Asesoría Grupal INGLÉS INTERMEDIO 100  (IC 400)   Traveller Pre-intermediate Units 4-6 Gabriela Jiménez Aguilar Mayo 2010
Unit 4 <ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>The future of communication and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><li>Future will </li></ul><ul><li>Will have to /will be able to </li></ul><ul><li>Time clau...
Words and phrases related to money <ul><li>VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>Spend </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Pay som...
Words easily confused <ul><li>Be broke: having no money </li></ul><ul><li>Be short of: not having enough of something </li...
<ul><li>Coin: a small round piece of metal used as money </li></ul><ul><li>Bill: a request for payment of money  </li></ul...
Future “Will” <ul><li>We use will & will not (won’t) when: </li></ul><ul><li>We make a promise:  </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll ph...
<ul><li>We make a request: </li></ul><ul><li>Will you lend me your dictionary? </li></ul><ul><li>We make a prediction usua...
Time clauses <ul><li>Time clauses begin with  when, after, before, as soon as, until,  etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When the sen...
Examples:  <ul><li>Time clause   </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as I see him, </li></ul><ul><li>Before I go, </li></ul><ul><li>...
Will have to / Will be able to <ul><li>Will have to  expresses obligation in the future (=must): </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll h...
Expressions with  make <ul><li>Make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Make plans </li></ul><ul>...
Expressions with “do” <ul><li>Do good </li></ul><ul><li>Do harm </li></ul><ul><li>Do without </li></ul>
Too / enough <ul><li>Too: it has a negative meaning and it means “more than necessary”. </li></ul><ul><li>Too + adjective ...
Relative pronouns <ul><li>Relative pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Use:  </li></ul><ul><li>Who   &   that  for people  </li></u...
<ul><li>We can ommit  who, which  and  that  when they refer to the object of the verb: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul>...
Suffix “ful” <ul><li>Adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful </li></ul><ul><li>Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful </li></u...
Suffix “less” <ul><li>Adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Careless </li></ul><ul><li>Harmless </li></ul><ul><li>Helpless </li></...
Linking words <ul><li>When writing a paragraph expressing your opinion use linking words to list points: </li></ul><ul><li...
Phrases to express opinion <ul><li>In my opinion… </li></ul><ul><li>Personally I believe… </li></ul>
Unit 5 <ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Health and emotional problems and phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Words related to medical and emotional problems </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs </li>...
<ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives </li></ul><ul><li>-ing form </li></ul><ul><li>Should /had better </li></ul>...
Words /phrases related to medical problems <ul><li>Allergy </li></ul><ul><li>Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Chemist’s </li></ul><...
Phrasal verbs <ul><li>A phrasal verb consists fo a verb and an adverb and/or one or more prepositions. The meaning of the ...
Prepositiona phrases with “in” <ul><li>In the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>In danger </li></ul><ul><li>In a hurry </li></ul...
-ing form <ul><li>We use the –ing form </li></ul><ul><li>a)  As a subject:  </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.:  Smoking  is bad  for ...
Words / phrases related to emotional problems <ul><li>A fear of </li></ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul><ul><li>Advise </li></u...
Should <ul><li>Should + bare infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>We use it to: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for and give advice: </li></...
Had better <ul><li>Had better + bare infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Had better not + bare infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>We us...
Words related to accidents and emergencies <ul><li>Ambulance </li></ul><ul><li>Be on fire </li></ul><ul><li>Burn </li></ul...
Passive voice – present simple <ul><li>We use the passive voice to emphasise the action rather than who or what is respons...
<ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A party is organized by students. </li></ul><ul><li>A party is not organized by studen...
Passive voice – past simple <ul><li>We use the same structure, but the verb “to be” must be in the past. </li></ul><ul><li...
Words & expressions to express feelings <ul><li>Embarrased </li></ul><ul><li>Surprised </li></ul><ul><li>Annoyed </li></ul...
Linking words & phrases <ul><li>As soon as </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>As  </li></ul...
Unit 6 <ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoying your free time </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Describing ac...
<ul><li>Words related to places or entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Words related to films ...
Words related to sports <ul><li>Aerobics </li></ul><ul><li>Athletics </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling ...
Word / collocations related to sports <ul><li>Play volleyball </li></ul><ul><li>Go skiing </li></ul><ul><li>Do karate </li...
May, might, could <ul><li>The verbs may, might and could </li></ul><ul><li>a) are followed by the base form of the verb. <...
<ul><li>We use  may not  &  might   not  to express lack of possibility in the present or future. </li></ul><ul><li>Exampl...
