The Eve of Revolution Pick up your next set of notes at the front of the room
In pairs, with a neighbor, read your Cahiers de doleances or account
from Arthur Young
(cahiers de doleances were lists of grievances that were
drafted throughout France while an election for the Estates
General was occurring)
Write a sentence that summarizes the issues in France at
the eve of Revolution
Choose one quote from your document that summarizes
one of the most paramount issues
Be prepared to share with your classmates
First Estate – clergy
Second Estate –
Third Estate –
1% of population (conservatives)
Roman Catholic clergy
10% of French land
Poor- parish priests
No direct taxes (2% gift)
2% of population
20% of French land
Highest offices (sons of nobles)
Govt., church, army
Refuses to pay taxes
Cause of revolution
98% of population
Comprised of 3 economically different groups:
City-dwelling middle class (bourgeoisie)
Urban lower class
Power growing since MA
Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality
Some as wealthy as nobles
Desired social status, political power equal to wealth
Paid much in taxes
Elitist attitude toward the French
“Let them eat cake!”
Chancellor of Louix XV
Had tried to break
Exiled parl. To different
parts of the country
Tried to increase taxes
Reforms halted when
Louis XV dies
Louis XVI’s first minister
on grain trade
Changed corvee into
Wants to tax nobility,
but Louis XVI dismisses
him b/c he wants
Director-General of Finances
Swiss banker; produced an overly optimistic report
Without American revolution govt. would have surplus
Charles Alexander de Calonne
Minister of Finance – 1786 (he’s more realistic)
Makes several bold proposals… (wait for it…)
Lower the “gabelle” (tax) on salt
Convert peasant service to monetary payments
Create new land tax applied equally to all people
regardless of social status**
**would allow gov’t to
abandon most other indirect
The need to consult
parlement would be rare!
Calonne meets with the Assembly of Notables to
present his plan - 1787
(members of clergy and aristocracy)
Clergy and Aristocracy reject it
Seek reappointment of Necker
Claim only the Estates General can approve new taxes
Why would they be okay with calling up the EG?
2 to 1 vote…clergy and aristocracy continually dominate!
Louis XVI replaces Calonne with Charles Lomenie de
Brienne (Archbishop of Toulouse)
Brienne had opposed Calonne at the Assembly of
But…when he looks at the books he realizes France is in
really deep trouble
Recommends Calonne’s plan
Nobles and Clergy so mad they reduce the “don
Contribution they usually made to gov’t
Local Parlements calling for pre-Richelieu
restoration of privileges
Urban food shortages from transportation
Most taxes fall on poorer population (peasants)
Can we say Versailles? American Rev? Royal
gifts to nobles?
Conflict between King, Nobility, and Bourgeoisie
for political control
Peasants want to own land
Desire to tax nobles - refused unless Estates General
Had not met since 1614
Called to Versailles May 1, 1789
Invitation to revolution
Representatives show up with their cahiers de doleances
(list of grievances)
Estate demands all 3 estates meet together
Each vote count equally
610 members in 3rd
591 members combined in 1st
King sides with nobles- follow old rules
Tennis Court Oath
themselves a National Assembly
on June 17, 1789
•They meet on a nearby tennis
court and vow to remain until a
Constitution was established
(by Jacques Louis David)
We vow to remain
until we ratify a
Formed June 20,1789
Tennis Court Oath
Cahiers- list of grievances and desired reform
End to absolute monarchy
deliberate act of revolution
Make peace with 3rd
All estates meet together
Swiss mercenaries ordered to Paris
Did not trust loyalty of French soldiers
Bourgeoisie fear end to Assembly
Mobs riot over price of bread
Storming of the
July 14, 1789
Want gun powder to
defend Paris and National
Storming of the
July 14, 1789
attack nobility and
CausesPeople of Paris were
Storming of the Bastille –
The Big Picture
Militarily- Louis gives up use of
Politically- kings power reduced,
National Assembly saved
Symbolic- act of revolution
people ready to fight
This time it really is the end…
Napoleon forced to abdicate again
Exiled on St. Helena…no more Napoleon
The French Revolution drew onThe French Revolution drew on
Enlightenment ideas.Enlightenment ideas.
It was more radical than the AmericanIt was more radical than the American
Americans retained British law and socialAmericans retained British law and social
heritage, but…heritage, but…
French Revolutionaries sought to replaceFrench Revolutionaries sought to replace
existing society with new institutions andexisting society with new institutions and
overturn the Ancien Regime!overturn the Ancien Regime!
First Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergyFirst Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergy
((largest landowner in Francelargest landowner in France))
•Second Estate - 400,000 noblesSecond Estate - 400,000 nobles ((heldheld
political rights without paying taxespolitical rights without paying taxes))
•Third Estate - 24 million bourgeoisie,Third Estate - 24 million bourgeoisie,
urban lower class, and peasantsurban lower class, and peasants (the(the
bourgeoisie resented power of nobilitybourgeoisie resented power of nobility))
The Three EstatesThe Three Estates
Louis XVI was a weak monarch whoLouis XVI was a weak monarch who
presided over a feudalistic social systempresided over a feudalistic social system
•1780s: a financial crisis develops due to1780s: a financial crisis develops due to
royal spending, war debts, heavy taxation,royal spending, war debts, heavy taxation,
and crop failures.and crop failures.
•Louis’ funding of the AmericanLouis’ funding of the American
Revolution nearly doubled the nationalRevolution nearly doubled the national
debt. He raised taxes.debt. He raised taxes.
•Louis couldn’t raise more taxes fromLouis couldn’t raise more taxes from
peasants so he tried to increase taxes onpeasants so he tried to increase taxes on
the nobility.the nobility.
The nobility forced Louis to call theThe nobility forced Louis to call the
Estates General into session in May 1789.Estates General into session in May 1789.
The Estates GeneralThe Estates General
Fearing being out-voted by the other twoFearing being out-voted by the other two
estates, the Third Estate broke away fromestates, the Third Estate broke away from
the Estates General and formed thethe Estates General and formed the
National AssemblyNational Assembly..
•June 1789: Louis tried to lock out theJune 1789: Louis tried to lock out the
Third Estate delegates.Third Estate delegates.
In a nearby tennis court, delegatesIn a nearby tennis court, delegates
pledged to stay until they had drawn up apledged to stay until they had drawn up a
new constitution. Thenew constitution. The Tennis Court Oath.Tennis Court Oath.
The National AssemblyThe National Assembly
Louis tried to appease the Third Estate,Louis tried to appease the Third Estate,
but also sent his Swiss Guards into thebut also sent his Swiss Guards into the
streets of Paris.streets of Paris.
Angry crowds sought weapons andAngry crowds sought weapons and
gunpowder to defend Parisgunpowder to defend Paris
They knew they could find these byThey knew they could find these by
storming a royal prison called…storming a royal prison called…
July 14, 1789July 14, 1789
Conservative backlash 1794-1799: TheConservative backlash 1794-1799: The
Directory, rise of NapoleonDirectory, rise of Napoleon..
Radical Period 1792-1794: Beheadings,Radical Period 1792-1794: Beheadings,
Robespierre, Jacobins.Robespierre, Jacobins.
Phases of the RevolutionPhases of the Revolution
Moderate Period 1789-1791: limited powerModerate Period 1789-1791: limited power
of the Church, land reformof the Church, land reform..
August 1789: The National AssemblyAugust 1789: The National Assembly
adopts the Declaration of the Rights ofadopts the Declaration of the Rights of
It stated the Enlightenment ideals ofIt stated the Enlightenment ideals of
justice and freedom although womenjustice and freedom although women
were excluded.were excluded.
Liberty, Equality, FraternityLiberty, Equality, Fraternity became thebecame the
slogan of the revolution!slogan of the revolution!
Moderate Period 1789-Moderate Period 1789-
Sept. 1791: new constitution adopted.Sept. 1791: new constitution adopted.
Actions of the National Assembly fromActions of the National Assembly from
1789 To 1791 restructured French society1789 To 1791 restructured French society..
Constitutional monarchy formed. LouisConstitutional monarchy formed. Louis
forced to leave Versaillesforced to leave Versailles..
Legislative authority resided in theLegislative authority resided in the
National Assembly.National Assembly.
The Catholic Church loses lands andThe Catholic Church loses lands and
political independence (angers peasants).political independence (angers peasants).
French nobility began to flee. Louis hadFrench nobility began to flee. Louis had
attempted escape but was caught.attempted escape but was caught.
This drove the French people to supportThis drove the French people to support
the radical revolutionaries.the radical revolutionaries.
Monarchy abolished and France declaredMonarchy abolished and France declared
a republic.a republic.
