, not all teachers have welcomed the widespread introduction of
ICT in schools (Bradley & Russell, 1997). Consequently, a host of new questions
have been posed regarding the evolving nature of pedagogy.


Some Key Questions
Whether or not changes in pedagogy are contingent on trends and innovations is a
contentious point. The important question however, is: what will be the long-term
impact of ICT on the teaching and learning process? It is well documented that
using computers changes the nature of motivation to learn (Forcheri & Mol no,
2000), but will there also be adverse effects? Furthermore, teachers will need to
ICT and the changing role of the teacher   9

acquire new skills in order to promote quality learning opportunities in an ICT rich
learning environment.
    The great debate about how teachers should adapt current teaching skills to
accommodate the introduction of ICT is only just beginning. In the meantime,
teachers now have to grapple with how to apply new technologies effectively to
teaching and learning. The necessary changes will be comprehensive, embracing
teaching methodology, assessment of learning, tracking of progress and record
keeping, communication, and curriculum evaluation.
    The potential of the distributed nature of technology-supported learning, and the
impact it creates on both learners and teachers will also become crucial issues. The
concept of shared resources, and shared working spaces, and particularly the notion
of collaborative learning may be particularly dif cult for some teachers to accept.
Most critically, the question of the extent to which teachers relinquish control and
let learners drive their own learning may create the greatest barrier to the adoption
of ICT in the classroom. In order to address some of these key issues, a brief
summary of the work done to date is presented, with highlights of some of the more
notable applications of ICT in British and American classrooms.



The UK Experience
The UK government has for the past decade been actively encouraging schools to
embrace ICT as a fundamental part of the fabric of the curriculum. In 1998–1999,
the UK government’s funding for ICT development in schools, known as the
National Grid for Learning (NGfL) nally began to have a tangible impact. NGfL
funding has resulted in a growth of connections to the Internet in primary and
secondary schools. In March 1998 only 17 per cent of primary schools in the UK
had Internet access. By March 1999 this had increased to 62 per cent and in the
same period there was also an increase of Internet connectivity in secondary schools
from 83 to 93 per cent (DfEE, 2000, p. 18). Many secondary schools and an
increasing number of primary schools are now developing their own school websites
and announcing their presence in cyberspace. The use of web pages to post school
news and homework assignments is now becoming common practice, as will be the
submission of work via e-mail from the child’s home to the teacher’s mailbox. These
practices are already well established in many Australian and American schools.
    This, however is just the rst step toward introducing ICT into schools. It is
expected that all British teachers will be offered training in the use of ICT by 2002,
and the UK Government has committed to spending £230 million to drive this
training initiative forward (DfEE, 2000, p. 18). British teachers are also being
actively encouraged to purchase personal home computers, with a further fund of
£20 million being offered to support this initiative. Teachers can expect to purchase
a computer and peripheral equipment at approximately half the retail price for
exclusive home use. Through these initiatives it is envisaged that many more
teachers will be encouraged to explore the possibilities of ICT, and increase their
con dence in the use of computers and networked resources. It is possible that
10   S. Wheeler

entirely new working practices will evolve, where teachers work in a more collabora-
tive manner, both with their own colleagues and with children.
    Finally, schools in some specially designated pilot areas are being encouraged to
work together in clusters using ICT based communication methods. This approach
enables schools to collaborate, sharing expensive teaching and learning materials,
which can be made available cost effectively to larger distributions of children. This
method of working will also enable key staff to provide on the job (or ‘just in time’)
training to their colleagues from a centralised resource base (DfEE, 2000, p. 19).


What ICT Brings to the Classroom
Many are predicting that ICT will bring about major bene ts to the learner and the
teacher. As we have seen, these will include sharing of resources and learning
environments, and opening up classrooms as well as the promotion of collaborative
learning and a general move towards greater learner autonomy. I shall brie y discuss
each of these bene ts in turn, offering examples of each.


Shared Learning Resources
One of the most striking examples of ICT in action in American schools is the use
of video systems to relay television programmes and digital information throughout
an entire school and even between schools in the same district. In the Faribault
Schools System in Minnesota, this integrative approach to the regional sharing of
learning resources is enabling elementary schools to minimise expenditure by
concentrating time and effort into creating centralised services. Students and teach-
ers enjoy the facility to share information wherever they are in the school. Strategi-
cally placed television monitors provide details of timetables, projects and
assessment, mealtime menus and a host of other useful up-to-the-minute infor-
mation. There are also regular play-outs of short lms and videos created by the
children, and some schools can use several channels for broadcast purposes.


Shared Learning Spaces
Networked computing facilities create a distributed environment in which learners
can share work spaces, communicate with each other and their teachers in text form,
and access a wide variety of resources from internal and external databases via
web-based systems through the Internet. In Broadclyst Primary School in East
Devon, pupils as young as 8 years old use networked software to communicate with
each other and their teacher, from the classroom or from home, whilst 10 year olds
converse with ‘pen pals’ in other countries using e-mail. Using these shared systems,
pupils develop transferable skills such as grammar and syntax construction, key-
board techniques and written communication skills, whilst simultaneously acquiring
knowledge of other cultures, languages and traditions. Furthermore, children are
able to make links between internal thinking and external social interaction via the
keyboard, to improve their social and intellectual developments in the best construc-
ICT and the changing role of the teacher   11

tivist tradition (Vygotsky, 1962). The children in this school are quickly mastering
the ability to communicate effectively using these new technologies because the
experience has been made enjoyable in an unthreatening environment, and there are
immediate perceived and actual bene ts for both pupils and the teaching staff.


