Axis is the most basic and most common organizing
Simply stated, axis is an imaginary line that is used to
organize a group of elements in a design.
In diagrams, axis is represented as a dashed line.
An axis can be established by defining edges along its
length. These edges can be simply lines on the ground plan,
or vertical planes that define a linear space.
Axis is mainly used to align elements. When elements are
arranged around an axis, the design feels ordered.
Symmetry is when elements are arranged in the same
way on both sides of an axis. Perfect symmetry is
when elements are mirrored over the axis and
exactly the same on both sides.
Symmetry adds balance to a design. When elements
are the same on both sides of an axis, the design
Designs are asymmetrical if the arrangement of
elements are different on both sides of an axis.
"Four Towers", the
eponymous towers are
ornate minarets attached
and supported by four
At each corner stands an
elegantly shaped minaret
of 56 meters
(approximately 184 feet)
high, with a double
balcony. Each minaret of
Charminar is crowned by a
rounded dome with
delicate petal-like designs
at the base.
In design, rhythm is the regular, harmonious
recurrence of a specific element, often a
single specific entity coming from the
categories of line, shape, form, color, light,
shadow, and sound.
Repetition in forms (regular rhythm)
Repetition in structure (structure rhythm)
Repetition in lights (reflective rhythm)
Repetition in functions (spatial rhythm)
Repetition in movement (flowing rhythm)
Repetition in process (iterative rhythm)
Repetition in growth (progressive rhythm)
STONE TOWERS BY ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS IN CAIRO
Client: Rooya Group
Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects
Structural Engineer: Adams Kara Taylor
Gross Building Area: 525,000 m2
Site Area: 170,000 m2
Ancient Egyptian stonework incorporates a vast array of patterns
and textures that, when illuminated by the intense sunlight of the
region, creates animated displays of light and shadow. The effect is
powerful, direct and inspiring.
The facades on the North and South elevations of each building within
Stone Towers adopts a rich vocabulary of alternating protrusions,
recesses and voids to enhance the deep reveal shadow lines that
accentuate the curvatures of each building within the development
and animate the project throughout the day.
a line, plane, or volume that by its continuity and
regularity serves to gather, measure, and organize a
pattern of forms and spaces.
A datum is a form which ties together or anchor all
the elements of the design.
Can be a line, like a road with houses arranged in
along its length, a flat pane or even a 3d space
Most of building shares a plane which act as a clear
datum-it’s the ground on which they are built
the Salk Institute in la jolla California.
Designed by architect Louis Kahn
this is a building used for research facilities and office
can see there is a balance of the buildings on either side of
the axis of the waterway cutting through the courtyard.
THIS BUILDING FOLLWS ALL
THE PRINCIPLE OF DESING IN
A PROPER AND WELL
In design, rhythm is made by form
repetitions. As long as the basic element is
repeated with an ordered sequence, a
pleasant pattern will be created and would
be identified as a rhythm. The phenomena of
such a visual attraction will generate a
pleasant environment for living, working, and
recreation. Such a pleasant creation in
product could be valid to justify good quality
Hierarchy is when an element appears more important in
comparison to other elements in a design.
An element will appear more hierarchical if it is larger than other
elements in a design. We naturally look first at the largest
element in a design.
An element can also appear more hierarchical if it is different
than other elements in a design. We naturally look first at the
irregular shape in a design
Last but not least, we can place elements in more hierarchical
positions. Within a circle, the centre is the most hierarchical. The
end of an axis is naturally more hierarchical than points along the
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items
(objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in
which the items are represented as being
above, below, or at the same level as one
another as desired or depending on the
priority of design and its importance in the
CRAB Studio, BOND
By Peter Cook's
• Studios, offices, labs and resource rooms are arranged on either side
of a corridor that rises gradually along the length of the building,
corresponding to the sloping hilltop site.
• Studio is also designed the colourfully, irregularly shaped furniture used throughout the studio spaces, which can be
configured in different arrangements depending on the tasks being performed.
• Based on their experiences of teaching in some of the world's leading architectural institutions, Cook and Robotham
proposed a series of informal working environments throughout the faculty, as well as dedicated teaching spaces.
• These included the cave-like sheltered meeting rooms, which are described as
• Curved concrete walls are used here.
• Studios and meet up halls are secluded from other aspects with a pathway .
• The quiet meeting spaces are
nestled against the base of
smooth concrete walls.
• They open onto the central
pathway on one side, but also
connect to the open studio
• Together the orientation of the
building’s openings, with the
sunhoods and column system of
the facades succeed in mitigating
a majority of the Sun's
potentially excessive effects.
• It is designed to minimise
undesirable solar gain within the
building's thermal envelope.
• It ia an ambient building, where the individual can really identify with the nature of his
or her activity – thus the studio pads, scoops, decks and corners – though based on a
clear hierarchy and system – have significant shifts of direction or variations of size.
• These elements particularise – we hope, in a subtle and enjoyable way.
Architects: Le Corbusier
Location: Chandigarh, India
Architect: Le Corbusier
Project Year: 1962
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHANDIGARH
The building is composed of six eight-
story block divided by expansion joints and
measures over 800 feet long, bookended
by two sculptural ramps providing vertical
circulation throughout the facilities
On top of the building lies an accessible
roof supported by the pilotis. Providing
usable space on the roof of a structure
complies with Le Corbusier's fifth ideal of
architecture by giving occupants vertical
means of connecting to nature and
compensating for the habitat removed by
The cafeteria rests at top the terrace,
where one can have a spectacular view of
the city. Similarly, the roof garden and its
promenade set against the surrounding
landscape, which constantly changes as
the observer's angle of vision changes.