Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Introduction to Evolution 2011


Published on

This slide show introduces the topic of evolution, provides useful definitions, facts, concepts, history, and a link to the complete works of Charles Darwin Online, and a link to an "Inherit the Wind" website.

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Introduction to Evolution 2011

  1. 1. Introduction to Evolution Dr. Michael L. Foster 2011
  2. 2. Dr. Michael Foster
  3. 3. On The Origin of Species <ul><li>The Complete Works of Charles Darwin -ONLINE </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Important Definitions <ul><li>Empirical – measurable or quantifiable. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropomorphism – to attribute human perspectives to the actions, behaviors, motivations of other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropocentrism- the belief that humans are the focal point. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity – physical laws are the same now as they were in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism – scientific explanations or causes for events or phenomena. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Historical Background <ul><li>The Scala Natura – The Great Chain of Being. Since order is superior to disorder, God’s creation must follow a plan. This is a gradation from inanimate objects to barely animate life forms, through plants, invertibrates, etc. It must be COMPLETE AND WITHOUT GAPS; PERMANENT AND UNCHANGING (NO EXTINCTION). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Historical Perspectives <ul><li>ESSENTIALISM – All species have an external, immutable essence, but each individual had imperfections. Variation is accidental imperfection. It is meaningless. Only essences matter. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Perspectives <ul><li>DEISM – Belief in an all-knowing all-powerful God; Deity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Causes – the purposes for which things occur. The will of God. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient causes – the mechanisms that cause events to occur. Mechanistic or naturalistic explanations. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Historical Perspectives <ul><li>As late as the 18 th century the role of natural science was to catalog and make manifest the plan of creation so that we might appreciate God’s wisdom. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Historical Perspectives <ul><li>The Principle of Plentitude and Harmony of Nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st half of the 19 th century. Tha materialist rationalism of the enlightenment yielded romanticism and idealistic philosophy – the belief that nature has a harmonious and transcendent order. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Problems <ul><li>Extinction – the geological record shows extinction. This is not compatible with special creation ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is of advanced age – millions or BILLIONS. Certainly more than 10,000 years which is the age of earth according to religious doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>October 23, 4004 BC – Time of creation according to Bishop Usher (Biblical Scholar) </li></ul>
  11. 11. People who influenced Darwin Read “An Historical Sketch” in “Origin” <ul><li>Lamark - 1809 Philosophie Zoologique </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Cuvier – respected zoologist and paleontologist. Believed in extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Unger- Studied variation. Trained Mendel. </li></ul><ul><li>William Charles Wells – studied variation in human skin color – races. </li></ul>
  12. 12. People who influenced Darwin – see Historical Sketch of “Origin” <ul><li>Charles Lyell - “Principles of Geology” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged the age of the earth. Estimated Earth’s age to be 3.2 billion years old over 120 years ago! Inspired Darwin to ask questions and to think!! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. People who influenced Darwin – see Historical Sketch of “Origin” <ul><li>Robert Chambers – 1844. Combined science and religion. Upset both. Caused scandal. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Matthew – (1790- 1874) –advanced the idea of natural selection and evolution by common descent in a book published in 1831 (BEFORE DARWIN) called “On Naval Timber and Arboriculture” –It went un-noticed! </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Russell Wallace – Co-discoverer of Theory! </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>He uncovered contradictions to Harmonious Nature idea… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Progessivism <ul><li>Late 17 th century. A more materialist view was forced by Newton’s explanation of physical phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>18 th Century – Age of Enlightenment – faith in progress and the power of reason. Question old beliefs. The natural world could change. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Uniformitarianism <ul><li>Observations of geology should be explicable by processes that we can observe in the present era. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earth must be so old that we can perceive “no vestage of a beginning or prospect of an end” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as actualism, </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Darwin’s Idea <ul><li>Evolution = undirected, purposeless (random) variation coupled with the blind, uncaring process of natural selection. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Evolution Since Darwin <ul><li>Neo-Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>The rediscovery of Mendel’s work… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with Darwinian Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending Inheritance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recombination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative genetics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multifactorial and polygenic traits </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Evolutionary Synthesis <ul><ul><li>Mendel, Chetverikov, Dobzhansky, Hardy, Weinberg, Fisher, Haldane, Wright, Mayr, Simpson, Huxley…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All contributed to development of neo-darwinism. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. “Inherit the Wind” <ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. Visit me online!