A new National Convention formed.A new National Convention formed.
Invaded by radicals on May 31, 1793Invaded by radicals on May 31, 1793
Radical Period 1792-1794Radical Period 1792-1794
Summer 1792: Austria and Prussia invadeSummer 1792: Austria and Prussia invade
France hoping to restore Louis.France hoping to restore Louis.
Despite initial setbacks, the French holdDespite initial setbacks, the French hold
off the invaders.off the invaders.
Jacobin Club (violent radicals) influencedJacobin Club (violent radicals) influenced
the National Convention to execute Louis.the National Convention to execute Louis.
Louis beheaded by guillotine in JanuaryLouis beheaded by guillotine in January
•Convention power in France deteriorated.Convention power in France deteriorated.
Maximilien Robespierre and the radicalMaximilien Robespierre and the radical
Jacobians in control.Jacobians in control.
““Reign of Terror” used to promoteReign of Terror” used to promote
restructuring of French society.restructuring of French society.
•About 40,000 were executed and 300,000About 40,000 were executed and 300,000
Extreme measures enacted against theExtreme measures enacted against the
•The French Army had defeated invadersThe French Army had defeated invaders
on the battlefield.on the battlefield.
With victory, French citizens less willingWith victory, French citizens less willing
to accept repression.to accept repression.
Robespeirre blamed for the excesses ofRobespeirre blamed for the excesses of
the regime and executed in 1794. Thethe regime and executed in 1794. The
Reign of Terror was over.Reign of Terror was over.
Conservative backlash 1794-Conservative backlash 1794-
•The Bourgeois emerged as leaders of theThe Bourgeois emerged as leaders of the
country in the reaction againstcountry in the reaction against
1795: A new constitution drafted. It is1795: A new constitution drafted. It is
more moderate and placed power in themore moderate and placed power in the
hands of the upper class.hands of the upper class.
The DirectoryThe Directory: bicameral legislature and a: bicameral legislature and a
five-man executive committee.five-man executive committee.
With France still under attack, theWith France still under attack, the
Directory appoints a young general….Directory appoints a young general….
1. The French Revolution
The French Revolution
lasted 10 years , from
1789 to 1799. During this
period , France went
from a monarchy ruled
by King Louis XVI to a
republic. This was one of
the bloodiest times in
The different periods of the French Revolution
The nations that had been
conquered by Napoleon resented
being ruled by France. They did not
like paying taxes to France. One by
one, these nations rebelled,
beginning with Spain. By March
1814, Napoleon had been
defeated and was forced to step
down as the emperor of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a
French military and political
leader who rose to
prominence during the latter
stages of the French
Revolution and its
associated wars in Europe.
Visit this link:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IF4lPWU_q
The crisis of the bourbon
Charles IV became king of Spain just a few
years before the French Revolution
began. Charles IV fought to protect Spain
from the liberal ideas driving the
revolution. In 1795, in a radical change of
politics, the prime minister under Charles IV
, Manuel Godoy , decided to ally with
France, he allowed French troops , led by
Napoleon , to cross Spain.
Napoleon persuaded Charles
IV and Ferdiand VII to hard
the spanish crown over his
brother , Joseph Bonaparte
attempted to introduce the
liberal ideas of French
Revolution into Spain, his
supporters were known as
He was born onHe was born on
January 7th, 1768,January 7th, 1768,
Joseph BonaparteJoseph Bonaparte
was the older brotherwas the older brother
of wars Napoleon,of wars Napoleon,
emperor of France.emperor of France.
During his brother'sDuring his brother's
reign, Joseph wasreign, Joseph was
made king of Naplesmade king of Naples
and Sicily ,and thenand Sicily ,and then
king of Spain.king of Spain.
The war of independence .
Bonapart´s rule led to a
popular revolt in Madrid on
2nd of May in 1808. A series
of anti-French uprisings
throughout Spain followed ,
making the beginning of
the War of Independence.
Agustina de aragon
Maria Zaragoza and
"Agustina de Aragón"
March 6, 1786 - Ceuta,
29 May 1857), was an
advocate for the Sites
Zaragoza in the Spanish
War of Independence.
Activity: Analyse the painting of the war
Type of painting.Type of painting.
Artistic nameArtistic name
Read about different theories related toRead about different theories related to
the main figure in this masterpiecethe main figure in this masterpiece
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