GI results and application: Presentation by Mark Pyman at PRIO

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  • Moving on…
    No progress can be made without an anti-corruption plan.
    Some years ago we worked with the Polish armed forces, who have taken significant initiatives against corruption. This slide is their description of the point from which they started.
    On the positive side, there was awareness of corruption within the MOD, and many organisations with some responsibility for anti-corruption activity.
    On the other hand, there was no coordination, no focus on prevention, very few changes to the existing system and processes, and no focus on building integrity.
    The end result was: no strengthening of institutional capability and great inefficiency, especially in procurement.
    Their analysis of the corruption risks was that two of them were much more important than the others. Corruption in high-value procurement, and the engagement of senior officers in that corruption.
    Based on this analysis, they developed their plan and instituted, successfully, a number of changes.
  • GI results and application: Presentation by Mark Pyman at PRIO

    1. 1. GOVERNMENT DEFENCE ANTI-CORRUPTION INDEX Results and application Mark Pyman, Director, Defence & Security Programme Transparency International UK PRIO, Oslo April 15th, 2013 1
    2. 2. TI’s defence work Armed Forces, Defence Ministries Arms transfers Interior Ministries Indexes, Research Preventive Training Civil Society Capacity Defence companies Police Fragile states Peacekeeping
    3. 3. DEFENCE Corruption - The problem DANGEROUS It undermines military effectiveness Poor equipment risks the lives of troops DIVISIVE WASTEFUL It destroys citizens’ trust in the armed forces Factional control risks; can trigger arms races The defence sector is worth $1.6 trillion a year The waste from corruption is in billions of dollars 3
    4. 4. CORRUPTION RISKS IN DEFENCE 4
    5. 5. methodology •77 questions, based on the TI typology. Scored on a 5-point scale •‘Model answers’ to show good practice and guide assessor’s responses •Questionnaire completed by independent assessor. Reviewed by two independent peer reviewers; TI National Chapter review, TI-DSP review •Government involvement requested, comments on drafts requested •Reasoned assumptions acceptable where information is lacking •All info publicly available: One page summary, 30-50 pp country detail
    6. 6. THE GLOBAL RESULTS 6
    7. 7. RESULTS by region REGIONAL RESULTS | SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
    8. 8. EXAMPLE country summary RESULTS KENYA - BAND D+ POLITICAL FINANCIAL PERSONNEL 39% 39% 67% OPERATIONS 25% PROCUREMENT 32% + Standing orders forbid military involvement in natural resources + Robust and transparent payment systems for personnel + Separation between chains of command and chains of payment + Complaint mechanisms in place for suppliers
    9. 9. KENYA - WEAK AREAS POLITICAL 39% - Little CSO involvement in helping improve standards Little budget transparency - Percentage of secret spending not disclosed - Poor whistleblowing processes and protections Lack of transparency surrounding prosecution of corrupt personnel - Lack of military doctrine recognising corruption on operations Lack of operational training on corruption issues - Little transparency of procurement cycle or financing packages No evidence of controls on subcontractors / subsidiaries FINANCE 39% PERSONNEL 67% OPERATIONS 25% PROCUREMENT 32%
    10. 10. REGIONAL RESULTS | SUB SAHARAN AFRICA
    11. 11. REGIONAL RESULTS | SUB SAHARAN AFRICA
    12. 12. Defence INDEX vs cpi SUB SAHARAN AFRICA Over-perform relative to CPI Under-perform relative to CPI
    13. 13. Afghanistan RESULTS AFGHANISTAN - BAND E POLITICAL FINANCIAL PERSONNEL 39% 22% 34% + + + + + + OPERATIONS 35% PROCUREMENT 17% ‘Inspector General’ system of control in operation A Military Anti-Corruption unit inside the MOD is in operation No indication of corruption concerning military-owned businesses No indications of corruption concerning natural resource links. Personnel and soldier pay rates are published ‘ Ghost soldiers’ controlled
    14. 14. Afghanistan WEAK AREAS POLITICAL 39% FINANCE 22% PERSONNEL 34% OPERATIONS 35% PROCUREMENT 17% - Unclear responsibility for approving security policy - Indications of criminal penetration into the military - No scrutiny of secret spending. - No information on off-budget spending - Non-objective recruitment and promotions - Private Military Contractors need better controls - Procurement processes are weak
    15. 15. Afghanistan Comparison with post-conflict nations
    16. 16. Afghanistan Comparison with NEIGHBOURING nations
    17. 17. CONTROL OF CORRUPTION: WGI DATA +VE TRENDS World Bank control of corruption indicators, www.govindicators.org
