The comparison of social relations between american and indonesian


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The comparison of social relations between american and indonesian

  1. 1. -1- PREFACE In social science, a social relation or social interaction refers to a relationshipbetween two, three or more individuals (a social group). Social relation means a relationbetween living organisms (especially between people). Social Relations takes as its focus the relationships between people and theirsocial world. It assumes that people are engaged in and shaped by multiple relationships,events and influences. Human experience and behavior is therefore explored, not only bytaking a range of social and psychological factors into account but also, importantly, bypaying close attention to the meanings and interpretations that people attach to theirdiverse experiences. The concept of ‘the individual’ can by definition exist only in relational terms. Aperson constructs a sense of identity in relation to family, other people, cultural practices,gender, social class, social/political systems, sexuality, geographic location and physicaland mental abilities. It is therefore necessary to engage in learning as a cultural activityand to appreciate connections between individuals and the social, political and culturalstructures that impact upon them. Significantly, Social Relations foregrounds people’s lived experience andrecognizes that this experience is in continual process. In this way, it invites engagementwith relevant topical issues and relationships. Similarly, the experiences and meaningsthat ‘the learner’ has (and therefore brings to any human interaction) also become avaluable resource for exploration and insight into the dimensions of human relationships. Exploring the ways in which such relationships are produced, sustained andtransformed is vitally important in establishing meaningful communication with groupsand individuals. Social Relations provides a dynamic framework within which to gainrich insight and understanding about people and the social and emotional landscape oftheir lives. Social Relations is a multi disciplinary approach that draws on several theoreticalmethodologies in its analysis. While all of the disciplines that have typically contributedto the ‘humanities’ offer important insights about human beings and their behaviors andneeds, those that primarily concern themselves with the complexities of human behaviorare psychology, sociology and anthropology. These are therefore especially importantwithin a Social Relations framework, as they each focus from different angles on howpeople organize and make meaning of their world and their relationships within it. If we learn about social relationships, we need to learn the languages spoken bypeople of that country, a common habit that they do or what they are not usually do intheir daily life. Our discussion is about social relations between Americans andIndonesian. The following is a comparison of American social relations and socialrelations Indonesia. -Tienny Makrus-
  2. 2. -2- THE COMPARISON OF INDONESIAN TO AMERICAN SOCIAL RELATIONA. Introduction and Greeting Introductions and greetings are the most basic things that must be understood ifyou want to understand social relationships. American IndonesianHow are you? Apa kabar?This phrase is used more as a greeting or These are great words to start a friendlypart of a greeting rather than as a enquiry conversation with an Indonesian.about your health.Good Morning (00.00 – 12.00) Selamat Pagi• Used as a greeting when meeting Spoken from sunrise until about 10 AM somebody for the first time in the morning.• Used to greet someone who has just awakened.• A greeting said when parting from someone in the morning.Good Afternoon (after 12.00 and before Selamat Siang18.00). A greeting said when meeting Spoken in the middle of the day aroundsomebody in the afternoon. noon. Usually 10am-2pm. Selamat Sore Spoken from 2 PM until sunsetGood Evening (after 18.00) Selamat MalamUsed as a greeting in the evening. Spoken at night only. Sun must have set.Good Night Selamat TidurA farewell said in the evening or before Spoken to someone going to sleepgoing to sleep.Goodbye Selamat TinggalA conventional expression used at leave- This is spoken when sending a longtaking or parting with people (farewell) and farewell to a person being left behind. Inat the loss or rejection of things or ideas. this case, the person departing expresses these words to the person staying behind. In Indonesian, tinggal means to "live" or "stay". Selamat Jalan This is spoken when sending a long farewell to a person leaving. In this case, the person staying behind expresses these words to the person departing. In Indonesian, jalan means to "travel" or "go".See you later Sampai jumpaAn expression of farewell, informal used to Spoken to someone who will return shortlyexpress good-bye. It does not imply thatanother encounter will actually everhappen. -Tienny Makrus-
