Early american literature


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Early american literature

  1. 1. Early American literature: the literature to 1750 1512: Spanish Laws of Burgos forbid enslavement of Indians and advocate Christian conversion 1514: Bartolome de las Casas petitions Spanish crown on behalf of Native Americans 1519-1521 Cortes's conquest of Aztecs in Mexico. 1528-1536 A member of the Narvaez expedition, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca is shipwrecked first near Tampa Bay and later on Galveston Island off the coast of what is now Texas. After six years spent among the Indians of the region, he and his companions travel westward across Texas and Mexico. 1540-1542 Seeking gold first in the city of Cibola, reportedly larger and richer than Mexico City, and then in Quivera, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado leads an expeditionary force through the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles, with much loss of life among the area's native peoples. He returns to Mexico City in 1542 and dies in 1544. 1542 Urged on by Bartolome de las Casas and others, Carlos V enacts the "New Laws" designed to end the encomienda system that enslaves native people. 1519: Hernan Cortes, First Letter from Mexico to the Spanish Crown 1542: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, The Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca 1550-1599 1584: Sir Walter Ralegh sends a reconnaissance fleet under Captains Amadas and Barlow to the future Croatoan Sound, North Carolina. Based on their glowing account, he sends out a colonizing expedition the next year of 100 men who settle on Roanoke Island, among them artist John White and surveyor Thomas Harriot. Sir Francis Drake later takes the colonists back to England at their request. 1587: Ralegh sends out a fresh colony of 117 men, women, and children in three ships, with John White as governor.
  2. 2. 1590: White returns to find that settlers have disappeared, leaving "Croatoan" carved on a tree 1598: Don Juan Oñate establishes the colony of New Mexico by taking over a pueblo, which he renames San Juan, near modern-day Santa Fe. In retaliation for an attack on the settlement, he destroys the Acoma pueblo, killing 800 and capturing 500. 1550 Tales of La Llorona (the Weeping Woman), an important cultural figure and legend, begin to be told in Mexico City. 1552: Casas,The Very Brief Relation of the Devastation of the Indies, a protest against the treatment of 1568: Bernal Diaz del Castillo writes The True History of the Conquest of New Spain (1632) 1588: Thomas Harriot, A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia 1589: Arthur Barlow, The First Voyage Made to the Coasts of America 1600-1619 1607: Establishment of Jamestown 1608 Colony of Quebec is established. 1610. Santa Fe is established as the new capital of New Mexico, with Pedro de Peralta as the governor of the new colony. 1616: John Smith, A Description of New England 1620-1639 1621 First Thanksgiving, at Plymouth 1628 (May 1) Thomas Morton and colonists at Merrymount dance around a maypole and celebrate May Day, upsetting the Plymouth Pilgrims. In June, Capt. Miles Standish is sent to eradicate the settlement and Morton is sent back to England. 1630-43: English Puritans immigrate to Massachusetts Bay Colony
  3. 3. 1630 John Cotton preaches the sermon God's Promise to His Plantation to the departing colonists aboard the Arb John Winthrop delivers the lay sermon A Model of Christian Charity while aboard the ship Arbella. 1630 Population: 3,000 colonists in Virginia; 300 at Plymouth. During 1630-1640, another 16,000 colonists will arrive. 1636 Founding of Providence, R. I. by Roger Williams, who establishes Rhode Island as a place of religious toleration. 1636-1637. Pequot War. July 1636. The murder in 1634 of Capt. John Stone, a disreputable English seaman and merchant, and of trader John Oldham on 20 July 1636, reportedly by Pequots, leads to reprisals against Pequot settlements. This marks the beginning of the Pequot War, although the conflict is not officially so designated until 1637. 24 August 1636. After Massachusetts Governor Henry Vane commissions John Endicott to assemble a force of 90 men to seek out Block Island tribe of Pequots and demand their surrender, Endicott destroys the Block Island settlement. In retaliation, the Pequots attack Fort Saybrook and its commander Lieutenant Lion Gardiner. 1637 Pequot War. Roger Williams helps to convince the Narragansetts, traditional enemies of the Pequots, to join the New Englanders' side of the conflict. 20 January. Boston clergyman John Wheelwright preaches a sermon supporting the ideas of Anne Hutchinson and her followers and is thereby sentenced to banishment on 12 November. Anne Hutchinson is sentenced to banishment at the same time. 26 May.The burning of the Pequot fort by Capt. John Mason and his forces at Fort Mystic, Connecticut, kills 300-700 men,
