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1984 lesson plan ppt


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1984 intro

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1984 lesson plan ppt

  1. 1. “Early in life I had noticed that no event is ever correctly reported in a newspaper.”
  2. 2. Context: • Dictators such as Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union inspired Orwell’s hatred of totalitarianism and political authority. 1984 was largely written as a warning against totalitarian society. • In Spain, Germany, and the Soviet Union, Orwell personally witnessed absolute political authority and how regimes used technology as a tool of repression.
  3. 3. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system that strives to regulate nearly every aspect of public and private life. Totalitarian regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism.
  4. 4. Joseph Stalin may have been Orwell’s inspiration for Big Brother “…the poster gazed from the wall. It depicted simply an enormous face, more than a meter wide: the face of a man of about forty-five, with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome features."
  5. 5. Social class disparity in Oceania
  6. 6. Synopsis • 1984 was published in 1949 and is a dystopian novel about a collectivist totalitarian oligarchy called Oceania • The Party, which is closely patterned after Soviet Bolsheviks, is lead by Big Brother • The novel opens with the protagonist, Winston Smith, committing thoughtcrime by keeping an illegal diary which describes his nightmarish life and hatred of The Party.
  7. 7. Synopsis cont… • Winston falls deeper into his hatred of The Party and begins to commit thoughtcrime all the time. • He falls in love with a woman named Julia who also hates The Party. • Eventually they both attempt to join an anti-Party group called The Brotherhood and this leads to some major problems for Winston and Julia.
  8. 8. .
  9. 9. Big Brother is Watching YOU The face of a man...with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome features Pg 3, 1984
  10. 10. Background to Nineteen Eighty-Four • The world of Nineteen Eighty-Four is based upon two totalitarian dictatorships, Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany. • The world of Ingsoc (English socialism) bears strong resemblances to the Soviet Union, but much of the detail of the life comes from Germany.
  11. 11. EVER since I have been scrutinizing political events, I have taken a tremendous interest in propagandist activity. I saw that the Socialist-Marxist organizations mastered and applied this instrument with astounding skill. And I soon realized that the correct use of propaganda is a true art which has remained practically unknown to the bourgeois parties. Nazi Germany Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler Volume One - A Reckoning
  12. 12. The Nuremberg Rallies After 1933, the rallies were held in the first half of September under the label of ("National Day of the (Nazi)Party of the German People"), which was meant to symbolize the [apparent] solidarity between the German people and the Nazi Party.
  13. 13. • Like Stalin, Adolph Hitler denied his subjects access to the truth. His Third Reich “can be read as a war against memory – an Orwellian falsification of reality...” (Primo Levi) Oceania conducts an unceasing war on memory-evidence that conflicts with the latest official line is systematically destroyed & a false trail is laid in its place.
  14. 14. •We do not intend to use the radio only for our partisan purposes. We want room for entertainment, popular arts, games, jokes and music. But everything should have a relationship to our day. Everything should include the theme of our great reconstructive work, or at least not stand in its way. Above all it is necessary to clearly centralize all radio activities, to place spiritual tasks ahead of technical ones, to introduce the leadership principle, to provide a clear worldview, and to present this worldview in flexible ways. - Goebbels
  15. 15. Children of the revolution In the Soviet Union,young people were encouraged to join the political group. They were called Young Pioneers (aged between 7-13) and later called Komsomols. If you were a Komsomol member you got into university automatically, so there was great pressure to join.
  16. 16. Hitler Youth • "My teaching is hard. Weakness has to be knocked out of them. In my Ordensburgen a youth will grow up before which the world will shrink back. A violently active dominating, intrepid, brutal youth - that is what I am after". Youth must be all those things. It must be indifferent to pain. There must be no weakness or tenderness in it. I want to see once more in its eyes the gleam of pride and independence of the beast of prey. "I will have no intellectual training. Knowledge is ruin to my young men.
