Applying Game Concepts To Learning


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Presentation slides fon 11/12/13 presentation of the same title as part of the 2013-2014 Blumberg Topical Series talks at Indiana State University

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Applying Game Concepts To Learning

  1. 1. Blumberg Center Topical Series – Applying Game Concepts to Learning Tim Boileau, Ph.D. – Indiana State University Curriculum, Instruction, and Media Technology November 12, 2013
  2. 2. Why Games? ✤ $ Multi-billion industry surpassing Hollywood film industry! ✤ Embedded in popular culture! ✤ Represent more natural ways of learning and engagement! Learning can and should be hard fun!
  3. 3. Who Plays Games in the U.S.? ✤ 50% of the population over the age of 6! ✤ Average game player is 29 yrs old! ✤ 43% of game players are women! ✤ 97% of games are purchased by adults over the age of 18! ✤ 60% of parents play games with their children at least one a month Entertainment Software Association
  4. 4. Who Plays Games in the U.S.? ✤ Survey of 12-17 year olds:! ✤ ✤ ✤ 99% of boys and 94% of girls report playing video games! Younger teen boys are most likely to play games, followed by younger girls, then older boys! Age is more strongly correlated with gaming than sex of respondent (55% male; 50% female)! ✤ 81% of 18-29 year olds play games! ✤ 25% of adults age 65 or older play games Pew Foundation Research
  5. 5. Gender and Genre (12-17 yr olds) ✤ 39% of boys play games on a daily basis, averaging 8 different genres! ✤ 22% of girls play games on a daily basis, averaging 6 different genres! ✤ Boys favor fighting, FPS, role-playing games and mature content (sex and violence)! ✤ Girls favor puzzle games (casual games)! ✤ No discernible gender differences in preferences toward racing games, rhythm games, and simulation games (e.g., SIMS)! ✤ Boys are more likely to own and play console games Pew Foundation Research
  6. 6. back Putting Play into Education
  7. 7. What’s in a Game? ✤ Objective! ✤ Rules! ✤ Challenge/Competition! ✤ Randomness or unpredictability! ✤ Designed for fun and sometimes learning
  8. 8. What Makes a Game Fun? ✤ Challenge - requires reasonable level of difficulty! ✤ Fantasy - compelling setting for game action; temporary suspension of reality! ✤ Curiosity - random events so that play is not completely deterministic! ✤ Control - learners are confronted with choices
  9. 9. What’s in a Learning Game? ✤ Active participation! ✤ Immediate feedback! ✤ Dynamic interaction! ✤ Competition! ✤ Novelty! ✤ Goal direction
  10. 10. What does the Learning Games Research tell us? ✤ Learners, and people in general, have positive attitudes toward game playing! ✤ Affective appeal of games increases engagement through time spent in play! ✤ Research is inconclusive in categorization of games for learning and transfer (near vs. far)! ✤ Games for learning should be a part of curriculum design; they do not necessarily replace other forms of instruction
  11. 11. Humans for Learning ✤ Human beings are natural born learning machines! ✤ Our brains are constantly seeking patterns–exploring and experimenting–in order to increase our survival chances! ✤ We learn naturally in order to thrive by interacting with the world around us! ✤ Neuroscience research tells us that when we learn something new, or brains release a flood of opioids, producing feelings of pleasure and fulfillment
  12. 12. Games for Learning ✤ A game is a system within which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome! ✤ A game at its core, is a kind of structured learning environment! ✤ In games we learn two important things:! ✤ New skills (e.g., running and jumping)! ✤ New information (e.g., knowledge of levels; location of enemies and rewards)
  13. 13. Games vs. Gamification ✤ Games, in contrast to shallow rewards systems (e.g., a loyalty card program), are made up of activities we like! ✤ Games are engagement engines. To design a game is to take an enjoyable and/or satisfying experience and apply rules to help players maximize the enjoyment and satisfaction with the interaction! ✤ Reward systems that layer game mechanics over an existing experience doesn’t make us like it any better, it just encourages us to tolerate it
  14. 14. Gamification: What is it? ga#mi#fi#ca#(on+[]+ integra(ng+game+dynamics+into+your+site,+ service,+community,+content+or+campaign,+in+ order+to+drive+par(cipa(on.
  15. 15. Gamification: What does is Look Like? Game elements include:! Human drivers include:! • Points! • Reward! • Levels ! • Status ! • Challenges! • Achievement! • Virtual goods and spaces ! • Self-expression ! • Leaderboards ! • Competition ! • Gifts and charity • Altruism
  16. 16. Gamification: Relationship between Game Mechanics and Human Desires Human Desires Game Elements Illustrates the interaction of basic human desires and game play. The green dots signify the primary desire a particular game mechanic fulfills, and the blue dots show the other areas that it affects.