  4. 4. women, and children 28 July. Most of the remaining Pequots are killed near New Haven, Connecticut, by combined forces from Massachusetts and Connecticut. To prevent the re-election of Governor Vane, who is sympathetic to Anne Hutchinson and her ideas, John Winthrop moves the voting to Newtown and thus is himself elected Governor of the colony. December. Under the leadership of Peter Minuit, a group of Swedish colonists establishes a settlement called New Sweden on the Delaware River. 1638 7 March. Banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her religious beliefs, Anne Hutchinson leaves Boston and helps to establish Pocasset, or Portsmouth, Rhode Island. 21 September 1638. Signing of the Treaty of Hartford formally ends the Pequot War. Remaining members of the Pequot tribe are divided up among the Puritans' Indian allies; Pequot territories are turned over to the Puritans as spoils of war. This treaty marked the end of the Pequots as a distinct people. 1637 Thomas Morton, New English Canaan 1640-1649 1630-50 William Bradford begins writing Of Plymouth Plantation (pub. 1856) 1643 Anne Hutchinson and family murdered by Native Americans near Eastchester, Long Island (N. Y.) 1646 Robert Child and others protest the intolerance of Massachusetts Puritans toward those of other faiths; in response, Governor John Winthrop and others justify their policies and banish Child. At the Synod of 1646 in Boston, John Cotton and others draft a document published in 1648 as the Cambridge Platform, which codifies and defines New England Congregationalism.
  5. 5. 1647 First woman barrister in the colonies, Margaret Brent of Maryland, seeks and is denied the right to vote in the assembly. 1642 John Cotton, The True Constitution of a Particular Visible Church 1643 Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of America 1645 John Cotton preaches and publishes The Way of the Churches of Christ in New England, a sermon that justifies the New England Way 1650 Anne Bradstreet, The Tenth Muse 1652 Massachusetts general court rules that the territory of Maine lies within the boundaries of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, thus ending Maine's immediate hopes of independence. 1650, Anne Bradstreet, The Tenth Muse 1653 John Eliot, Catechism in the Indian Language, first book printed in an Indian language. He will later (in 1661) translate the Bible into the Algonquian language. 1656 (Summer) Massachusetts Bay Colony Puritans whip, imprison, and banish the first Quakers to arrive in the colony. Legislation in 1658 bars the Quakers from holding their services, called "meetings." 22 September. In Maryland, an all-woman jury, the first in the colonies, acquits Judith Catchpole on charges of murdering her unborn child. 1659. 27 October. Quakers William Robinson and Marmaduke Stephenson are hanged for refusing to leave Massachusetts. Mary Dyer, a follower of Anne Hutchinson and later a Quaker, is scheduled to hang with them but is reprieved at the last minute. 1660. 1 June. Mary Dyer is hanged after defying an expulsion order by returning to Boston in May 1660. 1661 Massachusetts continues to punish Quakers by hanging those who refuse to leave the colony. After a royal edict requires the Massachusetts authorities to
  6. 6. release imprisoned Quakers and return them to England, the authorities instead allow them to leave for other colonies. By December, corporal punishment for Quakers and other dissenters is suspended in the Massachusetts Bay colony by order of Parliament. 1664 Maryland Colony passes a law mandating lifetime servitude for black slaves; previous precedent had allowed freedom for those who converted to Christianity and established legal residences there. 1664 New Amsterdam becomes New York after Governor Peter Stuyvesant's surrender to English forces. 