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Hidden Requirements 10 Tips to Ensure You Find Them Carol Miller
Introductions <ul><li>Where are you participating from? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your Job role? </li></ul>
Finding Requirements <ul><li>At the end of today’s session, you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a better understanding of t...
Requirements Elicitation The process, tools, and techniques used to actively obtain information from stakeholders regardin...
Elicitation Challenges <ul><li>The Stakeholder  </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Scope Definition a...
The Jungle Can You Find? Functional  Requirements Business Requirements Quality of Service Requirements Implementation Req...
Tips for Staying Alive in the Jungle <ul><li>Get to know the other people in your group and study the wildlife and plant l...
Elicitation Tip #1 <ul><li>Put in the effort to really “know” your stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>A Stakeholder is anyone ...
Stakeholder Identification <ul><li>Consider those that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pa...
Stakeholder Template     SME     Infrequent user   Decision maker Casual user Information keeper (information is power) Fr...
Analyzing Stakeholders <ul><li>What problems do they have that need to be solved? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their success...
Prioritizing Stakeholders Influence High Low High Interest Low Keep informed Monitor Critical Stakeholders Engage early,  ...
<ul><li>Establish a plan and a framework that supports elicitation success </li></ul>Elicitation Tip #2 “ If you don’t kno...
A Requirements Framework Knowledge Area Tasks Deliverables Requirements Communication and Management Training Enterprise A...
A Requirements Elicitation Approach  Identify, Analyze, and Document  Stakeholders Choose Elicitation Technique(s) Develop...
Which Requirements Are You Eliciting? Business Requirements Functional Requirements Quality of Service Requirements Constr...
<ul><li>Be prepared for Typical Stakeholders Issues </li></ul>Elicitation Tip #3 The Know-it-all Clueless Tired and Tuned ...
Typical Stakeholder Issues <ul><li>Expectations: </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder has expectations which are higher/lower/dif...
Elicitation Tip #4 <ul><li>Build Rapport and keep your stakeholders informed </li></ul>Get to know your stakeholders and b...
Identify your Stakeholder VIP’s I’m the “subject matter expert”.  I’m well-respected, I know many important details, and I...
Elicitation Tip #5 <ul><li>Seek out information/training on facilitation skills </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the facilita...
Don’t be the Problem <ul><li>The facilitator is in a powerful position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate, don’t manipulate ...
Elicitation Tip #6 <ul><li>Fill your toolbox with a variety of elicitation tools.  </li></ul><ul><li>Know the techniques <...
Requirements Elicitation Techniques <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Document Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Grou...
What and Why - Interviewing <ul><li>Why:  To collect general information that only this stakeholder can provide. To build ...
Elicitation Tips #7 & #8 <ul><li>Define scope collaboratively.  Manage scope aggressively </li></ul><ul><li>Always be awar...
Context Diagram <ul><li>A  context diagram  is a “top-level” graphical representation of the system and its interfaces wit...
Example:  ATM Context Diagram « keypad » identity account amount ATM Patron Bank Employee Bank Manager Bank Teller Courier...
The Grey Area  <ul><li>Gather the what’s, not the how’s </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize your technical SMEs to help you identify...
Elicitation Tip #9 <ul><li>Establish and monitor exit criteria – How do you know when you’re done? </li></ul>Jungle Tip: K...
A Requirements Elicitation Approach  Identify, Analyze, and Document  Stakeholders Choose Elicitation Technique(s) Develop...
Elicitation Tip #10 <ul><li>Lose the Ego – Ask Questions </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Ask questions and admit when you need help
Ten Tips for Requirements Elicitation <ul><li>Put in the effort required to really “know” your stakeholders </li></ul><ul>...
Questions? Thanks for Attending!  Carol Miller [email_address] www.acclearning.com
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Catalyze Webcast - Finding Requirements - 092007

As part of the Catalyze webcast series, Carol Miller will show us that there's more than one way to find a requirement in our second Catalyze webcast originally broadcast on September 20, 2007.

Carol is the VP of Professional Development for Advanced Concepts Center (ACC) and is also the VP of Professional Development for the Philadelphia chapter of the IIBA.

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Catalyze Webcast - Finding Requirements - 092007