Opening up the Classroom
Resources can also be accessed outside the school. For example, the excellent BBC
Education website offers educational materials for all ages from pre-school through
to adult and continuing education [See www.bbc.co.uk/education]. As Joo (1999)
points out, the Internet takes teaching materials outside of the classroom and into
the communities. This in turn ensures that entirely new relationships between
teachers and pupils, teachers and parents and between teacher and teacher will be
forged. We can expect that teachers will soon be required to adopt the role of
mediator between student and knowledge.


The Promotion of Collaborative Learning
Riel (2000) argues that much of what we now see as individual learning will change
to become collaborative in nature. Reasoning and intellectual development is em-
bedded in the familiar social situations of everyday life (Donaldson, 1978) so the
social context of learning has a great deal of importance. Collaborative learning is
therefore gaining an increasing pro le in the curricula of many schools, with ICT
performing a central role. Schools in the UK are already starting to use discussion
lists, and other forms of computer mediated communication (CMC) to promote
collaboration in a variety of learning tasks and group projects. CMC techniques
enable wider participation, transporting children beyond the boundaries of their own
school experience.


The Move Towards Autonomous Learning
Computers—and the power they bring to the student to access, manipulate, modify,
store and retrieve information—have the potential to promote greater autonomy in
learning. Inevitably, the use of ICT in the classroom will change the role of the
learner, enabling children to exert more choice over how they approach study,
requiring less direction from teachers. Students will be able to direct their own
studies to a greater extent, with the teacher acting as a guide or moderator rather
than as a director (Forsyth, 1996, p. 31). This facilitation will take on many facets
and will also radically change the nature of the role of the teacher as we currently
understand it. Consider, for example, the students at one Devon primary school
who are able to use a software-based music laboratory in their free time to write,
record and produce their own music CDs. Microphones and keyboards have been
purchased to encourage the creativity that the children are discovering within these
self-driven extra curricular activities. Minimal teacher management is required, as
12   S. Wheeler

the equipment is very user friendly, and pupils generally access these facilities during
their break periods or after school.


A Move towards Electronic Management of Learning Spaces
Teachers manage a wide range of information on a day-to-day basis, including
attendance records, assignment grades and test scores, information about each
individual child, classroom schedules, lesson notes and resource lists. ICT applica-
tions such as spreadsheets and relational databases can and will simplify and
rationalise many of these tasks, freeing up teachers’ time which can be better spent
in lesson preparation, teaching and action research. Centralised record keeping will
ultimately enable schools to better manage learning spaces, activities and resources.


Engineering the New Role of the Teacher
As already stated, teachers have been polarised in their acceptance of the new
educational technologies. Whilst some have enthusiastically integrated computers,
CMC and the Internet into their classrooms, others have been cautious in their
welcome, and a few have simply ignored the technologies. There is a level of
justi able cynicism based on previous experience of computer based applications
such as computer assisted learning (CAL). Ironically, some enthusiasts have inad-
vertently damaged the reputation of ICT by poor classroom practice—using the
technology for the sake of its novelty value, or failing to think through the issues
before implementing the technology (Littlejohn et al., 1999).
    With the inevitable proliferation of ICT in the classroom, the role of the teacher
must change, and there are four key reasons why I believe this must happen: Firstly,
the role of the teacher must change because ICT will cause certain teaching
resources to become obsolete. For example, the use of overhead projectors and
chalkboards may no longer be necessary if learners all have access to the same
networked resource on which the teacher is presenting information. Furthermore,
for pupils distributed throughout several classrooms—which will become more
common place—localised resources such as projectors and chalkboards become
redundant and new electronic forms of distributed communication must be em-
ployed.
    Secondly, ICT is almost certain to make some forms of assessment redundant.
Low level (factual) knowledge for example, has been traditionally tested by the use
of multiple choice questions. In an ICT environment, computer based testing can be
used which instantly provide the teacher with a wide range of information associated
with the learner’s score. Comparisons of previous scores and dates of assessment will
indicate the extent of a child’s progress. The measurement of the response speed of
key presses may pinpoint problems, indicate hesitancy or reveal areas of lack of
understanding. Each pupil can be allocated an individual action plan database
stored in electronic format into which each successive test result can be entered
automatically.
    Thirdly, the role of the teacher must change in the sense that it is no longer
ICT and the changing role of the teacher   13

