The Andes Mountains


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The Andes Mountains

  1. 1. The Andes Mountains<br />Tiana Yarbrough<br />Professor Arguello<br />History 28<br />
  2. 2. Geography<br />The world’s largest continental mountain range<br />Lies along the western coast of South America<br />Ranges over 4,300 mi long, 120-430 mi wide, and has an average height of 13,000 ft.<br />Highest mountain range outside of Asia<br />Highest peak: Aconcagua (22,841 ft)<br />Extends over seven countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela<br />
  3. 3. Geography<br />Andes divided into 3 sections:<br />Southern Andes in Angentina and Chile<br />Cental Andes in Chilean and Peruvian Cordilleras and parts of Bolivia<br />Northern Andes in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador<br />In Colombia, Andes split in to three parallel ranges: Cordillera occidental, central y oriental<br />
  4. 4. Volcanoes<br />A belt of mountains along The Ring of Fire: A zone of volcanic activity<br />Andes contain many active volcanoes; all distributed into four sections, separated by areas of inactivity:<br /><ul><li>Northern Volcanic Zone: Southern Colombia and Equador
  5. 5. Central Volcanic Zone: Southern Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile and Argentina
  6. 6. Southern Volcanic Group: Central Chile to the Chile Triple Junction</li></ul>- Austral Volcanic Zone: South of Chile Triple Junction<br />
  7. 7. Geology<br />East of the Andes lie several sedimentary basins such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de dios, and Grand Chaco<br />Separates Andes from ancient cratons of eastern South America<br />West of mountain range lies the Pacific Ocean<br />Submerged peaks off the coast of Venezuela make up the Caribbean Islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao.<br />
  8. 8. Climate<br />Climate varies and depends on location, altitude and proximity of the sea.<br />The Southern Section is rainy and cool<br />Central Andes are typically dry <br />Northern Range is rainy and warm<br />Average temp in Colombia is 64 degrees F<br />Andes of Chile and Argentina divided into two climatic and glaciological zones: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes<br />Climate is known to drastically change in short distances<br />Rainforests exist miles away from snow covered peaks<br />
  9. 9. Flora<br />Rainforests once encircled much of the Northern Andes, but now have been greatly diminished.<br />Only 10% of original woodland remains due to modern clearance.<br />30,000 species of Vascular plants live in the Andes<br />Many plants used for medicinal purposes<br />Cinchona pubescens is a small tree used to treat malaria<br />Tobacco and Potatoes originated from the Andes<br />High-altitude polylepis forests and woodlands found in Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile<br />These trees can be found at altitudes of 14,760 ft above sea level.<br />
  10. 10. Fauna<br />Very rich in Fauna; nearly 1,000 different species and 2/3 of them endemic to the region<br />The most important region in the world for amphibians<br />Animal diversity is high: 30,000 species of vascular plants, 1,000 amphibians, 600 species of mammals, 1,700 species of birds, 600 reptiles, and 400 different kinds of fish <br />
  11. 11. Agriculture<br />Ancient people (Incas) practiced irrigation 6,000 years ago<br />Because of the mountain slopes, terracing is quite common<br />Potatoes and Maize hold an important role in widely consumed staple crops<br />Tobacco, coffee, and cotton are the leading export crops of today<br />Coca an important crop for legal local use in mildly stimulating herbal teas<br />Also used for the production of cocaine<br />
  12. 12. Resources<br /><br /><br /><br />