  1. 1. Hidden Requirements 10 Tips to Ensure You Find Them Carol Miller
  2. 2. Introductions <ul><li>Where are you participating from? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your Job role? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Finding Requirements <ul><li>At the end of today’s session, you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a better understanding of the challenges associated with requirements elicitation </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that planning is critical to the success of elicitation </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to identify at least one technique that is worthwhile apply to your next project </li></ul>
  4. 4. Requirements Elicitation The process, tools, and techniques used to actively obtain information from stakeholders regarding their view of the requirements Source: IIBA - A Guide to the BA Body of Knowledge v1.6 If only it was this easy! To Elicit: 1. to draw forth or bring out (something latent or potential) 2. to call forth or draw out (as information or a response) Source: Merriam Webster
  5. 5. Elicitation Challenges <ul><li>The Stakeholder </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Scope Definition and Scope Management </li></ul><ul><li>No training in Elicitation techniques or supporting skills </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic constraints (schedule, scope) </li></ul><ul><li>The BA Ego </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Jungle Can You Find? Functional Requirements Business Requirements Quality of Service Requirements Implementation Requirements User Requirements
  7. 7. Tips for Staying Alive in the Jungle <ul><li>Get to know the other people in your group and study the wildlife and plant life you may encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully plan your excursion. Make sure you consider your personal limitations. Talk to others who have been on similar excursions. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for dangerous encounters </li></ul><ul><li>Stay in close communication – Buddy up </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to build a fire and other critical skills before your excursion departs </li></ul><ul><li>Bring the right tools and know how, and when, to use them </li></ul><ul><li>Stay on the path </li></ul><ul><li>Travel with speed and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Know when you’ve reached your limit. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions and admit when you need help </li></ul>
  8. 8. Elicitation Tip #1 <ul><li>Put in the effort to really “know” your stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>A Stakeholder is anyone who: </li></ul><ul><li>Could affect your project </li></ul><ul><li>Is part of your project team </li></ul><ul><li>Could be affected by your project </li></ul>Needs and Expectations Of Stakeholders Scope and Quality Time Cost Jungle Tip: Get to know the other people in your group and study the wildlife and plant life you may encounter Identify Analyze Prioritize
  9. 9. Stakeholder Identification <ul><li>Consider those that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay for the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct/manage the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are replaced by the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count on the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are impacted by the system </li></ul></ul>Are you using a stakeholder checklist? Do you have a template for your stakeholder inventory and analysis?
  10. 10. Stakeholder Template     SME     Infrequent user   Decision maker Casual user Information keeper (information is power) Frequent user   Has ear of decision maker Spokesperson   Charismatic leader Champion   Controls funding Supporter   Examples of Influence: Examples of Interest: Desired Current Commitment Level (HML) Influence Interest Name Stakeholder Role Stakeholder Information and Analysis
  11. 11. Analyzing Stakeholders <ul><li>What problems do they have that need to be solved? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their success criteria? </li></ul><ul><li>What financial or emotional interests do they have in the project? </li></ul><ul><li>What motivates them? </li></ul><ul><li>What obstacles or constraints do they foresee that may threaten the project? </li></ul><ul><li>What information do they want from you? </li></ul><ul><li>Who influences their opinions? </li></ul>Do you have an analysis question list? Do you have a template for stakeholder inventory and analysis?
  12. 12. Prioritizing Stakeholders Influence High Low High Interest Low Keep informed Monitor Critical Stakeholders Engage early, Manage closely Engage early, Keep informed periodically
  13. 13. <ul><li>Establish a plan and a framework that supports elicitation success </li></ul>Elicitation Tip #2 “ If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll probably end up someplace else” Planning is a Critical Success Factor <ul><li>Know your process (including your responsibilities) </li></ul><ul><li>Know your team </li></ul><ul><li>Research company and industry best practices </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Carefully plan your excursion. Make sure you consider your personal limitations. Talk to others who have been on similar excursions.
  14. 14. A Requirements Framework Knowledge Area Tasks Deliverables Requirements Communication and Management Training Enterprise Analysis Quality Assurance Techniques Guidelines, standards, reviews and inspections Requirements Planning Requirements Elicitation Reqm’ts Analysis & Documentation Solution Assessment and Validation
  15. 15. A Requirements Elicitation Approach Identify, Analyze, and Document Stakeholders Choose Elicitation Technique(s) Develop Questions for Each Chosen Stakeholder For Each Stakeholder or Group of Stakeholders Entry Criteria: Do You Understand Project Objectives and Scope? Plan Session, Develop & Send Materials Conduct the Elicitation Session Document the Stakeholder Requests Exit Criteria: Questions Answered? Requirements Analysis and Documentation Create/Update the Glossary of Terms
  16. 16. Which Requirements Are You Eliciting? Business Requirements Functional Requirements Quality of Service Requirements Constraints Assumptions Problem Space Solution Space What is the Scope of Your Responsibility?
  17. 17. <ul><li>Be prepared for Typical Stakeholders Issues </li></ul>Elicitation Tip #3 The Know-it-all Clueless Tired and Tuned Out Overbooked Uninterested The Overzealous Team The Meeting Dominator Quiet Jungle Tip: Prepare for dangerous encounters
  18. 18. Typical Stakeholder Issues <ul><li>Expectations: </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder has expectations which are higher/lower/different than “reality </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder doesn’t understand the objectives of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting needs of multiple stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering Session Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder dominates a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder has not received enough information about the project so they can’t provide the information being requested </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder can only express their requirements in terms of the current system functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder sends a delegate to the meeting who might not be the “right” person </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder doesn’t know the BA and may not understand the BA’s role on the project </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder feels threatened and doesn’t want to give away their knowledge (perceived job security) </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder has not done their requested/required homework before coming to a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder feels annoyed about participating in yet another time consuming project </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder feels annoyed about participating in yet another useless or unsuccessful project </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder doesn’t care about the project </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder doesn’t see the benefit of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder doesn’t see his/her role on the project </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder current job is being replaced by system and are unwilling to participate </li></ul><ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><li>Requests that change from meeting to meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of involvement by the right people </li></ul><ul><li>Late involvement of the right people </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Scope creep </li></ul>Develop your own list. Share your list and examples of success with other BAs.