suf cient for teachers merely to impart content knowledge. Teachers must complete
the move from being lecturers to becoming organisers and enablers (Sinko &
Lehtinen, 1999, p. 143). It will become crucial for teachers to encourage critical
thinking skills, promote information literacy, and nurture collaborative working
practices to prepare children for entry into the world of work. This will be a world
in which no job is guaranteed for life, and where people switch careers several times,
or even engage in several careers simultaneously, in what has been referred to as the
‘portfolio career’.
    One of the most ubiquitous incarnations of ICT—the Internet—gives access to
an exponentially growing storehouse of information sources, almost unlimited
networks of people and computers, and unprecedented learning and research
opportunities. The Internet is a network of networks, providing opportunities for
inquiry-based learning where teachers and students are able to access some of the
world’s largest information archives (Wheeler & Magee, 1997). Students and
teachers are able to connect with each other, learn exibly, and collaborate with
others around the world. Generally speaking, geographical distance is no longer a
barrier, and the age of the ‘borderless’ provision of education is upon us (THES,
2000). Teaching strategies and resources can be shared through communication
with other educators and may be integrated across the curriculum. The Internet
provides a wealth of information so extensive that it is now impossible to compre-
hensively track the amount of information available. Unfortunately, misinformation
and inaccuracies are similarly present in great numbers on the Internet so one of the
new roles of the teacher within the electronic classroom will be to separate out
quality information from misinformation. Identi cation, classi cation and authenti-
cation of electronic information sources will thus be critical new tasks for teachers.
    Finally, teachers must begin to reappraise the methods by which they meet
children’s learning needs. The Internet can be an excellent way to adapt information
to meet the characteristics of human information processing. Traditional methods of
imparting knowledge, such as lectures, books and this journal article, are character-
ised by a linear progression of information. Human minds are more adaptable than
this, using non-linear strategies for problem solving, representation and the storage
and retrieval of information (See for example Collins & Quillian, 1969; Collins &
Loftus, 1975). Hypertext software enables teachers to provide their students with
the non-linear means to match non-linear human thinking processes (Semenov,
2000, pp. 29–30). Another key role of the teacher, therefore, will be to design
courses with non-linear elements, thereby exploiting hypertext features.
    In order to put these new roles into context, we can examine some case studies
of actual ICT based learning environments in elementary schools in the United
States.


The U.S. Experience
As has been previously detailed, schools in the United States are investing in
centralised media systems that will enable information to be broadcast to many
schools at one time. Personalised learning is also encouraged. In Minneapolis, an
14   S. Wheeler

entire year of 90 students on one externally funded project were each loaned a
laptop computer (Frank, 1999). Flexible ways of working and learning were ob-
served, as students came to terms with any-time any-place learning. Teachers
monitored activities, facilitating rather than directing, in order to encourage the
most creative uses of the mobile technology. During the entire project only one
laptop computer was lost when it was accidentally left on a public bus.
    Networks of Apple Macintosh iMac computers are also much in evidence in US
schools, where children are instructed from the rst grade onwards. Large screen
video projection facilities are used to guide the students, application sharing is used
to take control of individual or grouped workstations to provide tutorials, and each
student is given a personal e-mail address. Similarly to their UK counterparts,
American children as young as 7 years old are being encouraged to seek out, and
maintain correspondence with overseas pen pals. Students as young as 5 years old
are learning to use ICT as a regular resource to think and communicate, thereby
enhancing the learning process. The role of the teacher here also, is to enable rather
than to control learning activities.


Trends and Alternative Futures
So, what of the future impact of information and communication technologies in the
classroom? If it is dif cult to predict future technological trends, it is almost
impossible to foresee how these emerging technologies might be used in future
teaching and learning contexts. The following quotations bear witness to this
problem:
     ‘One day every town in America will have its own telephone’ (U.S. Mayor,
     1880).
     ‘Within the next decade moving pictures will replace print’ (Thomas
     Edison, 1913).
     ‘I foresee a world market for maybe 5 computers’ (Thomas Watson,
     Chairman of IBM, 1943).*
     ‘I predict a time when computers will weigh no more than one and a half
     tons’ (Popular Mechanics, 1949).*
     ‘I foresee no reason for people to have a computer in their home’ (Ken
     Olson, President of Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977).*
     (* Quotes taken from Riel, 2000, pp. 20–21)
One thing of which we can be certain is that ICT technologies will inevitably
continue to proliferate, possibly to the point where they become personal technolo-
gies, in a similar fashion to the personal CD player or the mobile telephone. Indeed,
the third generation of mobile telephones, released in 2000, connect via a network
of low orbit satellites, and have the capability to connect with communication
networks virtually anywhere on the planet, and also to receive high quality video and
gain quick access to the Internet. These technologies will truly usher in the age of
‘any time, any place’ learning. The teacher’s traditional role of ‘classroom facilitator’
will be severely challenged by this promise, where children learning from home using
ICT and the changing role of the teacher   15