1662 Michael Wigglesworth, The Day of Doom. This immensely popular poem sold 1800 copies in its first year, and according to the Norton Anthology of American Literature (Volume 1), "about one out of every twenty persons in New England bought it" (284) 1665 Legislation in several states tightens the bonds of slavery. English law provides that slaves may be freed if they convert to Christianity and establish legal residence, but Maryland, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia pass laws allowing conversion and residence without freeing the slaves. John Eliot, The Indian Grammar (1666) 1670 Hudson's Bay Company is chartered. 1673 Marquette and Joliet travel from Lake Michigan down the Mississippi as far as the Arkansas River, completing a 2500-mile journey of exploration. 1673-1729 Samuel Sewall's diary 1675-78 King Philip's War. It begins when Metacomet (King Philip) leads an attack against Swansea in retaliation for the Plymouth colony's execution of three Wampanoag tribe members. Metacomet is betrayed and shot on 12 August 1676, and the war formally ends when Sir Edmond Andros makes peace in Maine on 12 April 1678. 1675 (September) The Massachusetts settlements of Deerfield and
  7. 7. Hadley experience the first of three raids from the Wampanoag and Nipmuck peoples. 1676. May 2. Mary Rowlandson is ransomed after her capture during an attack on Lancaster. 30 July. Bacon's Rebellion. Tobacco planters led by Nathan Bacon ask for and are denied permission to attack the Susquehannock Indians, who have been conducting raids on colonists' settlement. Enraged at Governor Berkeley's refusal, the colonists burn Jamestown and kill many Indians before order is restored in October. 1676 Increase Mather, A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England 1681 4 March. William Penn receives a charter for land on which he will found Pennsylvania 1683 Penn and Native Americans negotiate a peace treaty at Shackamaxon under the Treaty Elm 1684 Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony is revoked after critical reports reach England. This ends the requirement of church membership for voting. 1682-1725 Edward Taylor, Preparatory Meditations (published 1939, 1960) 1686 Governor Edmund Andros begins issuing a series of unpopular orders aimed at the consolidation of colonies into one large settlement. He dissolves the assemblies of New York and Connecticut, limits the number of town meetings in New England to one per year, places the militia under his direct control, and forces Puritans and Anglicans to worship together in the Old South Church. 1689 April. Rebellious colonists force Andros to take shelter in a fort for his own protection.Cotton Mather supports the rebellion. 25 July. Andros is ordered back to England to stand trial. The colonies reestablish their previous systems of government. 1685 Cotton Mather, Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions 1690 King William's War begins. Schenectady, N. Y. and other areas are burned by
  8. 8. French and Native Americans; Massachusetts colonists capture Port Royal, Nova Scotia; and Canadian forces destroy Casco, Maine. 1692 (May. Salem witchcraft trials begin. From June-September 22, 20 people are executed. See also the Examination and Confession of Ann Foster at Salem Village. 1693 Increase Mather, Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits, a volume denouncing the use of spectral evidence in witchcraft trials. 1697 Massachusetts general court expresses official repentance for the witchcraft trials; Samuel Sewall confesses guilt from his Boston church pew. 1699 Peace treaty at Casco Bay, Maine, brings hostilities between the Abenaki Indians and the Massachusetts colony to an end. 1700 Massachusetts representative assembly orders all Roman Catholic priests to vacate the colony within three months, an action also taken by the New York legislature. Population of the American colonies: about 275,000 people. Boston has 7,000 people and New York 5,000. 1702-1713 Queen Anne's War (War of the Spanish Succession) 1704 28-29 February. Deerfield, Massachusetts is destroyed and 100 residents are abducted, a consequence of Queen Anne's War. 1700. 24 June. Judge Samuel Sewall publishes The Selling of Joseph, an anti-slavery tract. 1702 Cotton Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana 1704 (October) Sarah Kemble Knight begins her Private Journal of a Journey from Boston to New York (published 1825). 1705. Laws restricting the travel of slaves and banning miscegenation are enacted in New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia (Virginia Black Code of 1705). 1707 Settlers in Charlestown, South Carolina successfully defend their town against an attack by French and Spanish colonists from Havana and St. Augustine.
