The French Revolution
Mr. TI Thubisi-201200404
The Eve of Revolution Pick up your next set of notes at the front of the room
 In pairs, with a neighbor, read your Cahi...
The Estates
 First Estate – clergy
 Second Estate –
noble families
 Third Estate –
everyone else
 bourgeoisie
 peasan...
1st
Estate
 1% of population (conservatives)
 Roman Catholic clergy
 10% of French land
 Wealthy- arch/bishops
 Poor-...
2nd
Estate
 2% of population
 Nobility (conservatives)
 20% of French land
 Highest offices (sons of nobles)
 Govt., ...
3rd
Estate
 98% of population
 Comprised of 3 economically different groups:
 City-dwelling middle class (bourgeoisie)
...
Bourgeousie
 Power growing since MA
 Many well-educated
 Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality
 Some as wealthy...
 Marie Antoinette
 Vain, unintelligent
 Austrian
 Elitist attitude toward the French
 “Let them eat cake!”
Previous Advisors…
 Rene Maupeou
 Chancellor of Louix XV
 Had tried to break
apart parlement
 Exiled parl. To differen...
 Jacques Necker
 Director-General of Finances
 Swiss banker; produced an overly optimistic report
 Without American re...
Calonne’s Suggestions
 Lower the “gabelle” (tax) on salt
 Convert peasant service to monetary payments
 Create new land...
Calonne’s Plan…
 Calonne meets with the Assembly of Notables to
present his plan - 1787
 (members of clergy and aristocr...
 Louis XVI replaces Calonne with Charles Lomenie de
Brienne (Archbishop of Toulouse)
 Brienne had opposed Calonne at the...
So…1788
 Local Parlements calling for pre-Richelieu
restoration of privileges
 Urban food shortages from transportation
...
Problems…
 Desire to tax nobles - refused unless Estates General
called
 Had not met since 1614
 Called to Versailles M...
New
Demands…
 1789 3rd
Estate demands all 3 estates meet together
 Each vote count equally
 610 members in 3rd
Estate
...
 Can you list the 5 stages of Revolution?
New
Demands…
 3rd
Estate determined-gain power
Spokesman Abbe Sieyes
June 16, 1789 suggests 3rd
Estate change name to
N...
Closed for
painting
Tennis Court Oath
•Angered, 3rd
Estate declares
themselves a National Assembly
on June 17, 1789
•They meet on a nearby ten...
National
Assembly
 Formed June 20,1789
 Tennis Court Oath
 Cahiers- list of grievances and desired reform
 End to abso...
Louis’
Reaction…
 Make peace with 3rd
Estate
 All estates meet together
 Swiss mercenaries ordered to Paris
 Did not t...
Storming of the
Bastille
July 14, 1789
Want gun powder to
defend Paris and National
Assembly
No Dice
 Storming of the
Bastille
 July 14, 1789
 peasants sweep
through and
attack nobility and
feudal institutions
Long-term
CausesPeople of Paris were
hungry
High unemployment
High prices
Storming of the Bastille –
The Big Picture
Significance:
Militarily- Louis gives up use of
troops
Politically- kings po...
This time it really is the end…
 Napoleon forced to abdicate again
 Exiled on St. Helena…no more Napoleon
The French Revolution drew onThe French Revolution drew on
Enlightenment ideas.Enlightenment ideas.
It was more radical th...
First Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergyFirst Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergy
((largest landowner in Francelargest landowne...
•1780s: a financial crisis develops due to1780s: a financial crisis develops due to
royal spending, war debts, heavy taxat...
Fearing being out-voted by the other twoFearing being out-voted by the other two
estates, the Third Estate broke away from...
Louis tried to appease the Third Estate,Louis tried to appease the Third Estate,
but also sent his Swiss Guards into thebu...
The BastilleThe Bastille
Conservative backlash 1794-1799: TheConservative backlash 1794-1799: The
Directory, rise of NapoleonDirectory, rise of Nap...
August 1789: The National AssemblyAugust 1789: The National Assembly
adopts the Declaration of the Rights ofadopts the Dec...
Actions of the National Assembly fromActions of the National Assembly from
1789 To 1791 restructured French society1789 To...
French nobility began to flee. Louis hadFrench nobility began to flee. Louis had
attempted escape but was caught.attempted...
Summer 1792: Austria and Prussia invadeSummer 1792: Austria and Prussia invade
France hoping to restore Louis.France hopin...