Compound nouns <ul><li>They can be formed as two words or as one word. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen. The first...
Examples: <ul><li>Fur seals </li></ul><ul><li>Shark cages </li></ul><ul><li>Bungee jumping </li></ul><ul><li>Windsurfing <...
Conditional type 1 <ul><li>The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the fut...
<ul><li>The structure of a first conditional sentence   </li></ul><ul><li>A first conditional sentence consists of two cla...
<ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If it's sunny, we'll go to the park. </li></ul><ul><li>Paula will be sad if Juan leave...
<ul><li>If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes second, ther...
<ul><li>We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause  +  if  clause </li...
If vs. When <ul><li>When  is used to refer to the time something is going to happen, while  if  refers to the possibility ...
Words related to places of entertainment <ul><li>Theme park: </li></ul><ul><li>Queue, games, special efeects, outdoor, rid...
So / too <ul><li>We use them when we agree with an affirmative statement, but we don’t want to repeat it. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>For example:  </li></ul><ul><li>A: I can cook.  </li></ul><ul><li>B: So can I / I can, too. </li></ul><ul><li>A: T...
Neither / either <ul><li>We use them when we agree with a negative statement, but we don’t want to repeat it. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>More examples:  </li></ul><ul><li>I can skate.  -  I can, too. / So can I. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro can´t dance. - ...
To express disagreement <ul><li>Subject + affirmative auxiliary verb   when we disagree with a negative statement. </li></...
Present perfect progressive <ul><li>We use the present perfect for: </li></ul><ul><li>A repeated action or situation which...
<ul><li>b) An action which was happening over a period of time in the past and may have finished, but its results are obvi...
<ul><li>Time expressions used with the present perfect progressive: </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></u...
Present perfect progressive vs. Present perfect simple <ul><li>The present  perfect progressive  emphasizes the  duration ...
Phrasal verbs <ul><li>Bring back: return from somewhere with something. </li></ul><ul><li>Check somebody / something out: ...
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Inglés Intermedio 1 (Nivel 4)

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Inglés Intermedio 1 (Nivel 4)

  1. 1. Asesoría Grupal INGLÉS INTERMEDIO 100 (IC 400) Traveller Pre-intermediate Units 4-6 Gabriela Jiménez Aguilar Mayo 2010
  2. 2. Unit 4 <ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>The future of communication and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Making predictions, promises, offers and requests. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining people, things and places. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Words/phrases related to money </li></ul><ul><li>Words easyly confused </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions with “make” </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations related to technology </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives ending in “full” and “less” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><li>Future will </li></ul><ul><li>Will have to /will be able to </li></ul><ul><li>Time clauses (when, after, before, until, as soon as) </li></ul><ul><li>Too / enough </li></ul><ul><li>Relative clauses (who / which / that / where) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Words and phrases related to money <ul><li>VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>Spend </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Pay somebody back </li></ul><ul><li>Afford </li></ul><ul><li>Be broke </li></ul><ul><li>Be short of </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow </li></ul><ul><li>Lend </li></ul><ul><li>Save </li></ul><ul><li>NOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>Amount </li></ul><ul><li>Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Cash </li></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Coin </li></ul><ul><li>Mote </li></ul><ul><li>receipt </li></ul>
  5. 5. Words easily confused <ul><li>Be broke: having no money </li></ul><ul><li>Be short of: not having enough of something </li></ul><ul><li>Lend: to give something to someone for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow: to receive something which belongs to someone else and to use it for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Note: a piece of paper money </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Coin: a small round piece of metal used as money </li></ul><ul><li>Bill: a request for payment of money </li></ul><ul><li>Receipt: a request for payment of money paid </li></ul><ul><li>Afford: to be able to buy something because you have enough money </li></ul><ul><li>Save (up): to put money aside so that you can buy something with it in the future. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Future “Will” <ul><li>We use will & will not (won’t) when: </li></ul><ul><li>We make a promise: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>We make on- the-spot decision: </li></ul><ul><li>I will bring the sodas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>We make a request: </li></ul><ul><li>Will you lend me your dictionary? </li></ul><ul><li>We make a prediction usually with the verbs think and believe: </li></ul><ul><li>I think you will be a great scientist. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Time clauses <ul><li>Time clauses begin with when, after, before, as soon as, until, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When the sentence refers to the future, we usually use the present simple in the time clause and the future will in the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>When the time clause comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated by a comma. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples: <ul><li>Time clause </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as I see him, </li></ul><ul><li>Before I go, </li></ul><ul><li>Main clause </li></ul><ul><li>I will do my homework </li></ul><ul><li>Main clause </li></ul><ul><li>I will tell you. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll call you. </li></ul><ul><li>Time clause </li></ul><ul><li>after I have lunch. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Will have to / Will be able to <ul><li>Will have to expresses obligation in the future (=must): </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll have tu study hard to pass the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Will be able to expresses ability in the future (=will manage to): </li></ul><ul><li>When I learn English, I will be able to understand English-speaking movies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Expressions with make <ul><li>Make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Make plans </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure </li></ul><ul><li>Make money </li></ul><ul><li>Make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Make a phone call </li></ul>