  17. 17. Hitler youth flourished…
  18. 18. What does this remind you of? “How easy it was, thought Winston, if you did not look about you, to believe that the physical type set up by the Party as an ideal, - tall muscular youths and deep bosomed maidens, blond haired, vital, sunburnt, carefree –existed and even predominated” Nineteen Eighty-Four p63.
  19. 19. “In the schools it is not the teacher, but the pupils, who exercise authority. Party functionaries train their children to be spies and agent provocateurs. The youth organizations, particularly the Hitler Youth, have been accorded powers of control which enable every boy and girl to exercise authority backed up by threats. Children have been deliberately taken away from parents who refused to acknowledge their belief in National Socialism. The refusal of parents to ‘allow their children to join the youth organization” is regarded as an adequate reason for taking the children away. •  (School teacher letter to a friend 1938)
  20. 20. Compare…[ [But] men are not gentle creatures who want to be loved, and who at the most can defend themselves if they are attacked; they are, on the contrary, creatures among whose instinctual endowments must be reckoned a powerful share of aggressiveness. (Sigmund Freud.) With.... Always …..there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless. (O’Brien Nineteen Eighty-Four p.280)
  21. 21. Sigmund Freud – father of psychoanalysis
  22. 22. Sigmund Freud Adolf Hitler's 1933 rise to power by democratic majority in Germany made Freud a personal historical witness to the phenomenon that he had previously attempted to account for in psychoanalytic terms in his writings.
  23. 23. Hitler, Freud and Nineteen Eighty-four "I am beginning to comprehend," he wrote, "some of the reasons for Hitler's astounding success. Borrowing a chapter from the Roman [Catholic] church, he is restoring pageantry and color and mysticism to the drab lives of 20th Century Germans. This morning's opening meeting...was more than a gorgeous show, it also had something of the mysticism and religious fervor of an Easter or Christmas Mass in a great Gothic cathedral. The hall was a sea of brightly colored flags. Even Hitler's arrival was made dramatic. The band stopped playing. There was a hush over the thirty thousand people packed in the hall. Then the band struck up the Badenweiler March...Hitler appeared in the back of the auditorium and followed by his aides, Göring, Goebbels, Hess, Himmler and the others, he slowly strode down the long center aisle while thirty thousand hands were raised in salute."
  24. 24. Nineteen Eighty-Four • A novel that is also an essay • Winston’s experience is typical of what happens to people in Ingsoc. • Winston’s journey to the Ministry of Love (Torture Chambers) is inevitable from the time he picks up the diary.
  25. 25. Why keep a diary? Anne Frank keeps a diary to explore what she feels and reflect on what she knows. She also keeps it as a way of comforting herself. This activity is difficult for Winston because the activity of diary writing becomes impossible. No privacy exists. ‘Big Brother is watching you.’
  26. 26. • Surveillance and control The people of this society are constantly being watched by telescreens (monitors that have an ability to project images and take in images) They are also watching each other. Any small facial gesture or sigh can give you away. It doesn’t matter if you are innocent
  27. 27. Cameras everywhere!
  28. 28. Big Brother is Watching YOU No joke or popular TV show – he really was watching!!!
  29. 29. Part I chapter 5 – key… Syme ‘venemously orthodox.’ Ability of Syme’s brain to disengage from reality, to think without feeling. Parsons - pathetic, ignorant, manipulated. The nightmare of his children. People’s capacity to ignore present suffering. Duckspeaker in the midst of noise. Bad food, crowded lifts
  30. 30. Some themes… The deprivation of privacy The prohibition of sex. The destruction of history. The essential nature of memory. An appreciation of the past. The ultimate fallibility of the human mind.
  31. 31. The human need for freedom • In the society Orwell imagines, people could not: – Love who they want – Work where they want – Walk where they want – Eat what they want – Write anything down – Weren't allowed to have memories What is someone willing to risk for freedom?
  32. 32. From Nineteen Eight-Four • Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two makes four. If this is granted, all else follows. • Thoughtcrime does not entail death, thoughtcrime IS death.