  19. 19. Elicitation Tip #4 <ul><li>Build Rapport and keep your stakeholders informed </li></ul>Get to know your stakeholders and build business relationships Building trust and respect are essential elements Jungle Tip: Stay in close communication – Buddy up
  20. 20. Identify your Stakeholder VIP’s I’m the “subject matter expert”. I’m well-respected, I know many important details, and I have lots of specific experience. You need me! I’m the “champion”. I may not know all the details, but I really like what you’re doing. I am influential and can convince people why they should like it too. You need me! I don’t necessarily ‘do’ the work around here, but I know lots of people in the organization, and can put you in touch with just the right one. You need me! Maven Salesperson Connector
  21. 21. Elicitation Tip #5 <ul><li>Seek out information/training on facilitation skills </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Help the group to achieve consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the group dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the group on track to achieve its objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the participation of all, while avoiding the dominance of a few </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the behavior of individual participants </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Learn to build a fire and other critical skills before your excursion departs
  22. 22. Don’t be the Problem <ul><li>The facilitator is in a powerful position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate, don’t manipulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen, and solicit feedback! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch body language, yours and theirs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Elicitation Tip #6 <ul><li>Fill your toolbox with a variety of elicitation tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Know which work best for a given type of stakeholder </li></ul><ul><li>Know which work best for the requirement type you are eliciting </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to use them in combinations </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Bring the right tools and know how, and when, to use them
  24. 24. Requirements Elicitation Techniques <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Document Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group </li></ul><ul><li>Interface Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires and Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated Sessions/Requirements Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Engineering </li></ul>Source: IIBA: A Guide to the BA Body of Knowledge v1.6
  25. 25. What and Why - Interviewing <ul><li>Why: To collect general information that only this stakeholder can provide. To build a relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Who: One-on-one </li></ul><ul><li>What: High level requirements, business objectives, business issues, as-is or to-be business process, to identify sources of other requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Where: Stakeholder’s office, sometimes phone or web meeting </li></ul><ul><li>How: Prepare question list, use open and closed ended questions, use active listening </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure may lead to missed information </li></ul><ul><li>Quality depends on the skills of both the interviewer and interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>Can be time consuming and not good for achieving consensus </li></ul>
  26. 26. Elicitation Tips #7 & #8 <ul><li>Define scope collaboratively. Manage scope aggressively </li></ul><ul><li>Always be aware of the grey area between analysis and design </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Stay on the path
  27. 27. Context Diagram <ul><li>A context diagram is a “top-level” graphical representation of the system and its interfaces with the actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a visual modeling technique you can use to help define and communicate the scope and the boundary of the system </li></ul></ul>Automatic Teller Machine System ATM Patron Bank Courier Brinks Thief ATM Technician
  28. 28. Example: ATM Context Diagram « keypad » identity account amount ATM Patron Bank Employee Bank Manager Bank Teller Courier ATM Technician Nightly Backup « display » balance status « printer » receipt « router » atm id patron info account amount atm status « router » patron status account balance terminal status ATM System « actor » Bank
  29. 29. The Grey Area <ul><li>Gather the what’s, not the how’s </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize your technical SMEs to help you identify design ideas that might be hard for your stakeholders to resist </li></ul><ul><li>Work with your stakeholders to sketch out the line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tell them why it’s important to focus on the requirements before the solution, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask them to be patient…. design will come </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let them know when they are stepping over the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t rule out stepping over the line when there is a compelling reason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul>
  30. 30. Elicitation Tip #9 <ul><li>Establish and monitor exit criteria – How do you know when you’re done? </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Know when you’ve reached your limit. Avoid analysis paralysis
  31. 31. A Requirements Elicitation Approach Identify, Analyze, and Document Stakeholders Choose Elicitation Technique(s) Develop Questions for Each Chosen Stakeholder For Each Stakeholder or Group of Stakeholders Entry Criteria: Do You Understand Project Objectives and Scope? Plan Session, Develop & Send Materials Conduct the Elicitation Session Document the Stakeholder Requests Exit Criteria: Questions Answered? Requirements Analysis and Documentation Create/Update the Glossary of Terms
  32. 32. Elicitation Tip #10 <ul><li>Lose the Ego – Ask Questions </li></ul>Jungle Tip: Ask questions and admit when you need help
  33. 33. Ten Tips for Requirements Elicitation <ul><li>Put in the effort required to really “know” your stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a plan and a framework that supports elicitation success </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for how you will deal with typical stakeholder issues </li></ul><ul><li>Build rapport and keep your stakeholders informed </li></ul><ul><li>Seek out information and training on facilitation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Fill your toolbox with a variety of elicitation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Define scope collaboratively. Manage scope aggressively </li></ul><ul><li>Always be aware of the grey area between analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Establish and monitor exit criteria – how do you know when you are done? </li></ul><ul><li>Lose the ego! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questions? Thanks for Attending! Carol Miller [email_address] www.acclearning.com

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