  17. 17. Learning Games: Behavioral Games (1 of 2) ✤ A behavioral game is a real world activity modified by a system of skills-based play (e.g., merit badges)! ✤ Where behavioral games differ from traditional games is in the psychological space of the game itself! ✤ While most games unfold in some “magic circle”, behavioral games unfold in our offices, schools, and homes! ✤ Behavioral games typically have an audience of just one, allowing them to be better tailored to the learner
  18. 18. Learning Games: Behavioral Games (2 of 2) ✤ Any activity can be turned into a game if:! ✤ ✤ The player can be measured! ✤ ✤ The activity can be learned! The play can be rewarded or punished in a timely fashion! Behavioral games focus on skills that matter to the activity at hand
  19. 19. Behavioral Game Design Framework* ✤ Behavioral games are made up of ten building blocks linked in a design framework. (Note: not all building blocks are used in all games) 1. Activity! 2. Player Profile! 3. Objectives! 4. Skills! 5. Resistance 6. Resources! 7. Actions! 8. Feedback! 9. Blackbox! 10. Outcomes *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  20. 20. Behavioral Game Framework 1. Activity Activity ✤ Activity in a behavioral game is the real-world endeavor that the game is built on! ✤ Something we want players to do more, better, or differently! ✤ Activities are verbs! ✤ Activities are things we do *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  21. 21. Behavioral Game Framework 2. Player Profile Activity ✤ Player profile is a trait-based description of the players in a behavioral game, arranged in two dimensions! ✤ ✤ Player Profile Drivers - psychological traits that help us understand which dynamics will motivate players! Symptoms - player volition and faculty *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  22. 22. Behavioral Game Framework 3. Objectives Activity ✤ Objectives are goals toward which effort is directed! Player Profile Long-term - ultimate objective determines when game has been won; end state desired! ✤ Objectives ✤ Short-term - things to be accomplished along the way *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  23. 23. Behavioral Game Framework 4. Skills Activity ✤ Skills are specialized abilities we put to use in behavioral games! Objectives Mental (e.g., memory, pattern recognition)! ✤ Player Profile Physical (e.g., running, jumping)! ✤ Skills ✤ Social (e.g., presentation, conversation) *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  24. 24. Behavioral Game Framework 5. Resistance Activity Objectives Skills Resistance ✤ Resistance is the force of opposition that creates tension in a behavioral game! ✤ Competition - pits players against one another! ✤ Chance - subjects players to unpredictable circumstances Player Profile *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  25. 25. Behavioral Game Framework 6. Resources Activity Objectives Skills ✤ Resources are the spaces and supplies that players use, or have the potential to acquire, in behavioral games! Resources have attributes (i.e., what they can do)! ✤ Resources ✤ Resources have states (i.e., active/inactive) Resistance Player Profile *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  26. 26. Behavioral Game Framework 7. Actions Actions are the moves available to players in a behavioral game! ✤ Include decisions and choices available! ✤ Activity ✤ Influence the tone and style of a behavioral game Actions Objectives Skills Resources Resistance Player Profile *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  27. 27. Behavioral Game Framework 8. Feedback Activity ✤ Feedback is a system response to a player’s actions! ✤ May be in different forms (e.g., data/information or auditory stimulation)! ✤ Without feedback, it would be unclear what effect actions have in a behavioral game Actions Objectives Skills Resources Resistance Feedback Player Profile *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  28. 28. Behavioral Game Framework 9. Black Box ✤ Black box is a rules engine within a behavioral game! ✤ Activity Could be in the form of a computer program or document; may be simple or complex! ✤ Contains all information about interplay between actions and feedback Objectives Skills Resources Resistance Feedback Player Profile Black Box Actions *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  29. 29. Behavioral Game Framework 10. Outcomes ✤ Activity Outcomes are positive and negative results that occur while in pursuit of the ultimate objective in a behavioral game! ✤ May include tangible (e.g., resources) or intangible (e.g., moving up a level) rewards Resources Resistance Outcomes Objectives Skills Black Box Actions Feedback Player Profile *Source: A. Dignan (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success
  30. 30. 40 Sites for Educational Games! A 6-Step Process for Adding Gamification To Your Classroom! A Graphic That Itemizes The Educational Value Of Video Games! EdGamer 116: ‘For Youth Inquiry’ with Jacob & Nikki! EVOKE - the World Bank's online educational game! How To Gamify Your Classroom! Teach Digital Citizenship with Minecraft! Your Guide to Creating Compelling Newsgames! Disruptions: Minecraft, an Obsession and an Educational Tool! Applying Informal Learning Using a Social Gaming Platform! Katie Salen on the Power of Game-Based Learning! 5 Video Game Myths Debunked!
  31. 31. Tim Boileau, Ph.D.! New Media and Learning! Indiana State University! ––!! !! ! "31