  9. 9. 1705 Robert Beverley, History of Virginia 1706 Cotton Mather, The Good Old Way, a book that laments the declining Puritan influence in America. 1707 John Williams, The Redeemed Captive, a best-selling captivity narrative recounting his abduction during the Deerfield raid. 1708 The Sot-Weed Factor, satirical poem by Ebenezer Cook 1710 3,000 German refugees from the Palatinate settle near Livingston Manor on the Hudson River in New York to produce naval stores. When the colony fails, the settlers go first to the Mohawk Valley (in New York) and finally to eastern Pennsylvania. 1710 Cotton Mather, Bonifacius (Essays to Do Good), a book that influenced Benjamin Franklin 1712-13 Tuscarora Indian War in North and South Carolina 1713 England's South Sea Company is allowed to transport 4,800 slaves per year into the Spanish colonies of North America. 1714 Cotton Mather preaches a sermon in which he states his belief in the Copernican theory of the universe, which places the sun at the center and planets in orbit around it; the traditional or Ptolemaic view at that time held that all revolved around the earth. 1715 Yamasee tribes attack and kill several hundred Carolina settlers. 1716 South Carolina settlers and their Cherokee allies attack and defeat the Yamassee. 1717 Scots-Irish immigration begins, with most settling to western Pennsylvania. 1718 French found New Orleans. City of San Antonio founded by the Spanish. 1719-41 The Boston Gazette 1720 Estimated population of colonies: 474,000. The French build forts on the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence, and the Niagara rivers. 1723 Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston for Philadelphia, a trip that he chronicles in his Autobiography.
  10. 10. 1724 Jewish settlers are exiled from the Louisiana colony. 1722 Benjamin Franklin, the "Dogood Papers" 1727 Benjamin Franklin founds the Junto Club. 1728 Prospective brides arrive in Louisiana for the French settlers there; they are known as "casket girls" because they have received dresses in small trunks or caskets as an incentive for immigration. 1728 Col. William Byrd keeps a diary of his travels in determining the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina; it is published in 1841 as History of the Dividing Line. 1727 Dr. Cadwallader Colden, History of the Five Indian Nations 1728 God's Mercy Surmounting Man's Cruelty, Exemplified in the Captivity and Redemption of Elizabeth Hanson (captivity narrative of a Quaker woman) 1729 Franklin purchases and publishes the Pennsylvania Gazette, which later becomes The Saturday Evening Post. 1731.Franklin'sJunto club establishes the Library Company of Philadelphia, the first circulating library in the US. 1732 Birth of George Washington. 1734 John Peter Zenger, editor of the New York Weekly Journal, is imprisoned in New York for upholding freedom of the press. He is accused of libeling New York Governor William Cosby. In 1735, Zenger is acquitted when his attorney, Andrew Hamilton, says that the charges cannot be libelous because the accusations against Cosby were true. Jonathan Edwards begins preaching fiery sermons to crowds in Northampton, Massachusetts. This begins the religious revival movement known as the Great Awakening. 1732 Benjamin Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanac. 1738 British preacher George Whitefield arrives in Savannah; his sermons help to promote the "Great Awakening" throughout the 1740s. One of the thousands impressed by his eloquence is Benjamin Franklin, who writes in his Autobiography, "I happened soon after to attend one of his Sermons, in the Course of which I perceived
  11. 11. he intended to finish with a Collection, & I silently resolved he should get nothing from me. I had in my Pocket a Handful of Copper Money, three or four silver Dollars, and five Pistoles in Gold. As he proceeded I began to soften, and concluded to give the Coppers. Another Stroke of his Oratory made me asham’d of that, and determin’d me to give the Silver; & he finish’d so admirably, that I empty’d my Pocket wholly into the Collector’s Dish, Gold and all." Other preachers in this movement included Theodore Frelinghuysen of the Dutch Reformed Church, Gilbert Tennent (Presbyterian), and Jonathan Edwards. 1739-42 War of Jenkin's Ear (against Spain in the Southern colonies) 1741 Vitus Bering surveys the Alaskan coast for Russian Tsar Peter the Great 1741 Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, one of the most famous sermons of the Great Awakening 1745 French attack and burn Saratoga during King George's War (1745-8; ended by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle) 1749. First American repertory acting company established in Philadelphia; it opens with Thomas Keane in Richard III. 1749. Trustees of Georgia colony revoke their prohibition on slavery in the colony, marking a legal recognition of slavery there. The Early American Paintings site at the Worcester Art Museum has a timeline of American painting. For a more comprehensive chronology of historical events in this period: "Chronicling Black Lives in Colonial New England" (Christian Science Monitor, 1997) The Chronology on the History of Slavery lists events from 1619 to1789.