  13. 13. Expressions with “do” <ul><li>Do good </li></ul><ul><li>Do harm </li></ul><ul><li>Do without </li></ul>
  14. 14. Too / enough <ul><li>Too: it has a negative meaning and it means “more than necessary”. </li></ul><ul><li>Too + adjective or adverb </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: These shoes are too big . Could I have a smaller size? </li></ul><ul><li>Enough: it has a positive meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective or adverb + enough </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Enough + noun </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: The water isn’t warm enough . I can´t drink it. </li></ul><ul><li> I have been saving for a while, so I have enough money to buy a car. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Relative pronouns <ul><li>Relative pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Who & that for people </li></ul><ul><li>Which & that for things, animals and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>That man who / that is on tv is my uncle. </li></ul><ul><li>The bag which / that is on the table is yours. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative adverb </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Where for places </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: The school where I work is the best. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>We can ommit who, which and that when they refer to the object of the verb: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>The film (which / that) I like most is “Armagedon”. </li></ul><ul><li>The man (who / that) you saw me with is my fiancé. </li></ul><ul><li>Where can never be omitted or replaced with that. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Suffix “ful” <ul><li>Adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful </li></ul><ul><li>Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>careful </li></ul>
  18. 18. Suffix “less” <ul><li>Adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Careless </li></ul><ul><li>Harmless </li></ul><ul><li>Helpless </li></ul><ul><li>Useless </li></ul>
  19. 19. Linking words <ul><li>When writing a paragraph expressing your opinion use linking words to list points: </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly, </li></ul><ul><li>First of all, </li></ul><ul><li>To begin with, </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, </li></ul><ul><li>Also, in addition, </li></ul><ul><li>What is more, </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, </li></ul>
  20. 20. Phrases to express opinion <ul><li>In my opinion… </li></ul><ul><li>Personally I believe… </li></ul>
  21. 21. Unit 5 <ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Health and emotional problems and phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Stating a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for and giving advice </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Narrating experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Making appointments </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Words related to medical and emotional problems </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases with “in” </li></ul><ul><li>Words related to accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Idioms describing feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Words easily confused </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives </li></ul><ul><li>-ing form </li></ul><ul><li>Should /had better </li></ul><ul><li>Passive voice (present simple, past simple) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Words /phrases related to medical problems <ul><li>Allergy </li></ul><ul><li>Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Chemist’s </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Examine </li></ul><ul><li>Have a cold </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt </li></ul><ul><li>Illness pain </li></ul><ul><li>Painkiller </li></ul><ul><li>Patient </li></ul><ul><li>Pill </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribe </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Runny nose </li></ul><ul><li>Sneeze </li></ul><ul><li>Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
  25. 25. Phrasal verbs <ul><li>A phrasal verb consists fo a verb and an adverb and/or one or more prepositions. The meaning of the phrasal verb is different from the verb it includes. </li></ul><ul><li>To book up: have no time available </li></ul><ul><li>To get over: become better </li></ul><ul><li>To hang on: wait </li></ul><ul><li>To lie down: rest </li></ul><ul><li>To run out of: not have any left </li></ul><ul><li>To take away: make something disappear </li></ul>
  26. 26. Prepositiona phrases with “in” <ul><li>In the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>In danger </li></ul><ul><li>In a hurry </li></ul><ul><li>In addition </li></ul><ul><li>In my opinion </li></ul><ul><li>In fact </li></ul><ul><li>In common </li></ul><ul><li>In the end </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning (of the century) </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of (the road) </li></ul>
  27. 27. -ing form <ul><li>We use the –ing form </li></ul><ul><li>a) As a subject: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Smoking is bad for your health. </li></ul><ul><li>b) After certain verbs: (like, love, enjoy, hate, finish, start) and expressions (how about, it’s worth): </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I hate taking pills. </li></ul><ul><li>c) After prepositions: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: they asked for help by using a Morse lamp. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Words / phrases related to emotional problems <ul><li>A fear of </li></ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul><ul><li>Advise </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with </li></ul><ul><li>Deep breath </li></ul><ul><li>medication </li></ul><ul><li>Panic </li></ul><ul><li>Phobia </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce stress </li></ul><ul><li>Suffer from </li></ul>