•Convention power in France deteriorated.Convention power in France deteriorated.
Maximilien Robespierre and the radicalMa...
•The French Army had defeated invadersThe French Army had defeated invaders
on the battlefield.on the battlefield.
With vi...
•The Bourgeois emerged as leaders of theThe Bourgeois emerged as leaders of the
country in the reaction againstcountry in ...
Napoleon Bonaparte!Napoleon Bonaparte!
1. The French Revolution
 The French Revolution
lasted 10 years , from
1789 to 1799. During this
period , France went
fro...
The different periods of the French Revolution
Constitutional
monarchy
Napoleon
Robespierre
Directory
Napoleon’s empire
 The nations that had been
conquered by Napoleon resented
being ruled by France. They did not
like payi...
Napoleon bonaparte.
 Napoleon Bonaparte was a
French military and political
leader who rose to
prominence during the latt...
The crisis of the bourbon
monarchy
Charles IV became king of Spain just a few
years before the French Revolution
began. Ch...
 Napoleon persuaded Charles
IV and Ferdiand VII to hard
the spanish crown over his
brother , Joseph Bonaparte
attempted t...
Joseph bonaparte
 He was born onHe was born on
January 7th, 1768,January 7th, 1768,
Joseph BonaparteJoseph Bonaparte
was ...
The war of independence .
Bonapart´s rule led to a
popular revolt in Madrid on
2nd of May in 1808. A series
of anti-Frenc...
The execution of third of may.
Agustina de aragon
Agustina Raimunda
Maria Zaragoza and
Domènech, named
"Agustina de Aragón"
(Barcelona, baptized
March 6...
Activity: Analyse the painting of the war
independence
 Type of painting.Type of painting.
 TitleTitle
 YearYear
 Loca...
REFERENCE LIST
 by tanushseshadri, 1 week ago in Education
 by Polyach, 1 month ago in News & Politics
 by EsSociales, ...
Thefrenchrevolution apeuro-131204121756-phpapp02 mmmm
Thefrenchrevolution apeuro-131204121756-phpapp02 mmmm
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  1. 1. The French Revolution Mr. TI Thubisi-201200404
  2. 2. The Eve of Revolution Pick up your next set of notes at the front of the room  In pairs, with a neighbor, read your Cahiers de doleances or account from Arthur Young  (cahiers de doleances were lists of grievances that were drafted throughout France while an election for the Estates General was occurring)  Write a sentence that summarizes the issues in France at the eve of Revolution  Choose one quote from your document that summarizes one of the most paramount issues  Be prepared to share with your classmates
  3. 3. The Estates  First Estate – clergy  Second Estate – noble families  Third Estate – everyone else  bourgeoisie  peasant farmers  **Overwhelming majority
  4. 4. 1st Estate  1% of population (conservatives)  Roman Catholic clergy  10% of French land  Wealthy- arch/bishops  Poor- parish priests  No direct taxes (2% gift)
  5. 5. 2nd Estate  2% of population  Nobility (conservatives)  20% of French land  Highest offices (sons of nobles)  Govt., church, army  Refuses to pay taxes  Cause of revolution
  6. 6. 3rd Estate  98% of population  Comprised of 3 economically different groups:  City-dwelling middle class (bourgeoisie)  Urban lower class  Peasant farmers
  7. 7. Bourgeousie  Power growing since MA  Many well-educated  Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality  Some as wealthy as nobles  Desired social status, political power equal to wealth  Paid much in taxes
  8. 8.  Marie Antoinette  Vain, unintelligent  Austrian  Elitist attitude toward the French  “Let them eat cake!”
  9. 9. Previous Advisors…  Rene Maupeou  Chancellor of Louix XV  Had tried to break apart parlement  Exiled parl. To different parts of the country  Tried to increase taxes on nobility  Reforms halted when Louis XV dies  Jacques Turgot  Louis XVI’s first minister  Removed restrictions on grain trade  Eliminated guilds  Changed corvee into money payments  Wants to tax nobility, but Louis XVI dismisses him b/c he wants noble’s support
  10. 10.  Jacques Necker  Director-General of Finances  Swiss banker; produced an overly optimistic report  Without American revolution govt. would have surplus  Charles Alexander de Calonne  Minister of Finance – 1786 (he’s more realistic)  Makes several bold proposals… (wait for it…)
  11. 11. Calonne’s Suggestions  Lower the “gabelle” (tax) on salt  Convert peasant service to monetary payments  Create new land tax applied equally to all people regardless of social status** **would allow gov’t to abandon most other indirect taxes thus… The need to consult parlement would be rare!