  12. 12. Literature Timeline Date Literary Period Authors/Works This period was dominated by Homer and other Greek tragedians The Iliad and The Odyssey by Homer Oedipus the King by Sophocles 800-400 BC Medea by Euripedes Famous authors from this period: Virgil, Horace, and Ovid 250 BC - AD 150 450-1066 Writers of the Roman Empire are most noted in this time period Old English (AngloSaxon) Period Beowulf
  13. 13. The rise of haiku poetry Tale of Genji by Japanese writer MurasakiShibiku (written around the year 1000) Persian poet Rumi (1207-73) Middle English Period Petrarch, Italian writer, inventor of the sonnet (1304 -74) 1066-1500 The Divine Comedy by Dante, Italian writer (13071321)
  14. 14. The Decameron by Italian writer Boccacio (131375) The Canterbury Tales (13871400) by Geoffrey Chaucer, British writer (1343-1400) 1450- Invention of the printing press The Renaissance Francois Rabelais, French writer (1490-1553) 558-1603 Elizabethan Age Dr. Faustus by Christopher Marlowe, British 1603- 1625 Jacobean Age writer (1564-93) 1625 - 1649 Caroline Age William Shakespeare, British poet and playwright (1564-1616) 1649 - 1669 1500-1660 Commonwealth Period Ben Johnson, British author (1572-1637) John Donne, British poet (1572-1631) The Faerie Queen (1589) by Edmund Spenser, British poet
  15. 15. 1599 The Globe Theatre built Don Quixote (1605-1615) by Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish writer Andrew Marvel, British poet (1621-78) Henry Vaughan, British poet (1621-95) Paradise Lost (1667) by John Milton, British author (1608-74) The Neoclassical Period Tartuffe (1664) by French writer Moliere (162273) 1660-1700 The Restoration Alexander Pope (1688-1744), British poet 1660-1785 1700-1745 The Augustan Robinson Crusoe (1719) Age (Age of Pope) and Moll Flanders (1722) by Daniel Defoe, English writer 1650-1750 Puritan/Colonial Literature (America) (1660-1731)
  16. 16. Gulliver's Travels (1726) by Jonathan Swift, English writer (1667-1745) Candide (1759) by French writer Voltaire (16941778) Samuel Johnson, English writer (1709-84) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher (1712-78) Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741) by American Jonathan Edwards The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole (first gothic novel) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), German writer Thomas Jefferson, Thomas The Age of Reason 1750-1800 (America) Paine, and Patrick Henry, American Revolution authors Poems on Various Subjects (1773) by Phyllis Wheatley, African-American poet (1753-1784)
  17. 17. Common Sense (1776) by Thomas Paine William Blake, English poet (1757-1827) The Romantic Period --The Gothic Period 1785-1830 (approx. 1785-1820, William Wordsworth, English poet (1770-1850) though it lasted longer in America) "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet (1772-1834) Jane Austen, English author (17751817) Lord Byron, English poet (1788-1824)
  18. 18. Percy Bysshe Shelley, English poet (1792-1822) John Keats, English poet (1795-1821) Alfred, Lord Tennyson, English poet, (1809-92) Frankenstein (1818) by Mary Shelley, British writer (1797-1851) The Last of the Mohicans (1826) by James Fenimore Cooper, American novelist (1789-1851) Edgar Allan Poe, American writer influenced by Gothic movement The Victorian Period Robert Browning, English 1848-1860 The PreRaphaelites 1840-1860 1832-1901 Transcendentalism (1809-49) poet (1812-89) Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet (180661) (America) 1865-1900 Age of Realism (America) Charles Dickens, British author (18121870) Emily Dickinson, American writer (1830-1886)
  19. 19. Henry James, American writer (1843-1916) Transcendentalist writers Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845) by Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) Jane Eyre (1847) by Charlotte Bronte, British writer (1816-55) Wuthering Heights (1848) by Emily Bronte, British writer (1818-48) The Scarlet Letter (1850) by Nathaniel Hawthorne, American writer Moby Dick (1851) by Herman Melville, American writer