formalised electronic platforms for at least part of the school day may become a
reality. Schools wishing to follow this distributed model must rst consider the
notion of the ‘digital divide’—the dichotomy between those families that have a
home computer and Internet connections, and those that don’t. Furthermore, there
are gender and cultural issues to consider in relation to the use of ICT and these
have been well documented (Joo, 1999; Passig & Levin, 2000; Riding & Grimley,
1999). These social in uences deserve fuller discussion but are unfortunately
beyond the scope of this paper.
    Wearable computer systems are already being beta-tested and several universities
(notably MIT in the United States) have established advanced research programmes
to explore the many possibilities and applications, particularly in teaching and
learning [visit http://www.fae.plym.ac.uk/tele/tele.html]. The Internet, if bandwidth
and costs will allow, will become even more ubiquitous than at present, providing
vast, almost in nite quantities of learning material, stored around the world, and
accessible direct into the classroom, workplace or home—in fact, anywhere. World-
board systems will provide location speci c information, working in seamless union
with wearable wireless computer and communications technology. Operating from
the basis of three co-ordinates—latitude, longitude and altitude—users will be able
to access instant information about any place, artefact or event on earth. [Go to
Margaret Riel’s slide show at: http://www.gse.uci.edu/mriel.html/wt6/sld006.html
for more information]. Tele-immersion through the use of distributed virtual reality
technology may eventually become a reality for some schools [see http://
www.advanced.org/].
    In the United States, Xerox and other companies are racing to be the rst to
produce a usable form of digital paper. A booklet, with pages no more than twice as
thick as a normal sheet of paper, will act as a portable series of wafer thin computer
screens. The spine of the book acts as data storage, containing up to 100 medium
sized text books, downloadable direct from the publisher via the Internet [see a
report at http://newscientist.com/ns/19990515/papergoese.html].
    Wireless, seamless, anytime, anywhere communication is on the horizon, and
educators must be prepared for the changes this will bring to classrooms, as well as
to society in general. The impact of these new technologies upon compulsory
education will not be slow in coming.


Conclusions
Rapid changes in technology will ensure that ICT will proliferate in the classroom.
It is predicted that there will be many bene ts for both the learner and the teacher,
including the promotion of shared working space and resources, better access to
information, the promotion of collaborative learning and radical new ways of
teaching and learning. ICT will also require a modi cation of the role of the teacher,
who in addition to classroom teaching, will have other skills and responsibilities.
Some will become specialists in the use of distributed learning techniques, the
design and development of shared working spaces and resources, and virtual guides
for students who use electronic media. Ultimately, the use of ICT will enhance
16   S. Wheeler

learning experiences for children, helping them to think and communicate cre-
atively, and work collaboratively. It will also prepare our children for successful lives
and careers in an increasingly technological world.


Notes on Contributor
STEVE WHEELER is Senior Lecturer (Distance Education) in the Faculty of Arts
and Education at the University of Plymouth. He has worked in media and
education for over 25 years, predominantly in teacher training and nurse education.
During his teacher training he researched into the uses of satellite teleconferencing
and broadcasting in education. Steve is currently completing his doctoral thesis at
the University of Plymouth, entitled: ‘Transactional distance and the mediating
effects of telematic technologies in distance learning’. He is a member of several
international scienti c committees and works as a consulting editor for several
academic journals.

Correspondence: Steve Wheeler, Senior Lecturer in Distance Education, Graduate
School of Arts and Education, University of Plymouth, Douglas Avenue, Exmouth,
EX8 2AT, UK. Tel. 1 44 1395 255481; Fax: 1 44 1395 255303; Video: 1 44
1395 279297 (ISDN2); E-mail: swheeler@plymouth.ac.uk


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COLLINS , A.M. & LOFTUS, E.F. (1975) A spreading activation theory of semantic processing,
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COLLINS , A.M. & QUILLIAN, M.R. (1969) Retrieval time from semantic memory, Journal of Verbal
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DONALDSON, M. (1978) Children’s Minds (London, Fontana Collins).
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ICT and the changing role of the teacher

