Food Safety And Technology


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Food Safety And Technology

  1. 1. Food Safety & Food Technology Brittany, Yu & Matt
  2. 2. Fact or Fiction <ul><li>On average, each day, over 200,000 people in the United States fall ill with foodborne illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Of those, 14 die. </li></ul><ul><li>FACT </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate of foodborne </li></ul><ul><li>illness in the U.S </li></ul><ul><li>each year </li></ul>76 million people become ill 5,000 people die
  3. 3. Foodborne microorganisms can cause illness for the body <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodborne illness : illness transmitted to human beings through food and water; caused by an infectious agent or poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous chemicals or other harmful substances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodborne illness = Food poisoning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. People with a higher risk of foodborne illness Pregnant women Infants Young children and older adults People with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronic diseases
  5. 5. Symptoms of Foodborne illness <ul><li>Diarrhea and/or vomiting, typically lasting 1 to 7 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, joint/back aches, and fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stomach flu ” may actually be a foodborne illness caused by a pathogen (i.e., virus, bacteria, or parasite) in contaminated food or drink. </li></ul><ul><li>The incubation period (the time between exposure to the pathogen and onset of symptoms) can range from several hours to 1 week. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Microorganism can cause foodborne illness either by infection or intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>Food infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria are consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body reacts by raising temperature- fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer incubation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food intoxication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxin contaminated food is eaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter incubation </li></ul></ul>Foodborne microorganisms can cause illness for the body (cont)
  7. 8. Safe Food Handling <ul><li>Food can provide ideal conditions for bacteria to multiply and to produce toxins. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease causing bacteria require these three conditions to thrive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth (40oF – 140oF) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Be Food Safe
  9. 10. Keep your hands and surface clean
  10. 11. Wash your hand <ul><li>Use freshly water </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hand properly at least 15 seconds , not just rinsing them. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean under fingernails </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hand before, after handling raw food </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-washing is the most effective way to prevent spread of foodborne illness. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Clean during food preparation <ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utensils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter tops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using hot, soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Keep Raw Food Separate
  13. 14. Use different Cutting Board <ul><li>Separate raw, cooked and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing food. </li></ul><ul><li>Use one Cutting Board for raw meat, poultry and seafood. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate another one for fresh produce </li></ul>
  14. 15. Cook food to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
  15. 16. Safe cooking Tips <ul><li>After cooking, food must be held at 140oF or higher . </li></ul><ul><li>Use thermometers to test the temperature of cooked food. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Hot food Hot, Cold food Cold </li></ul>
  16. 17. For more information about using food thermometers, visit this Web site …
  17. 18. Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature? Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service A B
  18. 19. This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F, even though it's pink inside. This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F. Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service A B
  19. 20. Chill
  20. 21. Safe Chilling Tips <ul><li>Shop cold food last, keep cold food cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooked food must be refrigerated immediately or within 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>(1 hour if room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>approaches 90oF) </li></ul><ul><li>“ When in doubt, toss it out.” </li></ul>
  21. 22. How to be cool <ul><li>Cool food in shallow containers . Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less . </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid putting hot food in refrigerator because heat can affect the other’s food safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures <ul><li>Set refrigerator at 40°F or below. </li></ul><ul><li>Set freezer at 0°F . </li></ul>
  23. 24. The THAW LAW <ul><li>Plan ahead to defrost foods. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Fact or Fiction <ul><li>Food is safe once it's cooked, no matter how long you leave it out. FICTION </li></ul><ul><li>Food - raw food and cooked food - may not be safe after sitting out at room temperature for more than two hours.  Bacteria grow rapidly in the &quot;danger zone&quot; between 40° F and 140° F. </li></ul><ul><li>Advice: Follow the &quot;two hour rule&quot;: toss perishable foods left out for more than 2 hours.  And if left out in a room or outdoors where the temperature is 90° F or hotter, food should be discarded after just 1 hour. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Which food are most likely to make people sick? <ul><li>Meats and poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Raw Produce </li></ul><ul><li>Honey </li></ul><ul><li>Picnics and Lunch Bags </li></ul><ul><li>Take-out foods and Leftovers </li></ul>
  26. 27. Safety Tips <ul><li>Read Labels to determine if it is ready-to-eat </li></ul><ul><li>Cook to safe temperature . </li></ul><ul><li>Consume food by the “ used-by ” date </li></ul><ul><li>Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid washing raw meat and poultry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria from raw meat to other foods, cooking surface and utensils. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember, when traveling </li></ul><ul><li>“ Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it .” </li></ul>
  27. 28. Fact or Fiction <ul><li>Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny. </li></ul><ul><li>FACT </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs </li></ul><ul><li>or foods containing raw eggs </li></ul><ul><li>and raw/undercooked </li></ul><ul><li>meat and poultry. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Video: Basic Food Safety <ul><li>http:// =DXmgTeu74bY </li></ul>
  29. 30. Recent advances aimed at reducing microbial food contamination <ul><li>Irradiation </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Atmospheric Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria-Killing Wraps and Films </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria-Killing Virus </li></ul>
  30. 31. Irradiation <ul><li>Definition : the application of ionizing radiation to foods to reduce insect infestation or microbial contamination or to slow the ripening or sprouting process </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiation = cold pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li>During irradiation, foods are exposed briefly to a radiant energy source such as gamma rays or electron beams within a shielded facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiation is not a substitute for proper food manufacturing and handling procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>The process, especially when used to treat meat and poultry products, can kill harmful bacteria, greatly reducing potential hazards. </li></ul>