  33. 33. Things you need to take note of when reading the text: • The “new” language. Any term that is unfamiliar to you should be noted down and defined. At the start of the novel most words are defined or explained. • Words/terms like: newspeak, minitrue, thoughtcrime, proles, Ministry of Love, Hate Week. Doubleplusgood, duckspeak, Oceania
  34. 34. Newspeak The official language of Oceania. Newspeak is "politically correct" speech taken to its maximum extent
  35. 35. Oceania – One of the 3 Superstates. (Political System: Ingsoc) Winston Smith's home. Comprised of North and South America, Britain, Australia, and southern portions of Africa. Newspeak is the official language of Oceania, but standard English is still spoken by many.
  36. 36. • In the world of 1984, language is reduced, so that thoughts are also reduced Education • Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we will make thoughtcrime virtually impossible, because there will be no words to express it.
  37. 37. • “In fact there will be no thought. Orthodoxy means not thinking. Orthodoxy is unconsciousness” • People believe what they are told because doubting a fact means death. People just switch off
  38. 38. The importance of history • One of Winston’s jobs is to change the past so that it “fits into” the present beliefs of those in power. • No one values history, even personal history is worthless.
  39. 39. Memory and creativity Remembers his mother. His mother’s suffering. His adult awareness of his mother’s suffering. His mother’s loyalties. The impossibility of feeling sorrow. Julia and he make love because it is a political act
  40. 40. Human connections • Sex is seen as a nasty thing you do to have babies. • “When you make love…you feel happy and don’t give a damn about anything. They can’t bear you to feel like that….If you are happy inside yourself why would you give a damn about Big Brother”
  41. 41. Loyalty to the party transcends even family ties. All marriages are arranged to produce children to serve the state. From the time that these offspring are very young, they are trained as spies. Many children, turn their parents in to the Thought Police. Neither the parents nor the children are supposed to have any love for one another. There is no love in the world of Big Brother.
  42. 42. Buys diary to communicate with future. Regimented life. ‘You had to live, did live, from habit that became instinct – in the assumption that every sound you made was overheard and, except in darkness, every movement scrutinised.’ Outraged by demands party makes on people’s intellects. Outraged by party’s attempt to destroy sexual instinct. Relationship with Julia allows him to feel human. Capable of recalling and thinking. ‘These fragments have I shorn against my ruin,’ Winston.
  43. 43. Julia Not intellectual as is Winston Resourceful, spontaneous, guiltless. Natural, but has not thought to the degree Winston has. Falls asleep as Winston reads Goldstein. Does not care if the party invented aeroplanes or not
  44. 44. O’Brien Contrast between O’Brien’s burly physique and elegant manners. His manner draws Winston to him. An indication of Winston’s despair. When torturing, he adopts different personas. Perfect at doublethink - the power to hold two completely contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously, and accept both of them.
  45. 45. The Proles • - Proletarians or lower, working classes. Approximately 85% of Oceania's population are in this class. Members of the party viewed them as animals. They are not as rigidly observed as members of the party, and very few (if any) have telescreens in their home. They are permitted to indulge in pornography, prostitution, and other acts considered thoughtcrime, simply because it would be impossible to observe all of them as rigidly as the party observes its own members. Plus, allowing them to indulge in these "little joys" helps to keep the masses content.
  46. 46. Is Nineteen Eight-Four a novel of despair? NO – George Orwell offers a political choice between the protection of truth and a slide into expedient falsehood for the benefit of rulers and the exploitation of the ruled. It is a subversive novel, a protest against immoral rulers, the authoritarian in every personality and unquestioning conformism
  47. 47. Nineteen Eight-Four can be seen as an account of the forces that endanger liberty and the need to resist them
  48. 48. A scene from one of Winston's drug-induced hallucinations while in the Ministry of Love: he and O'Brien look out upon the rolling hills of the Golden Country.
  49. 49. John Hurt as Winston Smith in the Chestnut Tree Café, in the final scene from Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984).
  50. 50.