  3. 3. -3-B. Non Verbal CommunicationCharlene Wu divides the types of non-verbal communication such as these following: • Public Displays of Affection • Cultural Gestures • Eye Contact and Movement • Sign Language • Facial Displays of Emotion • Front and Back Regions • Posture and Body Positioning • The Handshake Bellow these are common and not common manners in American and Indonesianculture. American Indonesian Give, receive, and eat with the left handYou can introduce yourself with a To give, receive, and eat with the left handhandshake especially in a business is unacceptable and considered impolite.environment. It is proper to use a firm The left hand is toilet hand. They usuallyhandshake (left or right) with direct eye use their left hand to cleanse up aftercontact. urinating or defecating. That is why they consider the left hand dirty. Touch or pat on anothers headAn open-palmed pat on the head of a child The head is sacred and should be a gesture of fondness in North America. Patting on anothers head is not doneIf you need to get a child’s attention, it’s among adults and even should be avoidedalso the easiest place to tap them. with children. Call People Animal NamesWell, here in the United States, its ok to It is impolite to call people names. In"address" a person as a dog as long as we Indonesia, calling someone a dog (anjing),dont "call" s/he a dog. Heres an English pig (babi) or pretty much any other kind ofexample: animal is not a good idea. So why do I point out the obvious?Randy: Wuz up, Dog?Simon: Not much, Dog. Randy: Apa kabar, Anjing? Simon: Tidak ada, Anjing. Obey the EldersIn America, people call the elder with their We have to greet the elders when we wantfirst name. to eat and also you cant call the elder by their first name, this is incredibly impolite. For example when one manager is younger than another, you should call the manager with a title, like sir or madam. Conversation about ReligionFor American, a conversation, or perhaps It is common for Indonesians to ask aboutan argument, regarding religion or morality someones religion. If you say that you arebut the timing and situation is awkward and atheist or do not believe in God, they willuncomfortable conversation. think that you are communist. Dont say that you are atheist. -Tienny Makrus-
  4. 4. -4- Kiss in greeting and in front of publicWomen may briefly hug other women, and It is not common in Indonesia to greet eachmen may quickly kiss the cheek of a other with a kiss. It is only applicable inwoman. their immediate family. It is acceptable to give small kiss your spouse if there are other people. However, kissing your spouse or your fiancé passionately in the presence of others is considered taboo. Kissing your friends is not common in Indonesians culture even less is kissing those who are of different sex. Be aware of your touch. Giving a hug to or putting your arm around your friend of different gender is uncommon in Indonesian culture. -Tienny Makrus-
  5. 5. -5- SUMMARY It is important for us to know the comparison between American social relationswith Indonesian, so we can know better more cross-cultural understanding betweencountries concerned. When we want to learn more languages of the people related in, ofcourse we also need to know their culture more. Social Relations has particular relevance for people whose professional careersrequire a broad understanding of human behavior and social relationships. Learningundertaken within this framework enhances people’s personal relationships; theirworkplace relations with peers, managers and customers; and their engagement and senseof belonging with the community. It is an approach that is extremely useful for promotingunderstanding of particular social and cultural issues and local contexts. -Tienny Makrus-
  6. 6. -6- BIBLIOGRAPHYWu, Charlene. “Chapter Five: Nonverbal Communication Web Project”. Cultural Gestures. <>Merritt, Anne. “10 Common Gestures Easily Misunderstood Abroad” Files: September 22, 2010. < misunderstood-abroad/>Directessays. “The Differences Between American and Indonesian Norm”. <>Study Indonesian. “Lesson: Indonesian Greetings” <>Kwintessential. “Intercultural Tips for Working in Indonesia”. < indonesia.html>Haynes, Judie. “Communicating with Gestures”. Understanding Different Interpretations of Common Gestures. <>Australian Institute of Social Relations. “What is Social Relations?” <>Johns, Yohanni; Stokes, Robyn. 1977. “Bahasa Indonesia: introduction to Indonesian language and culture”. Australia: Periplus Editions (HK) Limited. -Tienny Makrus-