  • 1. Journal of Educational Media, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2001 Information and Communication Technologies and the Changing Role of the Teacher STEVE WHEELER University of Plymouth, UK ABSTRACT This paper examines the changing role of the teacher in the use of educational Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Several key issues are explored, including the effects of ICT on teaching and learning, the changing role of the teacher in constructivist learning environments, and the new skills teachers may be expected to acquire in order to make fruitful use of the new technologies. The author argues that the introduction of ICT into schools is raising fundamental questions about the nature of teaching and learning, and may even be challenging our conception of ‘time and place’. The paper offers evaluation of ICT uses in elementary schools in the USA and primary schools in England. It concludes with descriptions of emerging technologies (including relevant website addresses) and the possible contribution these may make to promoting ‘any time, any place’ learning opportunities for the future. Introduction Teachers are living in a time of general uncertainty where rapid changes in pro- fessional practice are commonplace. The present situation has arisen due to a number of factors, including economic instability, technological innovations and political initiatives. One of the most pervasive changes in professional practice is emerging as a result of the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). All change is accompanied by uncertainty, but change can also be instrumental in raising important questions, and this eld of enquiry is no exception. One essential question currently being asked is: what will be the long- term impact of the introduction of ICT into the classroom? Another equally important question being raised is: what kind of skills will teachers need to acquire in order to be effective in an ICT supported learning environment? Change may bring uncertainty, but the introduction of ICT into the classroom brings one thing of which we can all be certain—teachers will need to adapt to change if they are to survive and keep pace with new methods and technologies. This paper will address ISSN 1358-1651 (print)/ISSN 1469-9443 (online)/01/010007-11 Ó 2001 Taylor & Francis Ltd DOI: 10.1080/1358165001200692 92
  • 2. 8 S. Wheeler these two important questions by highlighting the experiences of teachers using ICT in the South West of England, and offering some further examples of established ICT teaching and learning applications in schools in the USA Midwest. The paper concludes by discussing current and future trends in learning technology develop- ment. ICT and Learning A great deal of research and development has been conducted to bring Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to its present state of learning application. Although ICT has been an integral part of the National Curriculum for over a decade, some commentators argue that there is still no consistency in its use (Selwyn & Bullon, 2000). In the context of teaching and learning, Jones and Knezek (1993) argue that ICT should be seen as a means of improving ef ciency in the educational process. However, this may be a limited view, given that ICT is changing the very nature of teaching and learning. For adherents of the new technologies, the intro- duction of ICT into the classroom has engendered an entirely new and positive dimension to the art of teaching. Moreover, it has been shown that the use of computers in education can generally help to improve memory retention, increase motivation and generally deepen understanding (Dede, 1998). ICT can also be used to promote collaborative learning, including role playing, group problem-solving activities and articulated projects (Forcheri & Mol no, 2000). Yet the use of ICT requires a great deal of investment from teachers in terms of time, effort and general commitment. The issues are concisely summed up in the following statement: ‘Network technology creates enormous possibilities but demands high levels of skill from its users. The issue is not just technical mastery of network use, but above all the cognitive skills of presenting and developing meaningful questions, and interpreting information by integrating it with previously accumulated knowledge and giving it an appropriate context.’ (Sinko & Lehtinen, 1999, p. 17) Generally, ICT seems to be encouraging new approaches to working and learning, and new ways of interacting (Balacheff, 1993) and a large percentage of teachers have shown enthusiasm to learn more about it potential (Williams et al., 1998, 2000). However, not all teachers have welcomed the widespread introduction of ICT in schools (Bradley & Russell, 1997). Consequently, a host of new questions have been posed regarding the evolving nature of pedagogy. Some Key Questions Whether or not changes in pedagogy are contingent on trends and innovations is a contentious point. The important question however, is: what will be the long-term impact of ICT on the teaching and learning process? It is well documented that using computers changes the nature of motivation to learn (Forcheri & Mol no, 2000), but will there also be adverse effects? Furthermore, teachers will need to
  • 3. ICT and the changing role of the teacher 9 acquire new skills in order to promote quality learning opportunities in an ICT rich learning environment. The great debate about how teachers should adapt current teaching skills to accommodate the introduction of ICT is only just beginning. In the meantime, teachers now have to grapple with how to apply new technologies effectively to teaching and learning. The necessary changes will be comprehensive, embracing teaching methodology, assessment of learning, tracking of progress and record keeping, communication, and curriculum evaluation. The potential of the distributed nature of technology-supported learning, and the impact it creates on both learners and teachers will also become crucial issues. The concept of shared resources, and shared working spaces, and particularly the notion of collaborative learning may be particularly dif cult for some teachers to accept. Most critically, the question of the extent to which teachers relinquish control and let learners drive their own learning may create the greatest barrier to the adoption of ICT in the classroom. In order to address some of these key issues, a brief summary of the work done to date is presented, with highlights of some of the more notable applications of ICT in British and American classrooms. The UK Experience The UK government has for the past decade been actively encouraging schools to embrace ICT as a fundamental part of the fabric of the curriculum. In 1998–1999, the UK government’s funding for ICT development in schools, known as the National Grid for Learning (NGfL) nally began to have a tangible impact. NGfL funding has resulted in a growth of connections to the Internet in primary and secondary schools. In March 1998 only 17 per cent of primary schools in the UK had Internet access. By March 1999 this had increased to 62 per cent and in the same period there was also an increase of Internet connectivity in secondary schools from 83 to 93 per cent (DfEE, 2000, p. 18). Many secondary schools and an increasing number of primary schools are now developing their own school websites and announcing their presence in cyberspace. The use of web pages to post school news and homework assignments is now becoming common practice, as will be the submission of work via e-mail from the child’s home to the teacher’s mailbox. These practices are already well established in many Australian and American schools. This, however is just the rst step toward introducing ICT into schools. It is expected that all British teachers will be offered training in the use of ICT by 2002, and the UK Government has committed to spending £230 million to drive this training initiative forward (DfEE, 2000, p. 18). British teachers are also being actively encouraged to purchase personal home computers, with a further fund of £20 million being offered to support this initiative. Teachers can expect to purchase a computer and peripheral equipment at approximately half the retail price for exclusive home use. Through these initiatives it is envisaged that many more teachers will be encouraged to explore the possibilities of ICT, and increase their con dence in the use of computers and networked resources. It is possible that
