MODERN LATIN AMERICA By Tiffany Jacobs HIST 141 (#71154)
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO Filibustering Against Mexico 1819-1911 “Filibusters” were American citizens, “Soldiers of Fortune” They intervened in Latin America, militarily Their purpose was to conquer territory and gain lands Some did this to further the cause of the pro-slavery states Filibusters found their footing in the Age of Revolution Most coveted lands were northern Mexico, Cuba, & Central America U.S. President Aaron Burr was involved in desire to conquer part of the Spanish Southwest Gen James Wilkinson, U.S. Army Commander, conspired both for the Spanish and against the Spanish Tried to detach Kentucky and Tennessee from U.S. to include with Spanish Louisiana Tried to detach Texas from Spain and create an entirely new country
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO Filibusters on land were much like pirates on the ocean Tough adventurers who traveled from all over the world in pursuit of money The launched surprise attacks in small provinces far from the defense of the Mexican government The filibusters would claim large regions and then rely on the U.S. to recognize and defend their claim The filibusters did the dirty work for the U.S. They endured hardships, equipped themselves with the best weapons, and were primarily interested in a good paycheck The defending Mexican troops were ill equipped to face these hardened and unscrupulous filibusters Mexicans were often civilians, bandits, or others who were not regular troops Mexico was under duress from other sources and did not have troops available The Mexican government had little or no warning of the surprise attacks by the filibusters
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO James Long attempts to seize the Texas region The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, the U.S. gave up their claim to Texas in exchange for Florida Long took this as an invitation to go take the region from Mexico In June 1819, he took 75 followers, which grew to 300, in attempt to gain control Started in Mississippi and traveled to Nacogdoches (in then Spanish Texas) Spanish reacted quickly this time with a force of 700 men under Colonel Ignacio Perez Col Perez defeated the force while they were disbanded Long fled across the Sabine River into the U.S. Long didn’t give up easily In 1821, he took 51 men into Texas on a second attempt Long used trickery to gain momentum in Central Mexico – he professed to support their bid for independence Although he captured La Bahia unopposed, he was captured by Col Perez a few days later
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO Other Filibusters attempted to seize Mexican land while they were fighting their own internal war Joseph C. Morehead led hundreds of filibusters into Mexico Attempted to seize Baja California and Sonora Expedition failed Count de Raousset de Boulbon attempted to establish a colony in Sonora Had permission of government in Mexico City, but not of the local forces The Count fought and won, and then fell ill His men were forced to accept payment in return for giving up their arms William Walker attempted to lead a group of filibusters into northern Mexico His goal was to acquire Baja California He failed to enter Mexico through a mining colony ploy The U.S. stopped his ship once but he managed to sneak out of San Francisco a 2nd time He fought like no other and escape capture and death from the Mexicans, the Indians, the weather and terrain, and a trial He was a hero to the Southern expansionists and became the editor of the San Francisco Commercial Adventurer
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD)Mexico’s position today as America’s southern neighbor NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) passed in January, 1994 Was intended to help the Mexican economy and propel that country into the 1st world NAFTA was perceived as a complete abdication of Mexico to America There would not be an independent Latin America as long as NAFTA existed An insurgency began as a result, led by Zapatista National Liberation Army Mexico was shown to be 3rd world more than even 2nd world as a result Globalization and China’s entry into the World Trade Organization further crippled Mexico China has outpaced Mexico in manufacturing and exports to U.S. More than 300 factories have shut down and moved to China 300,000 Mexican jobs lost Direct correlation to increase of illegal immigration to the U.S.
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD) Inequality and Instability Mexico is “a country of colonial monuments juxtaposed at every turn with ramshackle slums,…” Social and food programs were instituted for the poor and elderly by Mexico City mayor Mexicans still regularly protest ever increasing food pricesThe Four Mexico’s Northern Region along the American border Peso and American dollar are interchangeable Central Mexico The country’s capital and “bread basket” Isthmus region Beautiful, but economically destitute “New Maya” region of the Yucatan Modernizing but overwhelmingly poor
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD) Mexican immigration is a double-edged sword for America Immigrants take undesirable jobs that Americans supposedly do not want Construction, labor, restaurant Work harder, for longer hours, with less pay, and virtually no benefits Immigrants tax our burdened healthcare, education, and social service programs Illegal immigrants receive health care benefits & assistants from welfare programs, Our education systems are overwhelmed, especially in border communities like San Diego Mexico reaps the benefits of illegal immigration in America Mexican “coyotes” profit from smuggling immigrants into the U.S. Illegal drugs are smuggled through Mexico into the U.S. via local organized crime groups The $16 billion in annual pay illegal immigrants receive in the U.S. are a primary source of Mexico’s national income Raises their GDP to $9,000 per capita!
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD) America’s neglect of Mexico has allowed China, and others, to gain American investors seek larger payoffs in China and Asia China has moved into Mexico and Central America They are building factories and employing locals China is exporting to America from closer ports and making more money America has missed the boat in Cuba & Haiti too China has become one of Cuba’s largest investors Ahead of Canada and behind Venezuela Haiti is considered the most destitute country in our hemisphere U.S. has occupied and yet not improved the situation in Haiti Chinese, Chilean, and Brazilian peacekeeping forces have helped to stabilize the country “If America cannot demonstrate its hemispheric benevolence in its backyard, such leadership could rise northward from South America itself”
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:MEXICO IN 2011Mexican Drug Wars - Human Trafficking, - Corruption Notable Deaths in Bloody January January 6th - the poet and womens rights activist Susana Chávez is murdered in Ciudad Juarez January 7th - Saúl Vara Rivera, Mexican politician, Mayor of Zaragoza, Coahuila, shot. (body found on this date) January 10th - Abraham Ortiz Rosales, Mexican politician, Mayor of Te-Moak, shot. January 11th - Susana Chávez, Mexican poet and human rights activist, strangled. (death confirmed on this date) January 13th - Luis Jiménez Mata, Mexican politician, Mayor of Santiago Amoltepec, shot.Murders in Bloody January January 14th - Mexican Drug War: 14 people are killed in a shootout after 100 soldiers, marines and police in Xalapa, Veracruz, surround a house January 25th - Gunmen open fire on a crowd at a soccer game in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, killing seven people
MODERN LATIN AMERICA:MEXICO IN 2011 Mexico is at war! February 13th - Unidentified gunmen kill eight people in Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area February 15th - Two U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers are shot while travelling between Monterrey and Mexico City with one officer dying February 20th - Mexican Drug War: 53 people are killed in a 72-hour period in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico March 1-17th - bodies are found in clandestine graves in Mexicos Guerrero state April 6th - 2011 Tamaulipas massacre: At least 177 bodies are found in a mass grave in Mexicos Tamaulipas state June 7th - The former Governor of Chiapas state in Mexico Pablo Salazar is arrested on charges on embezzling more than $90 million from hurricane relief funds August 25th - 2011 Monterrey casino attack: more than 50 people are killed in an attack on a casino in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico