Creating a Literate Environment in the Preschool Classroom
CREATING A LITERATE ENVIRONMENT IN THE PRESCHOOL CLASSROOM Tiffany Hupp Walden University-EDUC 6706 October 23, 2011
INTERNATIONAL READING ASSOCIATIONPROFESSIONAL STANDARDS: STANDARD FIVE “Candidates create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments” (International Reading Association, 2010).International Reading Association. (2010). Retrieved from:http://www.reading.org/General/CurrentResearch/Standards/ProfessionalStandards2010/ProfessionalStandards2010_Standard5.aspx
WHAT COMPONENTS ARE MOST IMPORTANT? Learners-Affective and cognitive aspects of literacy learning Texts-Text structures, types, genres, and difficultly levels match to literacy learners and literacy goals and objectives Instructional Practices-Developmentally appropriate research-based practices used with appropriate texts to facilitate affective and cognitive aspects of literacy development in all learners Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010). Changes in literacy education. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Learners Texts Instructional The Framework for FRAMEWORK FOR LITERACY INSTRUCTION Affective and Text structure, Practices cognitive aspects types, genres, and Developmentally Literacy Instruction of literacy learning difficulty levels appropriate has provided me matched to research-based literacy learners practices used with with a way of and literacy goals appropriate texts to looking at my and objectives facilitate affective literacy instruction and cognitive aspects of literacy from different development in all perspectives as it learners relates to learners,Interactive Use a variety of informal and formal Determine texts of the appropriate types Use instructional methods that address texts andPerspectiveReading and assessments to and levels of difficulty the cognitive and instructional determine areas of to meet literacy goals affective needs ofwriting accurately, strength and need in and objectives for students and the practices.fluently, and withcomprehension literacy development. students. demands of the Incorporating all particular text. three perspectivesBeing strategic and Promote students’ can prove to bemetacognitive independent use ofreaders and writers reading strategies difficult, especially and skills. with young children,Critical Perspective Find out about ideas, Select texts that Foster a critical but necessary toJudging, issues, and problems provide opportunities stance by teachingevaluating, and that matter to for student to judge, students how to create “well-thinking critically students. evaluate, and think judge, evaluate, and rounded readers”. critically. think critically aboutabout text Understand the texts. learner as a unique individual.Response Find out about Select texts that Provide opportunitiesPerspective students’ interests connect to students’ for students to read,Reading, reacting, and identities. identities and/or react, and formulate interests and that a personal responseand responding to Understand what have the potential to to text.text in a variety of matters to students evoke an emotionalmeaningful ways and who they are as or personal response. individuals. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010). Perspectives on Literacy Learning. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author.
LEARNERS It is important for teachers to get to know the “whole child”, including the child’s present abilities, personal interests and motivations, and background knowledge. For preschool children, I have found it helpful to complete a parent interview at the initial home visit, the Brigance 3-5 Screening, the Observational Checklist of Literacy Habits: Early Emergent Literacy Stage (Devries, 2004), and direct observation of students in the classroom setting. Gail Tompkins stated “By linking assessment and instruction, teachers improve students’ learning and their teaching” (Tompkins, 2010, p.75). Andrews, J. (2001). Getting to know you. On Classic Julie – Classic Broadway [CD]. Universal Classics Group, a Division of UMG Recordings Inc. •DeVries, B. A. (2004). Literacy assessment and intervention for the elementary classroom. Scottsdale, AR: Holcomb Hathaway, Publishers, Inc. •Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010). Getting to know your students. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author. •Tompkins, G. E. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
SELECTING TEXTS In selecting texts, it is important for teachers to provide a variety of texts. The important inmatrix is Informational texts are following useful for “plotting” texts and making sure all text the preschool classroom! One types are being showed that only 5% of books study utilized. Books can be considered narrative or informational,children were read aloud to but also linguistic (word oriented) or informational (Pentimonti, communicated in semiotic (message is Zucker, Justice, & Kaderavek, 2010)! a way other Sharing informational books with than words, i.e. pictures). Linguistic young children increases their background knowledge and their understanding of text structures, increasing their chances of Narrative “fourth grade slump!” avoiding the Informational (Laureate Education, 2010b). Semiotic•Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010a). Analyzing and selecting texts. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author.•Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010b). Informational text in the early years. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author.•Pentimonti J.M., Zucker T. A., Justice L. M., & Kaderavek J. N. (2010). Information text use in preschool classroom read-alouds. The Reading Teacher, 63(8), 656-665. doi:10.1598/RT.63.8.4
TEACHING THEINTERACTIVE PERSPECTIVE Goal is to help students become strategic readers and writers. I feel that at the preschool level, this means laying the foundation for later literacy learning, such as letter recognition, phonemic awareness, concepts of print and writing processes. The application for week five of this course included creating a lesson plan that addressed word study and comprehension. I based my lesson off of my students’ current interests, which happened to be lizards that week!
