Since the 1960 ’ s television drama has developed a strand of drama: This marks new trend and offers strong, female characters and female point of view
Follows the typical representation of the masculine within the ‘male-centred’ gangster film but also male crime series of TV (SE SLIDE FOR CONVENTIONS)
One of areas below will appear in the exam. We will need to prepare for ALL areas. Gender Age Ethnicity Sexuality Class and status Physical ability/disability Regional identity
Your marks for this question are broken down into threecategories.Explanation/analysis/argument (20 marks)Use of examples (20 marks)Use of terminology (10 marks)
We will look at two types of representation1.Representing as Re-presenting1.Who does the re-presenting? (Richard Dyer1985)
Mimetic theory of representation Reflects reality Window to the world Transparent Unmediated What does this term mean? What does this term mean?
1. Why are some interpretations (re- presentations) of the world made over others?2. What are the ranges of representation in Western cultures?
1. How the re-presentations of reality are never innocent/neutral.2. How representations are political3. How they always reflect the producer’s beliefs and values (those doing the re- presenting)
Predominantly white, middleaged, middle class men Mark Thompson Dir Gen BBC – 2004 (replaced Greg Dyke) Adam Crozier – Chief Exec ITV - 2010 (replaced Michael Grade) David Abraham – Chief Exec CH4 - Jan 2010- (replaced Andy Duncan) Dawn Airey Chair and Chief Exec of CH5 sanding down in 2010.
Women still under represented in the audio- visual industry 38% ‘ethnic minorities’ 7% total audio-visual workforce Broadcast TV 9.1% 24% cinema cleaners
Created by David Chase HBO 1999-2007 Frequently hailed the ‘Best ever drama’ Who has seen it?
Explore the representations of masculinity in The Sopranos How is representations in The Sopranos similar or different to previous representations of masculinity in traditional masculine gangster films/ crime dramas? How does The Sopranos draw on the conventions of traditional feminine texts? Here is a clip to get you started. Use Youtube to find more if you need to http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=h347Cr7UkU8
The Sopranos can be seen as drawing on the generic conventions and history of the GANGSTER FILM of cinema –such as The Godfather etc Gangster Film The Godfather (Coppola 1972) Scarface (De Palma 1983) Goodfellas (Scorsese 1990) Casino (Scorsese 1995) Indeed like previous constructions of masculinity within the gangster film the mob boss of Tony Soprano is represented as a violent, macho, aggressive man
Sopranos follows the typical representation of the masculine within the ‘male-centred’ gangster film but also male crime series of TV Dominant males Subservient females Physical action Lack of emotion Romance controlled Male heroes
Lack of respect/security Shifts to mob fathers way of being as head of the ‘family’ business Shifts to fathers positioning in relation to his own personal familyAcross his PUBLIC and PRIVATE life Tony feels the MOVEMENT AWAY fromTRADITIONAL RULES and NORMS that govern his life and SECURED his POSITION asHEAD of both FAMILIESThe old rules of DUTY, HONOUR and RESPECT for those in positions of authority haveeroded at workThe tradition of respecting your FATHER & HUSBAND as BREADWINNER have also beeneroded with women
Laura Mulvey – Male GazeInfluenced by Freud & Jacques Lucan,Mulvey sees the representation of womanin film & literature (and therefore society ingeneral) as being dominated by a malepoint of view. Her belief is that the world isa patriarchy and that men have the‘active’ roles and woman ‘passive’
To look is seen as active She believed the camera acted as a male and everything we see is from a male point of view
Men play active roles which drive the narrative Women play passive roles and are seen as erotic objects which slow the narrative Men far outnumber women Female roles are sidelined Lead roles for women scarce
Bimbo Female’s physical attractions such as figure and breasts to overpower the male Easy House wife Mother Intelligent yet willing to settle down http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=J0J9FdN8oqA
Two distinct modes of the male gaze of this era: voyeuristic and fetishistic Voyeurism- a person who obtains sexual pleasure or excitement from the observation of someone undressing, having intercourse, etc Mulvey argued that women where given two characters types - sexually active female or the powerless female Films presented images of women that were produced simply for the gratification of male viewers Various studies in the 1970s found men to be the dominant characters and decision makers in film and TV production http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfL09c4cw2I
Where women had important roles they were far more likely to be shown as… frightened in need of protection and direction offering support to the male lead character(s) not independent or self driven generally weaker still objectified sexually“Women, in any fully human form, have almost completely been left out of film….” L Mulvey
As womens roles change in society so does media representation. Women are still objectified but also likely to be… Career driven Intelligent Confident Empowered Able (violent)Remember changes may be made cynically and in order to make money rather than change ideologies How many female action stars who are not attractive?
Uma Thurman represented as powerful and dominant and independent Sword stands in for and castrates phallus Adopts male characteristics of aggression Not masculinised yet in masculine roles Use of low angles, and a masculine performance
The job of seeking revenge family is given to the female character thus conforming to stereotypes where women are seen to be possessed with family and emotional Tight outfit allows objectification Voyeuristic pleasures by watching Thurman on her killing rampage Remember male director/industry may still mean male ideologies
What is it? …. Hatred or dislike to women/females
Gene Hunt (TV Detective from Life on Mars, set in 1970’s Britain) talking about politics:THERE WILL NEVER BE A WOMAN PRIME MINISTER AS LONG AS IHAVE A HOLE UP MY A**E.
How would you define the term misogyny based on what you have just seen? Negative Can you think of any other examples of misogyny that you may have seen in any media text or simply experienced in everyday life? Misogyny – the contempt or hatred of women and girls
Find examples of both male and female characters in TV Dramas that follow stereotypes and ones that challenge stereotypes. Using images to support and discuss how they have been represented through clothing, location, narrative, dialogue, camera angle etc. Present this in your blog, on a powerpoint or in a short movie like the bond example you saw. Link you answers to Mulvey’s Theory
Weak Powerless Emotional attached to family Insecure Soft Shy Ugly Betty is a stereotypical female but she has a job and no child. The traits she possesses are stereotypical for a female.
TV Drama Underemployed Emotional attached to family Stay at home mother Non breadwinner Masculine traits strong, fearless Loud Flirty Attractive (Male Gaze) Raviva challenges stereotypes as she has female traits as well as males so she is in between being stereotypical and challenging the stereotypes of being a female.
Loud Aggressive Emotionally attached to family Powerful Masculine traits of being strong IntimidatingJackie is against female stereotypes as hercharacter has male traits such as beingaggressive and intimidating. Also herclothing of wear black and leather jackets isstereotypical for a male to wear.
Strong and masculine Intimidating Emotionless Breadwinner Powerful Controlling Understands mechanical workGrant has all the traits of being a stereotypical male. Hisclothing goes with his attitude of being a bad boy.
Intimidating Strong Masculine Loud Earns the most money in is household Emotionally attached to his family Gay Emotionless when it comes to othersEven though he has stereotypical traits that a male shouldhave he challenges them by his sexual orientation beinghomosexual.
Find examples of both male and female characters in TV Dramas that follow stereotypes and ones that challenge stereotypes. Using images to support and discuss how they have been represented through clothing, location, narrative, dialogue, camera angle etc.