  31. 32. How Irradiation works? <ul><li>Low-dose of irradiation protects consumers from foodborne illness by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling mold in grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterilizing spices and teas for storage at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling insects and extending shelf life in fresh fruits and vegetables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroying disease-causing bacteria in fresh and frozen food. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not noticeably change the taste, texture or appearance of FDA approved foods, nor does it make food radioactive. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Labels <ul><li>Treated irradiation food must say so on its labels. </li></ul><ul><li>The “ radura ” logos is the international symbol for foods treated with irradiation. </li></ul><ul><li>However, foods include irradiation ingredients, such as spices, does not need to provide this information. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Other technologies <ul><li>Improved Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing foods before they reach consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modified Atmospheric Packaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain packaging methods used to improve the safety and shelf life of many fresh and prepared food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified Atmospheric Packaging = Vacuum Packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacteria-Killing Wraps and Films </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria-Killing Virus </li></ul>
  34. 35. Toxins, Residues and Contaminants in Food <ul><li>Natural Toxins in Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Contaminants </li></ul>
  35. 36. Fact or Fiction <ul><li>Natural foods contain natural toxins that can be hazardous if consumed in excess. </li></ul><ul><li>FACT </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid poising by toxins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat all foods in moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat chemicals from all sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose variety of food. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Pesticides <ul><li>Chemicals used to control insects, disease, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals </li></ul><ul><li>Used broadly, the term include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicides – to kill weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticides – to kill insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungicides – to kill fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pesticides residues on agricultural products can survive processing . </li></ul><ul><li>It can be hazardous if mishandled </li></ul><ul><li>The FDA tests for pesticides residues in both domestic and imported food </li></ul>
  37. 38. Ways to Reduce Pesticide Residue Intake <ul><li>Trim the fat, skin from the meat, </li></ul><ul><li>Discard fats and oils in broths and pan dripping </li></ul><ul><li>Select fruits and vegetables with intact skins </li></ul><ul><li>Wash fresh produce in warm running water, use scrub brush and rinse thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Consider buying certified organic foods </li></ul><ul><li>Discard the outer leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Peel waxed fruits, vegetables </li></ul>
  38. 39. Animal Drugs <ul><li>Growth Hormone in Meat and Milk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hormones that promotes growth and that is produced naturally in the pituitary gland of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals often develop more meat and less fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase milk production while reducing feed requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics in Livestock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics overuse foresters antibiotic resistance in bacteria, threatening human health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arsenic in Food Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arsenic drugs are used to promote are used to promote growth in chickens and other livestock. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Environmental Contaminants <ul><li>Definition : any substance occurring in food by accident, any food constituent that is not normally present. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmfulness of Contaminants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent environment contaminants pose a significant, but generally small, threat to safety of food. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mercury in Seafood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury and other contaminants are of greatest concern during pregnancy, lactation and childhood. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Food Additives <ul><li>Additives are substances added to foods , but are not normally consumed by themselves as foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Give foods desirable characteristic : color, flavor, texture, stability, enhanced nutrient composition and resistance to spoilage. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Are Food Additives Safe? <ul><li>Under conditions of its use , additives may or may not be safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Additives are called hazardous only if they are toxic in the amounts ordinarily consumed . </li></ul><ul><li>Margin of safety : a zone between the concentration normally used and that at which a hazard exists. </li></ul><ul><li>The FDA regulates the use of intentional additives: safe, effective and measurable in the final product. </li></ul><ul><li>Additives on the GRAs – generally recognized as safe- list are assumed to be safe because they have long been used. </li></ul><ul><li>Approved additives have wide margins of safety. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Additives Concerns <ul><li>Microbial food spoilage can be prevented by antimicrobial additives. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar and salt have longest history of used to preserved food by withdrawing water from the food – moisture and add flavoring agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrites added and preserved the colors and prevent the growth of deadly botulinum bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfites prevent oxidation in many </li></ul><ul><li>processed foods, alcohol beverage </li></ul><ul><li>and drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) </li></ul><ul><li>used to enhance others flavors </li></ul><ul><li>and added taste. It can cause reaction </li></ul><ul><li>in people with sensitivities. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Organic Food and Genetically Modified Food <ul><li>Genetic modification : intentional changes to the genetic material of living things brought about through a range of methods, including rDNA technology, natural cross-breeding, and agricultural selective breeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farming practices are </li></ul><ul><li>designed to encourage soil, </li></ul><ul><li>water conservation, </li></ul><ul><li>with respect to animal </li></ul><ul><li>and reduce pollution. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Fact or Fiction <ul><li>Organic candy bar, frozen soy desserts and fried </li></ul><ul><li>organic snack chips are more nutritious or less fattening than ordinary treats. </li></ul><ul><li>FICTION </li></ul><ul><li>The different of nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>composition between </li></ul><ul><li>organic foods and </li></ul><ul><li>conventional produced </li></ul><ul><li>foods are so small. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Pros and Cons <ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Improve soil conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Highly protective waterways and wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Use sustainable agricultural techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive flavors </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly increased content of trace mineral, vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>High Price </li></ul><ul><li>Same potential health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Less perfect appearances </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically </li></ul><ul><li>Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer pesticides so protect waterways </li></ul><ul><li>No effect on soil </li></ul><ul><li>Greater food production at low cost </li></ul><ul><li>High availability </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing nutrient and photochemical content. </li></ul><ul><li>Ease food hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful to wildlife by altered genes </li></ul><ul><li>Create “genetic pollution” </li></ul>
  46. 47. Credits <ul><li> </li></ul>