Modern Latin America

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Modern Latin America

  1. 1. MODERN LATIN AMERICA By Tiffany Jacobs HIST 141 (#71154)
  2. 2. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO Filibustering Against Mexico 1819-1911  “Filibusters” were American citizens, “Soldiers of Fortune”  They intervened in Latin America, militarily  Their purpose was to conquer territory and gain lands  Some did this to further the cause of the pro-slavery states Filibusters found their footing in the Age of Revolution  Most coveted lands were northern Mexico, Cuba, & Central America  U.S. President Aaron Burr was involved in desire to conquer part of the Spanish Southwest  Gen James Wilkinson, U.S. Army Commander, conspired both for the Spanish and against the Spanish  Tried to detach Kentucky and Tennessee from U.S. to include with Spanish Louisiana  Tried to detach Texas from Spain and create an entirely new country
  3. 3. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO Filibusters on land were much like pirates on the ocean  Tough adventurers who traveled from all over the world in pursuit of money  The launched surprise attacks in small provinces far from the defense of the Mexican government  The filibusters would claim large regions and then rely on the U.S. to recognize and defend their claim  The filibusters did the dirty work for the U.S.  They endured hardships, equipped themselves with the best weapons, and were primarily interested in a good paycheck  The defending Mexican troops were ill equipped to face these hardened and unscrupulous filibusters  Mexicans were often civilians, bandits, or others who were not regular troops  Mexico was under duress from other sources and did not have troops available  The Mexican government had little or no warning of the surprise attacks by the filibusters
  4. 4. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO James Long attempts to seize the Texas region  The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, the U.S. gave up their claim to Texas in exchange for Florida  Long took this as an invitation to go take the region from Mexico  In June 1819, he took 75 followers, which grew to 300, in attempt to gain control  Started in Mississippi and traveled to Nacogdoches (in then Spanish Texas)  Spanish reacted quickly this time with a force of 700 men under Colonel Ignacio Perez  Col Perez defeated the force while they were disbanded  Long fled across the Sabine River into the U.S.  Long didn’t give up easily  In 1821, he took 51 men into Texas on a second attempt  Long used trickery to gain momentum in Central Mexico – he professed to support their bid for independence  Although he captured La Bahia unopposed, he was captured by Col Perez a few days later
  5. 5. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:FILIBUSTERING AGAINST MEXICO Other Filibusters attempted to seize Mexican land while they were fighting their own internal war  Joseph C. Morehead led hundreds of filibusters into Mexico  Attempted to seize Baja California and Sonora  Expedition failed  Count de Raousset de Boulbon attempted to establish a colony in Sonora  Had permission of government in Mexico City, but not of the local forces  The Count fought and won, and then fell ill  His men were forced to accept payment in return for giving up their arms  William Walker attempted to lead a group of filibusters into northern Mexico  His goal was to acquire Baja California  He failed to enter Mexico through a mining colony ploy  The U.S. stopped his ship once but he managed to sneak out of San Francisco a 2nd time  He fought like no other and escape capture and death from the Mexicans, the Indians, the weather and terrain, and a trial  He was a hero to the Southern expansionists and became the editor of the San Francisco Commercial Adventurer
  6. 6. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD)Mexico’s position today as America’s southern neighbor  NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) passed in January, 1994  Was intended to help the Mexican economy and propel that country into the 1st world  NAFTA was perceived as a complete abdication of Mexico to America  There would not be an independent Latin America as long as NAFTA existed  An insurgency began as a result, led by Zapatista National Liberation Army  Mexico was shown to be 3rd world more than even 2nd world as a result  Globalization and China’s entry into the World Trade Organization further crippled Mexico  China has outpaced Mexico in manufacturing and exports to U.S.  More than 300 factories have shut down and moved to China  300,000 Mexican jobs lost  Direct correlation to increase of illegal immigration to the U.S.
  7. 7. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD) Inequality and Instability  Mexico is “a country of colonial monuments juxtaposed at every turn with ramshackle slums,…”  Social and food programs were instituted for the poor and elderly by Mexico City mayor  Mexicans still regularly protest ever increasing food pricesThe Four Mexico’s  Northern Region along the American border  Peso and American dollar are interchangeable  Central Mexico  The country’s capital and “bread basket”  Isthmus region  Beautiful, but economically destitute  “New Maya” region of the Yucatan  Modernizing but overwhelmingly poor
  8. 8. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD) Mexican immigration is a double-edged sword for America  Immigrants take undesirable jobs that Americans supposedly do not want  Construction, labor, restaurant  Work harder, for longer hours, with less pay, and virtually no benefits  Immigrants tax our burdened healthcare, education, and social service programs  Illegal immigrants receive health care benefits & assistants from welfare programs,  Our education systems are overwhelmed, especially in border communities like San Diego  Mexico reaps the benefits of illegal immigration in America  Mexican “coyotes” profit from smuggling immigrants into the U.S.  Illegal drugs are smuggled through Mexico into the U.S. via local organized crime groups  The $16 billion in annual pay illegal immigrants receive in the U.S. are a primary source of Mexico’s national income  Raises their GDP to $9,000 per capita!
  9. 9. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:THE SECOND WORLD (MEXICO: THE UMBILICAL CORD) America’s neglect of Mexico has allowed China, and others, to gain  American investors seek larger payoffs in China and Asia  China has moved into Mexico and Central America  They are building factories and employing locals  China is exporting to America from closer ports and making more money  America has missed the boat in Cuba & Haiti too  China has become one of Cuba’s largest investors  Ahead of Canada and behind Venezuela  Haiti is considered the most destitute country in our hemisphere  U.S. has occupied and yet not improved the situation in Haiti  Chinese, Chilean, and Brazilian peacekeeping forces have helped to stabilize the country “If America cannot demonstrate its hemispheric benevolence in its backyard, such leadership could rise northward from South America itself”
  10. 10. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:MEXICO IN 2011Mexican Drug Wars - Human Trafficking, - Corruption Notable Deaths in Bloody January  January 6th - the poet and womens rights activist Susana Chávez is murdered in Ciudad Juarez  January 7th - Saúl Vara Rivera, Mexican politician, Mayor of Zaragoza, Coahuila, shot. (body found on this date)  January 10th - Abraham Ortiz Rosales, Mexican politician, Mayor of Te-Moak, shot.  January 11th - Susana Chávez, Mexican poet and human rights activist, strangled. (death confirmed on this date)  January 13th - Luis Jiménez Mata, Mexican politician, Mayor of Santiago Amoltepec, shot.Murders in Bloody January  January 14th - Mexican Drug War: 14 people are killed in a shootout after 100 soldiers, marines and police in Xalapa, Veracruz, surround a house  January 25th - Gunmen open fire on a crowd at a soccer game in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, killing seven people
  11. 11. MODERN LATIN AMERICA:MEXICO IN 2011 Mexico is at war!  February 13th - Unidentified gunmen kill eight people in Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  February 15th - Two U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers are shot while travelling between Monterrey and Mexico City with one officer dying  February 20th - Mexican Drug War: 53 people are killed in a 72-hour period in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico  March 1-17th - bodies are found in clandestine graves in Mexicos Guerrero state  April 6th - 2011 Tamaulipas massacre: At least 177 bodies are found in a mass grave in Mexicos Tamaulipas state  June 7th - The former Governor of Chiapas state in Mexico Pablo Salazar is arrested on charges on embezzling more than $90 million from hurricane relief funds  August 25th - 2011 Monterrey casino attack: more than 50 people are killed in an attack on a casino in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico

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