  • 4. 10 S. Wheeler entirely new working practices will evolve, where teachers work in a more collabora- tive manner, both with their own colleagues and with children. Finally, schools in some specially designated pilot areas are being encouraged to work together in clusters using ICT based communication methods. This approach enables schools to collaborate, sharing expensive teaching and learning materials, which can be made available cost effectively to larger distributions of children. This method of working will also enable key staff to provide on the job (or ‘just in time’) training to their colleagues from a centralised resource base (DfEE, 2000, p. 19). What ICT Brings to the Classroom Many are predicting that ICT will bring about major bene ts to the learner and the teacher. As we have seen, these will include sharing of resources and learning environments, and opening up classrooms as well as the promotion of collaborative learning and a general move towards greater learner autonomy. I shall brie y discuss each of these bene ts in turn, offering examples of each. Shared Learning Resources One of the most striking examples of ICT in action in American schools is the use of video systems to relay television programmes and digital information throughout an entire school and even between schools in the same district. In the Faribault Schools System in Minnesota, this integrative approach to the regional sharing of learning resources is enabling elementary schools to minimise expenditure by concentrating time and effort into creating centralised services. Students and teach- ers enjoy the facility to share information wherever they are in the school. Strategi- cally placed television monitors provide details of timetables, projects and assessment, mealtime menus and a host of other useful up-to-the-minute infor- mation. There are also regular play-outs of short lms and videos created by the children, and some schools can use several channels for broadcast purposes. Shared Learning Spaces Networked computing facilities create a distributed environment in which learners can share work spaces, communicate with each other and their teachers in text form, and access a wide variety of resources from internal and external databases via web-based systems through the Internet. In Broadclyst Primary School in East Devon, pupils as young as 8 years old use networked software to communicate with each other and their teacher, from the classroom or from home, whilst 10 year olds converse with ‘pen pals’ in other countries using e-mail. Using these shared systems, pupils develop transferable skills such as grammar and syntax construction, key- board techniques and written communication skills, whilst simultaneously acquiring knowledge of other cultures, languages and traditions. Furthermore, children are able to make links between internal thinking and external social interaction via the keyboard, to improve their social and intellectual developments in the best construc-
  • 5. ICT and the changing role of the teacher 11 tivist tradition (Vygotsky, 1962). The children in this school are quickly mastering the ability to communicate effectively using these new technologies because the experience has been made enjoyable in an unthreatening environment, and there are immediate perceived and actual bene ts for both pupils and the teaching staff. Opening up the Classroom Resources can also be accessed outside the school. For example, the excellent BBC Education website offers educational materials for all ages from pre-school through to adult and continuing education [See www.bbc.co.uk/education]. As Joo (1999) points out, the Internet takes teaching materials outside of the classroom and into the communities. This in turn ensures that entirely new relationships between teachers and pupils, teachers and parents and between teacher and teacher will be forged. We can expect that teachers will soon be required to adopt the role of mediator between student and knowledge. The Promotion of Collaborative Learning Riel (2000) argues that much of what we now see as individual learning will change to become collaborative in nature. Reasoning and intellectual development is em- bedded in the familiar social situations of everyday life (Donaldson, 1978) so the social context of learning has a great deal of importance. Collaborative learning is therefore gaining an increasing pro le in the curricula of many schools, with ICT performing a central role. Schools in the UK are already starting to use discussion lists, and other forms of computer mediated communication (CMC) to promote collaboration in a variety of learning tasks and group projects. CMC techniques enable wider participation, transporting children beyond the boundaries of their own school experience. The Move Towards Autonomous Learning Computers—and the power they bring to the student to access, manipulate, modify, store and retrieve information—have the potential to promote greater autonomy in learning. Inevitably, the use of ICT in the classroom will change the role of the learner, enabling children to exert more choice over how they approach study, requiring less direction from teachers. Students will be able to direct their own studies to a greater extent, with the teacher acting as a guide or moderator rather than as a director (Forsyth, 1996, p. 31). This facilitation will take on many facets and will also radically change the nature of the role of the teacher as we currently understand it. Consider, for example, the students at one Devon primary school who are able to use a software-based music laboratory in their free time to write, record and produce their own music CDs. Microphones and keyboards have been purchased to encourage the creativity that the children are discovering within these self-driven extra curricular activities. Minimal teacher management is required, as
  • 6. 12 S. Wheeler the equipment is very user friendly, and pupils generally access these facilities during their break periods or after school. A Move towards Electronic Management of Learning Spaces Teachers manage a wide range of information on a day-to-day basis, including attendance records, assignment grades and test scores, information about each individual child, classroom schedules, lesson notes and resource lists. ICT applica- tions such as spreadsheets and relational databases can and will simplify and rationalise many of these tasks, freeing up teachers’ time which can be better spent in lesson preparation, teaching and action research. Centralised record keeping will ultimately enable schools to better manage learning spaces, activities and resources. Engineering the New Role of the Teacher As already stated, teachers have been polarised in their acceptance of the new educational technologies. Whilst some have enthusiastically integrated computers, CMC and the Internet into their classrooms, others have been cautious in their welcome, and a few have simply ignored the technologies. There is a level of justi able cynicism based on previous experience of computer based applications such as computer assisted learning (CAL). Ironically, some enthusiasts have inad- vertently damaged the reputation of ICT by poor classroom practice—using the technology for the sake of its novelty value, or failing to think through the issues before implementing the technology (Littlejohn et al., 1999). With the inevitable proliferation of ICT in the classroom, the role of the teacher must change, and there are four key reasons why I believe this must happen: Firstly, the role of the teacher must change because ICT will cause certain teaching resources to become obsolete. For example, the use of overhead projectors and chalkboards may no longer be necessary if learners all have access to the same networked resource on which the teacher is presenting information. Furthermore, for pupils distributed throughout several classrooms—which will become more common place—localised resources such as projectors and chalkboards become redundant and new electronic forms of distributed communication must be em- ployed. Secondly, ICT is almost certain to make some forms of assessment redundant. Low level (factual) knowledge for example, has been traditionally tested by the use of multiple choice questions. In an ICT environment, computer based testing can be used which instantly provide the teacher with a wide range of information associated with the learner’s score. Comparisons of previous scores and dates of assessment will indicate the extent of a child’s progress. The measurement of the response speed of key presses may pinpoint problems, indicate hesitancy or reveal areas of lack of understanding. Each pupil can be allocated an individual action plan database stored in electronic format into which each successive test result can be entered automatically. Thirdly, the role of the teacher must change in the sense that it is no longer
  • 7. ICT and the changing role of the teacher 13 suf cient for teachers merely to impart content knowledge. Teachers must complete the move from being lecturers to becoming organisers and enablers (Sinko & Lehtinen, 1999, p. 143). It will become crucial for teachers to encourage critical thinking skills, promote information literacy, and nurture collaborative working practices to prepare children for entry into the world of work. This will be a world in which no job is guaranteed for life, and where people switch careers several times, or even engage in several careers simultaneously, in what has been referred to as the ‘portfolio career’. One of the most ubiquitous incarnations of ICT—the Internet—gives access to an exponentially growing storehouse of information sources, almost unlimited networks of people and computers, and unprecedented learning and research opportunities. The Internet is a network of networks, providing opportunities for inquiry-based learning where teachers and students are able to access some of the world’s largest information archives (Wheeler & Magee, 1997). Students and teachers are able to connect with each other, learn exibly, and collaborate with others around the world. Generally speaking, geographical distance is no longer a barrier, and the age of the ‘borderless’ provision of education is upon us (THES, 2000). Teaching strategies and resources can be shared through communication with other educators and may be integrated across the curriculum. The Internet provides a wealth of information so extensive that it is now impossible to compre- hensively track the amount of information available. Unfortunately, misinformation and inaccuracies are similarly present in great numbers on the Internet so one of the new roles of the teacher within the electronic classroom will be to separate out quality information from misinformation. Identi cation, classi cation and authenti- cation of electronic information sources will thus be critical new tasks for teachers. Finally, teachers must begin to reappraise the methods by which they meet children’s learning needs. The Internet can be an excellent way to adapt information to meet the characteristics of human information processing. Traditional methods of imparting knowledge, such as lectures, books and this journal article, are character- ised by a linear progression of information. Human minds are more adaptable than this, using non-linear strategies for problem solving, representation and the storage and retrieval of information (See for example Collins & Quillian, 1969; Collins & Loftus, 1975). Hypertext software enables teachers to provide their students with the non-linear means to match non-linear human thinking processes (Semenov, 2000, pp. 29–30). Another key role of the teacher, therefore, will be to design courses with non-linear elements, thereby exploiting hypertext features. In order to put these new roles into context, we can examine some case studies of actual ICT based learning environments in elementary schools in the United States. The U.S. Experience As has been previously detailed, schools in the United States are investing in centralised media systems that will enable information to be broadcast to many schools at one time. Personalised learning is also encouraged. In Minneapolis, an
  • 8. 14 S. Wheeler entire year of 90 students on one externally funded project were each loaned a laptop computer (Frank, 1999). Flexible ways of working and learning were ob- served, as students came to terms with any-time any-place learning. Teachers monitored activities, facilitating rather than directing, in order to encourage the most creative uses of the mobile technology. During the entire project only one laptop computer was lost when it was accidentally left on a public bus. Networks of Apple Macintosh iMac computers are also much in evidence in US schools, where children are instructed from the rst grade onwards. Large screen video projection facilities are used to guide the students, application sharing is used to take control of individual or grouped workstations to provide tutorials, and each student is given a personal e-mail address. Similarly to their UK counterparts, American children as young as 7 years old are being encouraged to seek out, and maintain correspondence with overseas pen pals. Students as young as 5 years old are learning to use ICT as a regular resource to think and communicate, thereby enhancing the learning process. The role of the teacher here also, is to enable rather than to control learning activities. Trends and Alternative Futures So, what of the future impact of information and communication technologies in the classroom? If it is dif cult to predict future technological trends, it is almost impossible to foresee how these emerging technologies might be used in future teaching and learning contexts. The following quotations bear witness to this problem: ‘One day every town in America will have its own telephone’ (U.S. Mayor, 1880). ‘Within the next decade moving pictures will replace print’ (Thomas Edison, 1913). ‘I foresee a world market for maybe 5 computers’ (Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943).* ‘I predict a time when computers will weigh no more than one and a half tons’ (Popular Mechanics, 1949).* ‘I foresee no reason for people to have a computer in their home’ (Ken Olson, President of Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977).* (* Quotes taken from Riel, 2000, pp. 20–21) One thing of which we can be certain is that ICT technologies will inevitably continue to proliferate, possibly to the point where they become personal technolo- gies, in a similar fashion to the personal CD player or the mobile telephone. Indeed, the third generation of mobile telephones, released in 2000, connect via a network of low orbit satellites, and have the capability to connect with communication networks virtually anywhere on the planet, and also to receive high quality video and gain quick access to the Internet. These technologies will truly usher in the age of ‘any time, any place’ learning. The teacher’s traditional role of ‘classroom facilitator’ will be severely challenged by this promise, where children learning from home using