Because my lesson was geared around comprehension, I had my students help create picture]. United States: Nickelodeon Movies. Verbinski, G. (Director). (2011). Rango [Motion a K-W-L chart. We first discussed and recorded what we already Knew about chameleons, which was quite a bit thanks to the movie “Rango” (Verbinski, 2011). Then we discussed what we Wanted to know about chameleons before reading the informational text Chameleon, Chameleon by Joy Cowley. Next we did a quick “word study” activity searching for words that started the same as “chameleon”.
We also read the narrative text “The Mixed-Up Chameleon” by Eric Carle and talked about which parts of the story could really happen, and which could not. Before finishing this lesson, we discussed and recorded what we had Learned about chameleons from these two books. I really enjoyed week five’s lessons focusing on the interactive perspective, and I think my students did as well!
TEACHING THECRITICAL PERSPECTIVE Goal is to help students judge, evaluate and think critically about a text. This can be accomplished by examining text from different perspectives, judging the validity of the text, completing character studies, discovering the author’s purpose for writing the text and etc. This perspective was very hard to implement in my preschool classroom. I chose to look more closely at the characters of a text, and their importance in the story. I didn’t feel this perspective was easily taught with texts on lizards or chameleons, so we switched our focus to social/emotional development in week six. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010). Critical Perspective. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author.
First we read Pinkalicious together as a whole group. During the first reading, I would stop at appropriate times to create suspense, ask questions and allow for predictions. After the first reading, the students tried to remember all of the characters in the story. I helped them remember some by flipping to the illustrations of them. Next the students were placed into small groups, where they were read the book again. The students then picked a character from the story and a puppet and tried to recreate the story. The students truly enjoyed this experience, although it was difficult for them to act the story out and not simply retell the stories events. We finished the critical perspective by judging if the text was reality or fantasy.
TEACHING THERESPONSE PERSPECTIVE Goal is to help students to react or respond to a text in meaningful ways after reading or listening to that text. Since it is still very close to the beginning of the school year, my students are still very consumed with making friends. They often are so worried that their friends will think poorly of them that they are not being their true selves. I thought it would be appropriate to share a book that is about accepting yourself for who you are and what you like instead of changing for others. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010). Response Perspective. [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader. Baltimore, MD: Author.
This lesson, although somewhat “simple”, was very meaningful to my students. We first read the book Purplicious together as a class. Just like with Pinkalicious, I paused at appropriate times for my students’ questioning and comments. After the book, I encouraged my students to think of a situation they may have been in when they liked something their friends did not. The students were then broken into small groups to discuss their stories with their friends and create a picture and dictate their story to a teacher. We came back together as a whole group to allow the students to share their stories and to discuss how Pinkalicious felt in this book and what she and her friends could have done differently.
THANK YOU FOR VIEWING MY PRESENTATION! As a note, I have enjoyed learning from this course’s resources and have many useful ideas to use with my students. I plan to continue incorporating all three perspectives, with more emphasis placed on the critical and response perspectives, because they are the two perspectives I have not used often in the past. Some of the books we plan to read to incorporate these perspectives are Oliver Button is a Sissy by Tomie dePaola, Stand Tall Molly Lou Melon by Patty Lovell, and Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes. Since I have also learned the importance of using online texts in this course, I plan to incorporate the online reading of Chrysanthemum at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxMlxbgYvLI