Stress and wellbeing power point


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Stress and wellbeing power point

  1. 1. Stress and Wellbeing
  2. 2. • Aims and objective:• To understand the concepts of stress• To understand the psychological and physiological reactions to stress
  3. 3. Group Work• In groups : Advantages and Disadvantages of stress
  4. 4. Concepts of Stress• Stress as a response:• Patterns of psychological and physiological responses that occur in difficult• Hans Seyle (1979) “non specific response of the body to any demand on it”
  5. 5. • Stress as a stimulus• Conceptualising stress in environmental terms as an event or a set of circumstances that require an unusual response.• For example: tornadoes, earthquakes as well as chronic stressful situations such as imprisonment or crowding• Relationship between the accumalation of stressful life events
  6. 6. • Transaction• Focusing on stimuli and response is not sufficient enough• relationship between the person and the environment that taxes or exceeds the persons resources• Level of stress is dependant on the person• To understand stress we need to know how the individual evaluates it accordance to mood, motives/needs, resources for coping• Cognitive appraisal
  7. 7. Group Activity• Examples of stressors
  8. 8. Physiological Reactions• Physiological responses are regulated by the autonomic nervous system under the control of the hypothalamus : the stress centre• Hypothalamus controls ANS and the pituitary gland• Emergency response ( fight or flight) a quick response• Liver releases extra sugar to fuel muscles• Hormones are released to stimulate conversion of fats and proteins to sugar• Metabolism increases in preparation for expending energy on physical reaction• Heart rate blood pressure and breathing rate increases and muscles tense• Saliva and mucus dries up• Endorphins ( natural pain killer) released• Surface blood vessels constrict to reduce bleeding• Spleen releases more red blood cells to help carry oxygen
  9. 9. • G.A.S.• General Adaption Syndrome• What happens if the stressor is not terminated but continues over time? How does the body adapt?• Selye 1979 subjected rats to a variety of stressors found they produced a similar pattern of physiological changes
  10. 10. • G.A.S. = 3 Stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion• Only tsted on lab animals so does not recognise importance of cognitvein human reactions to stressBUT!• Seyle suggests : any prolonged stressful experience may follow the same course• Has been valuable when explaining stress related illnesses• BUT!!• Does depend on the nature of the stressor
  11. 11. Psychological Reactions• Cognitive impairment• Emotional responses