  12. 12. Calonne’s Plan…  Calonne meets with the Assembly of Notables to present his plan - 1787  (members of clergy and aristocracy)  Surprise!  Clergy and Aristocracy reject it  Seek reappointment of Necker  Claim only the Estates General can approve new taxes  Why would they be okay with calling up the EG?  2 to 1 vote…clergy and aristocracy continually dominate!
  13. 13.  Louis XVI replaces Calonne with Charles Lomenie de Brienne (Archbishop of Toulouse)  Brienne had opposed Calonne at the Assembly of Notables  But…when he looks at the books he realizes France is in really deep trouble  Recommends Calonne’s plan  Nobles and Clergy so mad they reduce the “don gratuit”  Contribution they usually made to gov’t
  14. 14. So…1788  Local Parlements calling for pre-Richelieu restoration of privileges  Urban food shortages from transportation problems  Most taxes fall on poorer population (peasants)  Gov’t bankrupt  Can we say Versailles? American Rev? Royal gifts to nobles?  Conflict between King, Nobility, and Bourgeoisie for political control  Peasants want to own land
  15. 15. Problems…  Desire to tax nobles - refused unless Estates General called  Had not met since 1614  Called to Versailles May 1, 1789  Invitation to revolution  Representatives show up with their cahiers de doleances (list of grievances)
  16. 16. New Demands…  1789 3rd Estate demands all 3 estates meet together  Each vote count equally  610 members in 3rd Estate  591 members combined in 1st and 2nd Estates  King sides with nobles- follow old rules
  17. 17.  Can you list the 5 stages of Revolution?
  18. 18. New Demands…  3rd Estate determined-gain power Spokesman Abbe Sieyes June 16, 1789 suggests 3rd Estate change name to National Assembly National Assembly- pass laws, reform in people’s name
  19. 19. Closed for painting
  20. 20. Tennis Court Oath •Angered, 3rd Estate declares themselves a National Assembly on June 17, 1789 •They meet on a nearby tennis court and vow to remain until a Constitution was established (by Jacques Louis David) We vow to remain until we ratify a Constitution
  21. 21. National Assembly  Formed June 20,1789  Tennis Court Oath  Cahiers- list of grievances and desired reform  End to absolute monarchy  Representative govt.  1st deliberate act of revolution
  22. 22. Louis’ Reaction…  Make peace with 3rd Estate  All estates meet together  Swiss mercenaries ordered to Paris  Did not trust loyalty of French soldiers  Bourgeoisie fear end to Assembly  Mobs riot over price of bread
  23. 23. Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789 Want gun powder to defend Paris and National Assembly
  24. 24. No Dice  Storming of the Bastille  July 14, 1789  peasants sweep through and attack nobility and feudal institutions
  25. 25. Long-term CausesPeople of Paris were hungry High unemployment High prices
  26. 26. Storming of the Bastille – The Big Picture Significance: Militarily- Louis gives up use of troops Politically- kings power reduced, National Assembly saved Symbolic- act of revolution people ready to fight
  27. 27. This time it really is the end…  Napoleon forced to abdicate again  Exiled on St. Helena…no more Napoleon
  28. 28. The French Revolution drew onThe French Revolution drew on Enlightenment ideas.Enlightenment ideas. It was more radical than the AmericanIt was more radical than the American RevolutionRevolution Americans retained British law and socialAmericans retained British law and social heritage, but…heritage, but… French Revolutionaries sought to replaceFrench Revolutionaries sought to replace existing society with new institutions andexisting society with new institutions and overturn the Ancien Regime!overturn the Ancien Regime! IntroductionIntroduction
  29. 29. First Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergyFirst Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergy ((largest landowner in Francelargest landowner in France)) •Second Estate - 400,000 noblesSecond Estate - 400,000 nobles ((heldheld political rights without paying taxespolitical rights without paying taxes)) •Third Estate - 24 million bourgeoisie,Third Estate - 24 million bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasantsurban lower class, and peasants (the(the bourgeoisie resented power of nobilitybourgeoisie resented power of nobility)) The Three EstatesThe Three Estates Louis XVI was a weak monarch whoLouis XVI was a weak monarch who presided over a feudalistic social systempresided over a feudalistic social system
