Clojure
● LISP on the JVM
● Dynamic
● Started in 2007 by Rich Hickey
● 3 years of planning
● Current version - 1.6.0
● Ecl...
Defining Features
● LISP syntax but not Common LISP or Scheme
– Macros
● Immutability
● Functional
● JVM based
– Java inte...
Syntax
● Numbers: 1234, 1.234, 1.234M
● Ratios: 22/7
● Strings: “foo”, “bar”, Characters: a b c
● Symbols: foo, bar, Keywo...
Data Structures
● Lists – singly linked, grow at front:
– (1 2 3 4)
● Vectors – indexed, grow at end:
– [1 2 3 4]
● Maps –...
Syntax
● That's the entire syntax
● Data strcuture are the code (Homoiconicity)
● All data literals stand for themselves e...
Lists as Invocations Example
● (+ 1 1) => 2
● (+ 1 2 (+ 3 4 5)) => 15
● (first [:a :b :c]) => :a
● (rest [:a :b :c]) => (:...
Persistent Data Structures
● All Clojure data structures are persistent
● Collections maintain performance guarantees:
– N...
Persistent Data Structure
Performance
● O(log32 N) ~= O(1)
A
B C
D E F G
H I J K L M N'
A’
C’
G’
N
Seq General Macros
● All seqs, which means all lists, vectors, hash-
maps, hash-sets, strings etc. can use the multi
purpo...
Laziness
● Seqs can be lazy
– (repeat :a) => (:a :a :a :a :a …)
● Processing is delayed until the seq is realized:
– (clas...
Philosophy
● Use libraries instead of frameworks
● REPL first development
– Small and isolated functions
● Data structures...
DEMO
Java Interop
● (.toLowerCase “AppsFlyer”) => “appsflyer”
– (.<method> <object> [<arg1> …])
● (Foo. “bar”) => #<Foo bar>
– ...
Concurrency
● Clojure uses STM – no locks in the code
– Multiversion Concurrency Control (MVCC)
– Readers never impede wri...
So Much More...
● Metadata
● Optimized tail recursion
● Destructuring binding in let/fn/loop
● List comprehensions
● Multi...
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Clojure presentation

  1. 1. Clojure ● LISP on the JVM ● Dynamic ● Started in 2007 by Rich Hickey ● 3 years of planning ● Current version - 1.6.0 ● Eclipse license
  2. 2. Defining Features ● LISP syntax but not Common LISP or Scheme – Macros ● Immutability ● Functional ● JVM based – Java interop – Not OOP ● Supports Concurrency
  3. 3. Syntax ● Numbers: 1234, 1.234, 1.234M ● Ratios: 22/7 ● Strings: “foo”, “bar”, Characters: a b c ● Symbols: foo, bar, Keywords: :foo, :bar ● Boolean: true, false, Null: nil ● Regex Patterns: #”a*b”
  4. 4. Data Structures ● Lists – singly linked, grow at front: – (1 2 3 4) ● Vectors – indexed, grow at end: – [1 2 3 4] ● Maps – key/value associations: – {:a 1 :b 2 :c 3} ● Sets: #{:a :b :c} ● Everything nests inside each other
  5. 5. Syntax ● That's the entire syntax ● Data strcuture are the code (Homoiconicity) ● All data literals stand for themselves except: – Lists (IFn invocation) – Symbols (“pointers”)
  6. 6. Lists as Invocations Example ● (+ 1 1) => 2 ● (+ 1 2 (+ 3 4 5)) => 15 ● (first [:a :b :c]) => :a ● (rest [:a :b :c]) => (:b :c) ● (class “foo”) => java.lang.String ● (class 1) => java.long.Long
  7. 7. Persistent Data Structures ● All Clojure data structures are persistent ● Collections maintain performance guarantees: – New + Old version of collections are available after change – New versions are not full copies – Thread safe, iteration safe ● Sequences replace traditional lists – All Clojure and Java collections can be made into seqs
  8. 8. Persistent Data Structure Performance ● O(log32 N) ~= O(1) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N' A’ C’ G’ N
  9. 9. Seq General Macros ● All seqs, which means all lists, vectors, hash- maps, hash-sets, strings etc. can use the multi purpose seq macros. A kind of polymorphism over collections. (def xs [:a :b :c]) – (first xs) => :a , (rest xs) => (:b :c) – (count xs) => 3 , (contains? xs :d) => false – (remove #(= % :b) xs) => (:a :c) – (nth xs 2) => :c
  10. 10. Laziness ● Seqs can be lazy – (repeat :a) => (:a :a :a :a :a …) ● Processing is delayed until the seq is realized: – (class (repeat :a)) => clojure.lang.LazySeq ● Realize part of a lazy seq: – (take 3 (repeat :a)) => (:a :a :a)
  11. 11. Philosophy ● Use libraries instead of frameworks ● REPL first development – Small and isolated functions ● Data structures instead of classes
  12. 12. DEMO
  13. 13. Java Interop ● (.toLowerCase “AppsFlyer”) => “appsflyer” – (.<method> <object> [<arg1> …]) ● (Foo. “bar”) => #<Foo bar> – (<class>. [<constrcutor arg1>...]) ● (Integer/parseInt “5”) => 5 – (<class>/<static method> [<arg1>...]) ● (.contains “AppsFlyer FTW” “FTW”) => true
  14. 14. Concurrency ● Clojure uses STM – no locks in the code – Multiversion Concurrency Control (MVCC) – Readers never impede writers and writers never impeded readers ● 3 primitive containers to store mutable data – atom, ref, agent – Refs – coordinated-sync access to many identities – Atoms – Uncoordinated-sync access to a single identity – Agents – Uncoordinated-async access to a single identity
  15. 15. So Much More... ● Metadata ● Optimized tail recursion ● Destructuring binding in let/fn/loop ● List comprehensions ● Multimethods ● Parallel computations ● Macros

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