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Learning Verses Experience

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WSU IT7220 Week 2

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Learning Verses Experience

  1. 1. Learning vs. Experience IT 7220 January 26, 2009 Monday, January 26, 2009 1
  2. 2. Agenda Personal Web pages   Chap 2 - Learning Basics  Chap 3 - Experience Basics  Game Exercise  Flash HOT - Chapters 4-6 Monday, January 26, 2009 2
  3. 3. Personal Web Pages Some information about you  Picture  Links  Is it engaging?  Monday, January 26, 2009 3
  4. 4. Chap 2 - Learning Basics Individual learning is about:  Engaging in activity  Encountering a problem  Reflecting to create an abstract conception  Testing the conception  Monday, January 26, 2009 4
  5. 5. Instruction Cycle Designing instruction means adding examples of  performance and feedback Monday, January 26, 2009 5
  6. 6. Instructional Frameworks Bloom  Taxonomy of knowledge we have and use  Gagné  Events of learning to achieve successful learning outcomes  Mager  Interventions couched in learning objectives  Reigeluth  Elaboration of complexity and comprehensiveness until  knowledge or skill is fully elaborated and exercised Keller  ARCS Model (attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction  to address affective elements and knowledge components Monday, January 26, 2009 6
  7. 7. Gagné’s Instructional Events Bloom’s Taxonomy Keller’s ARC’s with Gagné Events of Learning Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction Gain Attention Establish Objectives Provide Guidance Provide Feedback Stimulate Prior Recall Elicit Performance Assess Performance Present Content Enhance Retention Monday, January 26, 2009 7
  8. 8. Basic ID Model • Elements for developing a learning experience: • Objective • Introduction • Concept • Examples • Practice • Summary Monday, January 26, 2009 8
  9. 9. Dealing with Content • Linear Content • Movies, television shows and books are all linear • Modern DVD’s represent the purist extension of linear content today • Linear content is the province of the creator, and thus the least valuable of the three content types • Cyclical Content • Interface: the DNA of most computer computer games • Mapped to a real activity • Open-ended Content • Learners participate in the experience • Focus on developing strategies, building environments, and taking ownership • Essential for transfer Monday, January 26, 2009 9
  10. 10. Goals of Learning Goal is to achieve a change in behavior that is retained over time and applies in a! relevant situations • Retention • Learning that persists beyond learning situation to apply to appropriate situations on an ongoing basis. Fostered by comprehension and practice. • Transfer • Leaning applied to new situations not covered the learning situation. Developed throurgh practice across contexts. Monday, January 26, 2009 10
  11. 11. Cognitivist Views • Cognitive apprenticeship • Demonstrate behaviors • Practice/Scaffolding (support is gradually removed) • Reflection and feedback on performance • Scenario-based learning • Development of low-level knowledge skills through discovery of resources internal and external to learning situation--not by explicit instruction Monday, January 26, 2009 11
  12. 12. Constructivist Views • Learners must develop their own understanding • Learners need to be active in engaging with problems and developing hypotheses; require feedback to refine models • Emphasis on social nature of learning through dialogue between learners; between learners and mentors; between learners and environment • Zone of Proximal Development: space between competency and tasks learner can accomplish with help (scaffolding) is the zone where learning occurs Monday, January 26, 2009 12
  13. 13. Convergence of Models Move from knowledge test, where we ask learners to identify the elements, to knowledge application, where learners use knowledge to solve a contextualized problem. Monday, January 26, 2009 13
  14. 14. Enhanced Design Model • Elements • Objective • Dramatic Introduction • Multiply represented context • Annotated examples • Scaffolded practice • Guided Reflection Monday, January 26, 2009 14
  15. 15. Enhanced ID Model (Quinn) Monday, January 26, 2009 15
  16. 16. Elements for Successful Learning • Contextualized • Clear goal • Appropriate challenge • Anchored • Relevant • Exploratory • Active manipulation • Appropriate feedback • Attention getting Monday, January 26, 2009 16
  17. 17. Chap 3 - Experience Basics • Game Genres • Compelling Experience • Human Computer Interface (HCI) Design • Designing Engaging Experiences Monday, January 26, 2009 17
  18. 18. Game Platforms • Arcade games (e.g., Asteroids; PacMan) • Home computers (i.e., Dungeons and Dragons) • Consoles (including handheld e.g., GameBoy) • PC • MMOLRPG via the Web Monday, January 26, 2009 18
  19. 19. Game Genres • Action - original category; builds coordination and reflexes • Fighting - version of action game; characters in martial arts or combat • Driving or flying - often in competition; start out as simulation and becomes a game because challenge and fantasy are appealing (e.g., Microsoft Flight Simulator) • Sports - mimic popular individual or team sports; develop mental skills involved in those sports Monday, January 26, 2009 19
  20. 20. More Game Genres • 3D Shooter - first-person viewpoint; requires navigational capabilities • Card or board - electronic versions of familiar games like solitaire and chess; may include strategic components • Strategy - story line requires prioritizing and allocating resources to grow and conquer; may require negotiation and navigation skills, and planning • Fantasy role playing - players control character or team that combat and gain skills over time; can have embedded puzzles Monday, January 26, 2009 20
  21. 21. Still More Game Genres • Adventure - character explores and must figure out to overcome puzzles to advance • Multiplayer - have developed capabilities to allow players to play against one another • Combinations - combine element of rpg’s with adventure or that mix driving with 3D shooter • Couple of thoughts about genres... • Different genres work for different experiences; aren’t necessarily interchangeable • Mods are available; tend to be genre specific Monday, January 26, 2009 21
  22. 22. Properties of Games • Game skills • Physical dexterity • Intellectual skills • Role playing • Game elements • Competition • Implements • Territory • Inventory • Rules Monday, January 26, 2009 22
  23. 23. Experience: Flow • Occurs when one is engaged in self-controlled, goal-related, meaningful actions • Management of challenge: above normal requirements, but within capabilities • Includes feedback tied to a goal • Use of narrative; management of tension while grounding action in a meaningful story Monday, January 26, 2009 23
  24. 24. Experience: Fun • Challenge • Requires reasonable level of difficulty • Fantasy • Compelling setting for game action; temporary suspension of reality • Curiosity • Random events so that play is not completely deterministic • Control • Learners are confronted with choices Monday, January 26, 2009 24
  25. 25. HCI Insights for Games • Responsiveness - feedback from computer • Benchmarks - indicators of outcomes and progress • Acceptable uncertainty - proceeding without complete understanding is ok • Safe conduct - ability to make errors without affecting the real world • Learning by doing - exploration and discovery • Control - learner as an agent of action Monday, January 26, 2009 25
  26. 26. Designing Engaging Experiences • Thematic coherence • Clear goal • Balanced challenge • Relevance: action to domain • Relevance: problem to learner • Choices of action • Direct manipulation • Action coupling • Novel information or events Monday, January 26, 2009 26
  27. 27. Exercise • Play Games2train’s solitaire game • Does it meet the criteria for a ‘fun’ experience? (challenge, fantasy, curiosity, control) • Does it meet the criteria for the “enhanced design model” presented by Quinn? Monday, January 26, 2009 27
  28. 28. Flash HOT - Chap 4-6 • Lab and Demonstration Monday, January 26, 2009 28

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