  20. 20. Walden (1854) by Henry David Thoreau, American essayist Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861) by Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897) Les Miserables (1862) by Victor Hugo, French writer Vanity Fair (1848) by William Makepeace Thackeray, English novelist Madame Bovary (1857) by Gustave Flaubert, French writer Little Women (1868) by Louisa May Alcott, American author Middlemarch (1872) by George Eliot (a.k.a. Marian Evans), British writer Paul Lawrence Dunbar, American poet (18721906) A Doll's House (1879) by Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian dramatist (1828-1906) Huckleberry Finn (1885) by American writer Mark Twain (a.k.a. Samuel Clemens, 1835-1910)
  21. 21. The Red Badge of Courage (1895) by Stephen Crane, American author (1871-1900) The Awakening (1899) by Kate Chopin, American writer The Yellow Wallpaper (1899) by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American writer Leaves of Grass (1900) by Walt Whitman, American poet Heart of Darkness (1902) by Joseph The Edwardian Period Conrad, Polish/British author (18571901-1914 (Europe) 1924) Naturalism (America) The Souls of Black Folk (1903) by
  22. 22. W.E.B. Dubois, American writer The Call of the Wild (1903) by Jack London, American writer, (1876-1916) Ethan Frome (1911) by Edith Wharton, American writer (1862-1937) "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" (1915) by T.S. Eliot, American writer The Modern Period Robert Frost, American poet (1874-1963) 1914-1945 Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet (18921950) My Antonia (1918) by Willa Cather, American writer (1873-1947) Winesburg, Ohio (1919) by Sherwood Anderson, American writer
  23. 23. The Great Gatsby (1925) by F. Scott Fitzgerald, American writer (1896-1940) The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, American writer (1899-1961) As I Lay Dying (1930) by William Faulkner, American writer (1897-1962) Of Mice and Men (1937) by John Steinbeck, American writer (19021968) Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) by Zora Neale Hurston, American writer (1891-1960) Langston Hughes, American poet (1906-67) The Glass Menagerie (1945) by Tennessee Williams, American playwright (19111983) Animal Farm (1945) by George Orwell, British writer (1903-1950)
  24. 24. The Stranger (1946) by Albert Camus, French writer (1913-1960) The Catcher in the Rye (1951) by J.D.Salinger, American writer (1919-) Invisible Man (1952) by Ralph Ellison, American writer (1914-1994) The Crucible (1953) by Arthur Miller, American playwright (1915-) Post Modernism 1950 - Fahrenheit 451 (1953) by Ray Bradbury, American author (1920-) Lord of the Flies (1954) by William Golding, British author (1911-1993) Long Day's Journey Into Night (1956) by Eugene O'Neill, American playwright (18881953) On the Road (1957) by Jack Kerouac,
  25. 25. American writer (1922-69) Night (1958) by Elie Wiesel, Romanian-American (1928-) Catch 22 (1961) by Joseph Heller, American writer (1923-) A Separate Peace (1962) by John Knowles, American writer (1926-) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962) by Ken Kesey, American author (1935-2001) The Bell Jar (1963) by Sylvia Plath, American poet and author (1932-63) The Chosen (1967) by ChaimPotok, American writer (1929-2002) I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970) by Maya Angelou, American author (1928-) The Bluest Eye (1970) by Toni Morrison, American author (1931-)
  26. 26. Bless Me, Ultima (1972) by Rudolfo Anaya, Mexican-American Author (1927-) The Woman Warrior (1976) by Maxine Hong Kingston, Asian-American writer (1940-) The Color Purple (1982) by Alice Walker (1944-) The House on Mango Street (1983) by Sandra Cisneros (1954-) Love Medicine (1984) by Louise Erdrich, Native American author (1954-) The Joy Luck Club (1989) by Amy Tan, American writer (1952-)