MEDIA KEY TERMSImages and Definitions for Revision PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Mise-en-scene definitionWhen applied to the cinema, mise-en-scène refers to everything that appears before the camera and itsarrangement—lighting, setting, colour, characters = representation, facial expression, gesture, body languageetc.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• LightingLighting or illumination is the deliberate application of light to achieve some practical or aesthetic (visual)effect.*The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure, however, into the essence of visual storytelling. Lightingcontributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture.*The intensity, direction, and quality of lighting have a profound effect on the way an image is perceived. Light (and shade) canemphasise texture, shape, distance, mood, time of day or night, season, glamour; it affects the way colours are rendered, both interms of hue and depth, and can focus attention on particular elements of the composition.**From WikipediaUnlike the human eye, video and film cameras need specific lighting to produce an image that looks realistic and believable to theviewer. In order to make movies, lighting has to be considered constantly in every shot. There are essentially two types of lightingand several positional techniques used to light a scene in a movie. While there are many variables involved, the basic concepts ofmovie lighting remain the same throughout the industry.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Natural lightingNatural or available lighting is from a natural source such as the sun or fire.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENERemember all lighting including ‘artificial lighting’ must be tested/measured to determine if it is sufficient forfilming.Example:the sunlight can often be too much light (overexposure) where it will be too light/white/fadedthe sunlight can often be too little light (underexposure)where it will be too dark/black
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Available LightingOne of the two types of light available to film crews is commonly called "available light." This simplymeans that the naturally occurring light on the set will be used to completely or partially light the scene.This is usually sunlight (natural light), but the term is also used to refer to any lighting not set up by thecrew; streetlights, for example, may be considered available light.Remember available lighting must be tested to determine if it is sufficient for filming.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Artificial LightingArtificial light is lighting that is not provided by a natural or available source such as the sun or fire andthat is man made.Artificial light includes any set lighting brought in by a movie production crew.There are many varieties of artificial lighting used on movie sets. Common tungsten bulbs can be used,but often have to be adjusted for colour. Photo bulbs of 250 to 500 watts are also common artificial-lighting options. Flicker-free fluorescents, halogen-metal-iodide (HMI) bulbs, and devices known asreflectors (used to bounce natural or artificial light from another source) are also common in theindustry.Remember all lighting including ‘artificial lighting’ must be tested/measured to determine if it issufficient for filming.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• KeyTypes of movie lighting may refer to the position of the light source and its purpose as well. The key light is the main light sourceused to light a subject in a scene. This light is often placed on the front and side of the key subject, such as the speaking actor inthe scene, and is slightly elevated to mimic sunlight, moonlight or indoor lighting. This is typically the most intense light used onthe set.By placing the key light above and to the left we can see the volume of the oranges (i.e. that theyre spherical). We can also seethat they are on the floor by the shadows cast and that they are stacked on top of each other. However the image is lacking detailin the shadow regions and is a bit brutal. In order to fix this we need to add another light to the right of the oranges to add someillumination to those darkened areas. This light is called the FILL LIGHT. Lets look at what this light contributes to the scene.Key Lighting Fill lighting Key, fill, rim lighting
• Low KeyThe term "low key" is to refer to any scene with a high lighting ratio, especially ifthere is a predominance (majority) of shadowy areas. It tends to heighten thesense of alienation felt by the viewer, hence is commonly used in film noir and horror genres.• High KeyThe scene is flooded with light. This in turn leaves very few shadows and can createa washed out look. In order to create a high key lighting, many extremely bright lightsmust be used in order to flood the scene with light. It tends to be used to reveal settings,characters, objects to reveal the information to the audience, often used in happy andenergetic and bright/warm situations often in action, drama and comedy genres.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• FillThe fill light is set up on the side opposite from the key light and is a less-intense light. The fill light, as thename would indicate, fills in the spaces where the key light does not reach. This type of lighting softens hardshadows cast by the key light and makes for a more visually appealing image.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• SettingIn fiction, setting includes the time, location, and everything in which a story takes place, and initiates the mainbackdrop and mood for a story. Elements of setting may include culture, historical period, geography, and hour.Along with plot, character, theme, and style, setting is considered one of the fundamental components offiction.Basically, where is a scene set/located in a film.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• ColourHow a scene in a film uses colour in a scene to show emotions, mood/atmosphere or themes.Consider what colours communicated and think of how the colour communicates the mood/atmosphere.WHITE -clinical, pure, can be cold, sterileBLACK -dark, mysterious, formal, eerie, professional, modernBLUE -cold/cool, futuristic, sterile, fresh, clean, masculineRED -dangerous, passionate, anger, seductivePURPLE -royalty/wealth, feminine, mysteriousGREEN -mysterious, wealthy, poisonous/revolting/hazardousYELLOW -warm yellow: warming, calming cool yellow: hazardous, alarmingORANGE -warm, cosy, energetic,
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Body LanguageBody language is a form of non-verbal communication, which consists of body posture, gestures, facialexpressions, and eye movements. Body language may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of aperson. For example, it may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, relaxed state, pleasure, amusement,and intoxication, among many other cues.Basically, how a character uses their body movements to communicate their thoughts or emotions tocontribute to how they are represented.Example: affectionate = body is willing to allow physical touching and open arms to welcome fearful = body will be stiff, tense, arms near face to hide emotions, eyes wide open to be alert
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• GestureA gesture is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particularmessages, either in place of speech or together and in parallel with spoken words. Gestures include movementof the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Gestures differ from physical non-verbal communication thatdoes not communicate specific messages, such as purely expressive displays such as ____________. Gesturesallow individuals to communicate a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approvaland affection, often together with body language in addition to words when they speak.Basically, gesture is a sign or symbol of an emotion.Example: angry/rebellious = giving someone the finger/2 fingers up welcome = handshake or kiss on the cheek courteous = opening door for someone
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Facial expressionA facial expression one or more motions or positions of the muscles of the face. These movements convey theemotional state of the individual to observers. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication.Basically, the way a person’s face is to show an emotion.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Costume (Character)The term costume can refer to wardrobe and dress in general, or to the distinctive style of dress of a particularpeople, class, or period. Costume may also refer to the artistic arrangement ofclothing/accessories, appropriate to the time, place, or other circumstances represented or described, or to aparticular style of clothing worn to portray the wearer as a character or type of character other than theirregular persona at a social event such as a masquerade, a fancy dress party or in an artistic theatricalperformance.Basically, what a person wears to represent their character.Example: Hat, doctors white lab coat, vest top, hoodie, dress etc
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Make-up (Character)Cosmetics/make-up are substances used to enhance the appearance of the human body. They can be used infilm to assist in the representation of a character to appear a certain way or fit a certain stereotype.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Props (Character)Props are items or objects that are used in addition or in combination with a character’s (or subject) costumeto contribute to their representation. They could also be other objects or items in the scene in connection withthe setting.Example: baseball bat, cigarette, gun, chair, pen, wine glass, clipboard etc.
PART G: MISE-EN-SCENE• Character representationHow a character is represented to fit or challenge a stereotype to emphasise the role of their character.Consider how their costume, props, body language, gesture, use of speech/language and facial expression allwork together to make them appear as a certain stereotype.Examples: -rebellious, wild child teenager -evil and manipulative child -responsible and loving parent -masculine, caring and generous hero -dominant and powerful, authoritative boss