  29. 29. Should <ul><li>Should + bare infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>We use it to: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for and give advice: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: should I go to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>Express an opinion: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: You should study more </li></ul><ul><li>Make a suggestion: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: Shouldn’t we vote ? </li></ul><ul><li>Express mild obligations: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: You should do your homework. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Had better <ul><li>Had better + bare infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Had better not + bare infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>We use it to give strong advice. It often expresses threat of warning and it´s stronger than should . It refers to the present or future, not the past. </li></ul><ul><li>The short form is ‘d better (I’d better, you’d better, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: You’d better go to the dentist. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Words related to accidents and emergencies <ul><li>Ambulance </li></ul><ul><li>Be on fire </li></ul><ul><li>Burn </li></ul><ul><li>Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Die </li></ul><ul><li>Injure </li></ul><ul><li>Put out </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Survivor </li></ul><ul><li>tragedy </li></ul>
  32. 32. Passive voice – present simple <ul><li>We use the passive voice to emphasise the action rather than who or what is responsible for it. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + verb be + past participle of main verb + (by…) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + verb be + not + past participle of main verb + (by…) </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative: </li></ul><ul><li>Verb be + subject + past participle of main verb (by…)? </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A party is organized by students. </li></ul><ul><li>A party is not organized by students. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a party organized by students? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Passive voice – past simple <ul><li>We use the same structure, but the verb “to be” must be in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The lost dog was found by a child. </li></ul><ul><li>The lost dog was not found by a child. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the lost dog found by a child? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Words & expressions to express feelings <ul><li>Embarrased </li></ul><ul><li>Surprised </li></ul><ul><li>Annoyed </li></ul><ul><li>Want the ground to swallow you </li></ul><ul><li>Not believe your eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Go red as a beetroot </li></ul><ul><li>Get on somebody’s nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Make a fool of oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Drive somebody up the wall </li></ul><ul><li>Jump out of one’s skin </li></ul><ul><li>Laugh one’s head off </li></ul>
  36. 36. Linking words & phrases <ul><li>As soon as </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>While </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>So </li></ul>
  37. 37. Unit 6 <ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoying your free time </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Describing actions and situations and their consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to conditions and their results </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing posibility </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing and disagreeing </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing preference and opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Words related to sports </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Compound nouns </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Words related to places or entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Words related to films </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>May, might, could </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional sentences type 1 </li></ul><ul><li>If vs. when </li></ul><ul><li>So / neither / too / either </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect progressive vs present perfect simple </li></ul>
  39. 39. Words related to sports <ul><li>Aerobics </li></ul><ul><li>Athletics </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling </li></ul><ul><li>Boxing </li></ul><ul><li>Golf </li></ul><ul><li>Catch </li></ul><ul><li>Dribble </li></ul><ul><li>Drop </li></ul><ul><li>Hit </li></ul><ul><li>Kick </li></ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul><ul><li>Pass </li></ul><ul><li>Score </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Swing </li></ul><ul><li>Throw </li></ul>
  40. 40. Word / collocations related to sports <ul><li>Play volleyball </li></ul><ul><li>Go skiing </li></ul><ul><li>Do karate </li></ul><ul><li>Play on / for a team </li></ul><ul><li>Play a game, </li></ul><ul><li>Go windsurfing </li></ul><ul><li>Play in the final </li></ul><ul><li>Go swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Do water sports </li></ul><ul><li>Do athletics </li></ul><ul><li>Play team sports </li></ul><ul><li>Do aerobics </li></ul>
  41. 41. May, might, could <ul><li>The verbs may, might and could </li></ul><ul><li>a) are followed by the base form of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>b) are the same in all persons in the singular and plural. </li></ul><ul><li>c) do not form the questions and negative forms with do. </li></ul><ul><li>d) express possibility in the present and future. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>We use may not & might not to express lack of possibility in the present or future. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>You may need glue to stick your photos. </li></ul><ul><li>She might accept to go out with you. </li></ul><ul><li>They could meet you after the match. </li></ul><ul><li>He might not come to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>I may not have a vacation this summer. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Compound nouns <ul><li>They can be formed as two words or as one word. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen. The first noun defines the second one: </li></ul><ul><li>Bus stop = a stop for buses </li></ul><ul><li>Police officer </li></ul><ul><li>Businessman </li></ul><ul><li>Check-in </li></ul>
  44. 44. Examples: <ul><li>Fur seals </li></ul><ul><li>Shark cages </li></ul><ul><li>Bungee jumping </li></ul><ul><li>Windsurfing </li></ul><ul><li>Sightseeing </li></ul><ul><li>Sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Stingrays </li></ul><ul><li>Tour guide </li></ul><ul><li>Rock climbing </li></ul><ul><li>Speedboat </li></ul><ul><li>Midday </li></ul><ul><li>airport </li></ul>