    18. 18. MENA THE REGION: RESULTS BY COUNTRY LEBANON - BAND D+ POLITICAL 40% + + + + - FINANCIAL PERSONNEL 41% 63% Defence budget is reasonably transparent Secret budget proportion below 1% Competition in defence procurement No military involvement in business Very limited political oversight Asset disposals seem to be politically influenced No external audits No external controls on intelligence services OPERATIONS 35% PROCUREMENT 39%
    19. 19. GI MENA v CPI Over-perform relative to the CPI Under-perform relative to the CPI
    20. 20. Proposals 1 | PRESIDENT/ MOD/ Forces President and Cabinet Insist that the military and Ministry of Defence be pro-active in anti-corruption measures. Do not permit special treatment Defence leaders 1. Build common understanding of corruption across your leadership. 2. Analyse the corruption risks in your defence context; develop a plan. 3. Set up an a-c unit with a senior Director/Officer 4. Put in place a robust Code of Conduct; implement anti-corruption training 5. Improve your whistle-blowing systems for personnel 6. Be open with the public in what you are doing: work with civil society 21
    21. 21. PROPOSALS 2 | African Union, ECOWAS 1. Encourage leadership dialogue on preventing corruption: use the typology 2. Sponsor corruption prevention training in all national MODs and forces 3. Develop a Centre of Excellence in defence anti-corruption 4. Provide a common approach for MODs to asses the corruption risks 5. Implement corruption prevention training in peacekeeping training centres 6. Include defence corruption risks in country peer review mechanisms 7. Support whistle-blowing systems for defence and MOD personnel 22
    22. 22. PROPOSALS 3 | research 1. Analyse corruption as cause of West African military weakness 2. Bring W. African military leadership together to review army governance 3. Apply TI’s Defence Index methodology to all AU Member States 4. Create an Africanised version of TI’s Defence Integrity and corruption prevention handbook 5. Compare and contrast the Defence Budget detail for AU member states 6. Develop two training modules: One for Colonel level officers and officials on preventing corruption. One for General officers in leadership courses. 23
    23. 23. PRACTICAL REFORMS - MOD AND ARMIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Engage the leadership, build confidence Analyse and understand the risks Use good diagnostic tools Use surveys and metrics Develop a counter-corruption plan Serious training on counter-corruption Clear conduct standards for officials, officers Procurement reforms; use of monitors Engage media, civil society Work with the defence and security contractors Establish a counter-corruption Director and unit 24
    24. 24. BUILDING DEFENCE LEADERSHIP UNDERSTANDING Militaries and MOD leadership almost never discuss corruption Our approach: •One day workshop with MOD and military leadership •Review the 29 corruption risks •Identify priorities •Outline counter-corruption plan •Repeat six months later
    25. 25. Peacekeeping corruption risks typology
    26. 26. DEFENCE COUNTER-CORRUPTION PLAN + Polish experience Awareness of corruption and schemes within the MoD and military Many organisations involved in anticorruption activity: Control Department (MoD) Audit Bureau (MoD) − = Military Police Military Prosecutors Office Military Counterintelligence Supreme Chamber of Control No coordination Lack of a prevention body Very few system changes Lack of an integrity policy No integrity building, inefficient anticorruption measures Inefficiency of procurement process: buying arms - not capabilities; focusing on spending money - not on value for money
    27. 27. DEFENCE COUNTER-CORRUPTION PLAN + Polish experience Awareness of corruption and schemes within the MoD and military Many organisations involved in anticorruption activity: Control Department (MoD) Audit Bureau (MoD) − = Military Police Military Prosecutors Office Military Counterintelligence Supreme Chamber of Control No coordination Lack of a prevention body Very few system changes Lack of an integrity policy No integrity building, inefficient anticorruption measures Inefficiency of procurement process: buying arms - not capabilities; focusing on spending money - not on value for money
    28. 28. CORRUPTION PREVENTION TRAINING • 5 day counter-corruption course • OF5 level officers, MOD officials • Focus on personal integrity and on corruption prevention • Given 15-20 times to date; well received • All materials available free • Nations, military academies make own version and give the training
    29. 29. www.ti-defence.org www.defenceindex.org mark.pyman@transparency.org.uk

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