  • 9. ICT and the changing role of the teacher 15 formalised electronic platforms for at least part of the school day may become a reality. Schools wishing to follow this distributed model must rst consider the notion of the ‘digital divide’—the dichotomy between those families that have a home computer and Internet connections, and those that don’t. Furthermore, there are gender and cultural issues to consider in relation to the use of ICT and these have been well documented (Joo, 1999; Passig & Levin, 2000; Riding & Grimley, 1999). These social in uences deserve fuller discussion but are unfortunately beyond the scope of this paper. Wearable computer systems are already being beta-tested and several universities (notably MIT in the United States) have established advanced research programmes to explore the many possibilities and applications, particularly in teaching and learning [visit http://www.fae.plym.ac.uk/tele/tele.html]. The Internet, if bandwidth and costs will allow, will become even more ubiquitous than at present, providing vast, almost in nite quantities of learning material, stored around the world, and accessible direct into the classroom, workplace or home—in fact, anywhere. World- board systems will provide location speci c information, working in seamless union with wearable wireless computer and communications technology. Operating from the basis of three co-ordinates—latitude, longitude and altitude—users will be able to access instant information about any place, artefact or event on earth. [Go to Margaret Riel’s slide show at: http://www.gse.uci.edu/mriel.html/wt6/sld006.html for more information]. Tele-immersion through the use of distributed virtual reality technology may eventually become a reality for some schools [see http:// www.advanced.org/]. In the United States, Xerox and other companies are racing to be the rst to produce a usable form of digital paper. A booklet, with pages no more than twice as thick as a normal sheet of paper, will act as a portable series of wafer thin computer screens. The spine of the book acts as data storage, containing up to 100 medium sized text books, downloadable direct from the publisher via the Internet [see a report at http://newscientist.com/ns/19990515/papergoese.html]. Wireless, seamless, anytime, anywhere communication is on the horizon, and educators must be prepared for the changes this will bring to classrooms, as well as to society in general. The impact of these new technologies upon compulsory education will not be slow in coming. Conclusions Rapid changes in technology will ensure that ICT will proliferate in the classroom. It is predicted that there will be many bene ts for both the learner and the teacher, including the promotion of shared working space and resources, better access to information, the promotion of collaborative learning and radical new ways of teaching and learning. ICT will also require a modi cation of the role of the teacher, who in addition to classroom teaching, will have other skills and responsibilities. Some will become specialists in the use of distributed learning techniques, the design and development of shared working spaces and resources, and virtual guides for students who use electronic media. Ultimately, the use of ICT will enhance
  • 10. 16 S. Wheeler learning experiences for children, helping them to think and communicate cre- atively, and work collaboratively. It will also prepare our children for successful lives and careers in an increasingly technological world. Notes on Contributor STEVE WHEELER is Senior Lecturer (Distance Education) in the Faculty of Arts and Education at the University of Plymouth. He has worked in media and education for over 25 years, predominantly in teacher training and nurse education. During his teacher training he researched into the uses of satellite teleconferencing and broadcasting in education. Steve is currently completing his doctoral thesis at the University of Plymouth, entitled: ‘Transactional distance and the mediating effects of telematic technologies in distance learning’. He is a member of several international scienti c committees and works as a consulting editor for several academic journals. Correspondence: Steve Wheeler, Senior Lecturer in Distance Education, Graduate School of Arts and Education, University of Plymouth, Douglas Avenue, Exmouth, EX8 2AT, UK. Tel. 1 44 1395 255481; Fax: 1 44 1395 255303; Video: 1 44 1395 279297 (ISDN2); E-mail: swheeler@plymouth.ac.uk REFERENCES BALACHEFF, N. (1993) Arti cial intelligence and real teaching, in: C. KEITEL & K. RUTHVEN (Eds.) Learning from computers: Mathematics education and technology (Berlin, Springer Verlag). BRADLEY, G. & RUSSELL, G. (1997) Computer Experience, School Support and Computer Anxieties, Educational Psychology, 17(3), pp. 267–284. COLLINS , A.M. & LOFTUS, E.F. (1975) A spreading activation theory of semantic processing, Psychological Review, 82, pp 407–428. COLLINS , A.M. & QUILLIAN, M.R. (1969) Retrieval time from semantic memory, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 8, p. 244. DFEE (2000) Professional Development: Support for Teaching and Learning, February. Department for Education and Employment, Circular 0008/2000. DONALDSON, M. (1978) Children’s Minds (London, Fontana Collins). DEDE, C. (1998) Learning about teaching and vice versa, paper presented at the Conference of the Society for Information Technology in Education, Washington D.C., USA. FORCHERI, P. & MOLFINO , M.T. (2000) ICT as a tool for learning to learn, in D.M. WATSON & T. DOWNES (Eds.) Communications and Networking in Education, pp. 175–184 (Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic). FORSYTH, I. (1996) Teaching and Learning Materials and the Internet (London, Kogan Page). FRANK, S. (1999) Minneapolis Laptop Project: Laptops in High School, paper presented at the Minnesota Educational Media Organisation Conference, Mid West Wireless Civic Centre, Mankato, MN, USA, October. JONES , G. & KNEZEK, G. (1993) Non-commercial radio-satellite telecommunications: affordable options for technology educators. Cited in S. ROMI (2000) Distance Learning and Non-formal Education: Existing Trends and New Possibilities of Distance Learning Experiences, Educa- tional Media International, 37, pp. 39–44. JOO, J.E. (1999) Cultural issues of the Internet in classrooms, British Journal of Educational Technology, 30, pp. 245–250.
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