Ecological Landscaping Miriam R. Sachs Martín [email_address]
Landscape should provide... <ul><li>What have you learned so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat  </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversit...
Habitat <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>Na...
Habitat for whom? <ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Small mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Humans <...
Stepping-stone habitat Image © 2009, Asian Development Bank
Benefits of Connectivity <ul><li>Maintain native plant population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioregion-specific </li></ul></ul>...
Habitat ‘how’: Function <ul><li>Position function is more important than individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination, nutri...
Habitat ‘how’: Structure <ul><li>Diverse and complex structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Top photos of Central Coast Wilds landscapes
Habitat ‘how’: Composition <ul><ul><li>For every invasive plant, there is a native (or non-invasive) which can be used. </...
Composition: NO invasives! Content from Cal-IPC
A very few of my favorites <ul><li>Leymus triticoides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet meadow rye </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grindeli...
Biodiversity <ul><li>From the proposed US Congressional Biodiversity Act (1990), “Biological diversity means the full rang...
Biodiversity (plain English) <ul><li>Many different (native or non-invasive) species </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity w...
Biodiversity ‘how’ (function) <ul><li>Native, bioregion specific species </li></ul><ul><li>Group similar function or habit...
It All Ties Together <ul><li>Wildflowers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poppies, yarrow, buttercups, blue-eyed grass, wild onion, ...
Skills and Practice <ul><li>Go hiking.  Lots.  Wander around the neighborhood and the parks. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at map...
Difficult ?’s, No Easy Answers <ul><li>In addition to habitat and biodiversity, consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon impact ...
Extra work - Why? 4 E’s <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Economics <...
Questions, discussion
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Ecological Landscaping

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  • Quote from Jeffrey Caldwell on Gardening With Natives discussion list:   “ One of my favorite phrases I got from Judith Larner: &amp;quot;suburban plant junk&amp;quot; -- which pretty well describes the average or even most landscapes in suburban or urban areas. What I hate most are entire landscapes that require the production of a huge amount of air pollution to keep every plant hacked into unnatural shapes and sizes at frequent intervals. One of the world&apos;s most miserable jobs is to be producing as much air pollution as twenty Toyotas all day long, operating extremely noisy power edgers, lawn mowers, gasoline hedge trimmers and backpack blowers to maintain ugliness that is an ecological monstrosity every which way. An excessive amount of water is required to keep the growth going against the endless noisy hacking assault so that more waste can be trucked to the landfills!”
  • Ecological Landscaping

    1. 1. Ecological Landscaping Miriam R. Sachs Martín [email_address]
    2. 2. Landscape should provide... <ul><li>What have you learned so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do no harm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon impact </li></ul></ul>Hayfield tarweed with pollinator. Photo by Richard Bicknell.
    3. 3. Habitat <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>Native Plant Garden in Campbell, CA. Going Native Garden Tour
    4. 4. Habitat for whom? <ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Small mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger scale </li></ul></ul>Image from Glencoe.com
    5. 5. Stepping-stone habitat Image © 2009, Asian Development Bank
    6. 6. Benefits of Connectivity <ul><li>Maintain native plant population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioregion-specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide food / nectar for birds and invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Can buffer edge effects </li></ul>Graphic from Gregory Brown, Principles of Landscape Ecology Lecture
    7. 7. Habitat ‘how’: Function <ul><li>Position function is more important than individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination, nutrient cycling, predation, stream connectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation-specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive plants are benched. </li></ul>Photo from Raiders.com
    8. 8. Habitat ‘how’: Structure <ul><li>Diverse and complex structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtopography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Resting places’ </li></ul></ul>Photo from www.aventinoapartments.com Photo from Going Native Garden Tour
    9. 9. Top photos of Central Coast Wilds landscapes
    10. 10. Habitat ‘how’: Composition <ul><ul><li>For every invasive plant, there is a native (or non-invasive) which can be used. </li></ul></ul>Cal-IPC Cal-IPC
    11. 11. Composition: NO invasives! Content from Cal-IPC
    12. 12. A very few of my favorites <ul><li>Leymus triticoides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet meadow rye </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grindelia camporum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gumplant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baccharis pilularis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coyote brush </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quercus and Salix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willows and oaks </li></ul></ul>Photo by Tom Cochrane
    13. 13. Biodiversity <ul><li>From the proposed US Congressional Biodiversity Act (1990), “Biological diversity means the full range of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur, and encompasses ecosystem or community diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity : the combination of different genes found within a single species. Coastal populations of Douglas fir are different from Sierran populations due to genetic adaptations to local conditions (i.e., coastal fog, summer Sierran sun). </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity: the variety of different organisms in an area. A ten acre area of Oakland contains different species than does a similar sized area in San Bernardino. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem diversity : the variety of habitats that occur within a region. One example is the variety of habitats and environmental parameters that constitute the San Francisco Bay-Delta ecosystem: grasslands, wetlands, rivers, estuaries, fresh and salt water.” </li></ul><ul><li>Content adapted from: http://biodiversity.ca.gov/Biodiversity/biodiv_def2.html </li></ul>
    14. 14. Biodiversity (plain English) <ul><li>Many different (native or non-invasive) species </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity within each species </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of ecosystems and habitat types </li></ul>California Soil Resource Lab
    15. 15. Biodiversity ‘how’ (function) <ul><li>Native, bioregion specific species </li></ul><ul><li>Group similar function or habitat species together </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed specificity! </li></ul><ul><li>No invasives – not co-evolved with local fauna. </li></ul>
    16. 16. It All Ties Together <ul><li>Wildflowers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poppies, yarrow, buttercups, blue-eyed grass, wild onion, buckwheat, sanicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perennial native bunch grasses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red fescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CA needle grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CA oat grass </li></ul></ul>Photo from natureinthecity.org. Plants from: sustainablecity.org/articles/presidio.htm
    17. 17. Skills and Practice <ul><li>Go hiking. Lots. Wander around the neighborhood and the parks. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at maps and species lists. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn your plants. Cultivate a list of favorite habitat-friendly alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate – with clients, nurseries, and professional organizations. This is a work in progress. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Difficult ?’s, No Easy Answers <ul><li>In addition to habitat and biodiversity, consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon impact </li></ul><ul><li>Sourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability (water, chemicals, maintenance type) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Extra work - Why? 4 E’s <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature’s services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollinators = food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air/water regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Questions, discussion

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