  30. 30. •1780s: a financial crisis develops due to1780s: a financial crisis develops due to royal spending, war debts, heavy taxation,royal spending, war debts, heavy taxation, and crop failures.and crop failures. •Louis’ funding of the AmericanLouis’ funding of the American Revolution nearly doubled the nationalRevolution nearly doubled the national debt. He raised taxes.debt. He raised taxes. •Louis couldn’t raise more taxes fromLouis couldn’t raise more taxes from peasants so he tried to increase taxes onpeasants so he tried to increase taxes on the nobility.the nobility. The nobility forced Louis to call theThe nobility forced Louis to call the Estates General into session in May 1789.Estates General into session in May 1789. The Estates GeneralThe Estates General
  31. 31. Fearing being out-voted by the other twoFearing being out-voted by the other two estates, the Third Estate broke away fromestates, the Third Estate broke away from the Estates General and formed thethe Estates General and formed the National AssemblyNational Assembly.. •June 1789: Louis tried to lock out theJune 1789: Louis tried to lock out the Third Estate delegates.Third Estate delegates. In a nearby tennis court, delegatesIn a nearby tennis court, delegates pledged to stay until they had drawn up apledged to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution. Thenew constitution. The Tennis Court Oath.Tennis Court Oath. The National AssemblyThe National Assembly
  32. 32. Louis tried to appease the Third Estate,Louis tried to appease the Third Estate, but also sent his Swiss Guards into thebut also sent his Swiss Guards into the streets of Paris.streets of Paris. Angry crowds sought weapons andAngry crowds sought weapons and gunpowder to defend Parisgunpowder to defend Paris They knew they could find these byThey knew they could find these by storming a royal prison called…storming a royal prison called… July 14, 1789July 14, 1789
  33. 33. The BastilleThe Bastille
  34. 34. Conservative backlash 1794-1799: TheConservative backlash 1794-1799: The Directory, rise of NapoleonDirectory, rise of Napoleon.. Radical Period 1792-1794: Beheadings,Radical Period 1792-1794: Beheadings, Robespierre, Jacobins.Robespierre, Jacobins. Phases of the RevolutionPhases of the Revolution Moderate Period 1789-1791: limited powerModerate Period 1789-1791: limited power of the Church, land reformof the Church, land reform..
  35. 35. August 1789: The National AssemblyAugust 1789: The National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights ofadopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man.Man. It stated the Enlightenment ideals ofIt stated the Enlightenment ideals of justice and freedom although womenjustice and freedom although women were excluded.were excluded. Liberty, Equality, FraternityLiberty, Equality, Fraternity became thebecame the slogan of the revolution!slogan of the revolution! Moderate Period 1789-Moderate Period 1789- 17911791 Sept. 1791: new constitution adopted.Sept. 1791: new constitution adopted.
  36. 36. Actions of the National Assembly fromActions of the National Assembly from 1789 To 1791 restructured French society1789 To 1791 restructured French society.. Constitutional monarchy formed. LouisConstitutional monarchy formed. Louis forced to leave Versaillesforced to leave Versailles.. Legislative authority resided in theLegislative authority resided in the National Assembly.National Assembly. ReformsReforms The Catholic Church loses lands andThe Catholic Church loses lands and political independence (angers peasants).political independence (angers peasants).
  37. 37. French nobility began to flee. Louis hadFrench nobility began to flee. Louis had attempted escape but was caught.attempted escape but was caught. This drove the French people to supportThis drove the French people to support the radical revolutionaries.the radical revolutionaries. Monarchy abolished and France declaredMonarchy abolished and France declared a republic.a republic. A new National Convention formed.A new National Convention formed. Invaded by radicals on May 31, 1793Invaded by radicals on May 31, 1793 Radical Period 1792-1794Radical Period 1792-1794
  38. 38. Summer 1792: Austria and Prussia invadeSummer 1792: Austria and Prussia invade France hoping to restore Louis.France hoping to restore Louis. Despite initial setbacks, the French holdDespite initial setbacks, the French hold off the invaders.off the invaders. Jacobin Club (violent radicals) influencedJacobin Club (violent radicals) influenced the National Convention to execute Louis.the National Convention to execute Louis. Louis beheaded by guillotine in JanuaryLouis beheaded by guillotine in January 1793.1793.
  39. 39. •Convention power in France deteriorated.Convention power in France deteriorated. Maximilien Robespierre and the radicalMaximilien Robespierre and the radical Jacobians in control.Jacobians in control. ““Reign of Terror” used to promoteReign of Terror” used to promote restructuring of French society.restructuring of French society. •About 40,000 were executed and 300,000About 40,000 were executed and 300,000 imprisoned.imprisoned. Extreme measures enacted against theExtreme measures enacted against the Church.Church.
  40. 40. •The French Army had defeated invadersThe French Army had defeated invaders on the battlefield.on the battlefield. With victory, French citizens less willingWith victory, French citizens less willing to accept repression.to accept repression. Robespeirre blamed for the excesses ofRobespeirre blamed for the excesses of the regime and executed in 1794. Thethe regime and executed in 1794. The Reign of Terror was over.Reign of Terror was over. Conservative backlash 1794-Conservative backlash 1794- 17991799
  41. 41. •The Bourgeois emerged as leaders of theThe Bourgeois emerged as leaders of the country in the reaction againstcountry in the reaction against Robespeirre.Robespeirre. 1795: A new constitution drafted. It is1795: A new constitution drafted. It is more moderate and placed power in themore moderate and placed power in the hands of the upper class.hands of the upper class. The DirectoryThe Directory: bicameral legislature and a: bicameral legislature and a five-man executive committee.five-man executive committee. With France still under attack, theWith France still under attack, the Directory appoints a young general….Directory appoints a young general….
  42. 42. Napoleon Bonaparte!Napoleon Bonaparte!
  43. 43. 1. The French Revolution  The French Revolution lasted 10 years , from 1789 to 1799. During this period , France went from a monarchy ruled by King Louis XVI to a republic. This was one of the bloodiest times in European history. 
  44. 44. The different periods of the French Revolution Constitutional monarchy Napoleon Robespierre Directory
  45. 45. Napoleon’s empire  The nations that had been conquered by Napoleon resented being ruled by France. They did not like paying taxes to France. One by one, these nations rebelled, beginning with Spain. By March 1814, Napoleon had been defeated and was forced to step down as the emperor of France
  46. 46. Napoleon bonaparte.  Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe.  Visit this link:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IF4lPWU_q
  47. 47. The crisis of the bourbon monarchy Charles IV became king of Spain just a few years before the French Revolution began. Charles IV fought to protect Spain from the liberal ideas driving the revolution. In 1795, in a radical change of politics, the prime minister under Charles IV , Manuel Godoy , decided to ally with France, he allowed French troops , led by Napoleon , to cross Spain.
  48. 48.  Napoleon persuaded Charles IV and Ferdiand VII to hard the spanish crown over his brother , Joseph Bonaparte attempted to introduce the liberal ideas of French Revolution into Spain, his supporters were known as “afrancesados”.
  49. 49. Joseph bonaparte  He was born onHe was born on January 7th, 1768,January 7th, 1768, Joseph BonaparteJoseph Bonaparte was the older brotherwas the older brother of wars Napoleon,of wars Napoleon, emperor of France.emperor of France. During his brother'sDuring his brother's reign, Joseph wasreign, Joseph was made king of Naplesmade king of Naples and Sicily ,and thenand Sicily ,and then king of Spain.king of Spain.
  50. 50. The war of independence . Bonapart´s rule led to a popular revolt in Madrid on 2nd of May in 1808. A series of anti-French uprisings throughout Spain followed , making the beginning of the War of Independence.
  51. 51. The execution of third of may.
  52. 52. Agustina de aragon Agustina Raimunda Maria Zaragoza and Domènech, named "Agustina de Aragón" (Barcelona, baptized March 6, 1786 - Ceuta, 29 May 1857), was an advocate for the Sites Zaragoza in the Spanish War of Independence.
  53. 53. Activity: Analyse the painting of the war independence  Type of painting.Type of painting.  TitleTitle  YearYear  LocationLocation  Artistic nameArtistic name  DescriptionDescription  TecniqueTecnique  Read about different theories related toRead about different theories related to the main figure in this masterpiecethe main figure in this masterpiece
  54. 54. REFERENCE LIST  by tanushseshadri, 1 week ago in Education  by Polyach, 1 month ago in News & Politics  by EsSociales, 2 months ago in News & Politics

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