  45. 45. Conditional type 1 <ul><li>The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future — things which may happen. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>The structure of a first conditional sentence </li></ul><ul><li>A first conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an &quot;if&quot; clause and a main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause + main clause </li></ul><ul><li>If you study hard, you will pass the test. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do exercise, you will feel better. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If it's sunny, we'll go to the park. </li></ul><ul><li>Paula will be sad if Juan leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>If you cook the supper, I'll wash the dishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe it will be sunny — that's possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe Juan will leave — that's possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe you will cook the supper — that's possible. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause + if clause You will pass the test if you study hard. </li></ul><ul><li>You will burn calories if you keep active. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause + if clause </li></ul><ul><li>(will / can / must / may)+(simple present) </li></ul><ul><li>She will pass the test if she studies hard. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be late if they don’t hurry up . </li></ul>
  50. 50. If vs. When <ul><li>When is used to refer to the time something is going to happen, while if refers to the possibility of something happening. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll tell him when I see him. (I will definitely see him). </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll tell him if I see him. (I may not see him). </li></ul>
  51. 51. Words related to places of entertainment <ul><li>Theme park: </li></ul><ul><li>Queue, games, special efeects, outdoor, rides. </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre: </li></ul><ul><li>Audience, queue, backstage, special effects, indoor, outdoor, stage, scenery, rehearse. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling alley: </li></ul><ul><li>Queue, games, outdoor. </li></ul><ul><li>Concert: </li></ul><ul><li>Audience, queue, backstage, special effects, indoor, outdoor, stage, rehearse. </li></ul>
  52. 52. So / too <ul><li>We use them when we agree with an affirmative statement, but we don’t want to repeat it. </li></ul><ul><li>To express agreement, you need to consider the tense and the form of the statement you are agreeing with, in order to use the proper auxiliary or modal verb. </li></ul><ul><li>So + affirmative auxiliary verb + subject </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + affirmative auxiliary verb + too </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>A: I can cook. </li></ul><ul><li>B: So can I / I can, too. </li></ul><ul><li>A: They have seen this fim. </li></ul><ul><li>B: So we have. / We have, too. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Neither / either <ul><li>We use them when we agree with a negative statement, but we don’t want to repeat it. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither + affirmative auxiliary verb + subject </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + negative auxiliary verb + either </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>A: I don’t like broccoli. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I don’t either / Neither do I. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Ricki won’t go to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I won’t either. / Neither will I. </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>More examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I can skate. - I can, too. / So can I. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro can´t dance. - Mary can’t either./ Neither can she. </li></ul><ul><li>I am from Xalapa. - I am, too. / So am I. </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbour isn’t very clean. – My neighbour isn’t either./ Neither is my neighbour. </li></ul><ul><li>I visited my parents yesterday. – I did, too. /So did I. </li></ul><ul><li>Mario didn’t come. – I didn’t, either. / Neither did I. </li></ul>
  56. 56. To express disagreement <ul><li>Subject + affirmative auxiliary verb when we disagree with a negative statement. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: I can´t sing. / I can. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + negative auxiliary verb when we disagree with an affrimative statement. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I have ridden a camel. / I haven’t. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Present perfect progressive <ul><li>We use the present perfect for: </li></ul><ul><li>A repeated action or situation which started in the past and continues up to the present. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>They have been swimming for more than two hours now. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>b) An action which was happening over a period of time in the past and may have finished, but its results are obviuos in the present. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>She’s very tired. She’s been studying all night. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Time expressions used with the present perfect progressive: </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>How long </li></ul><ul><li>All day / week, etc. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Present perfect progressive vs. Present perfect simple <ul><li>The present perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of an action, while the present perfect simple emphasizes the result of an action. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>You have been cooking cookies since 7 a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>You have cooked a lot of / 3 kilos of cookies since 7 a.m. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Phrasal verbs <ul><li>Bring back: return from somewhere with something. </li></ul><ul><li>Check somebody / something out: look at something that seems interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheer on: shout to someone in a reace or competition to encourage him / her. </li></ul><ul><li>Come across: find by chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Let down: dissapoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Log on: connect to a computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>Sell out: have no tickets left. </li></ul>

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