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An Inconvenient Truth
Climate Change and the Built Environment

North American Summit - May 16, 2009
An Inconvenient Truth    Built Env. Module
                                               AIT
    (length varies)     (app...
Resource Use




                               Water: 13.6%                                Wood: 25%

source: Energy Info...
Metric Tons of Carbon (millions)




                                                    0
                               ...
Metric Tons of Carbon (millions)




                                                    0
                               ...
Metric Tons of Carbon (millions)




                                                    0
                               ...
How do Buildings emit CO2?
The Embodied Energy of Concrete




source: Kruse, Claudia. 2004. IIGCC Briefing Note
The Embodied Energy of Concrete




source: Kruse, Claudia. 2004. IIGCC Briefing Note
The Embodied Energy of Concrete




source: Change and the Construction Sector
The Embodied Energy of Concrete




source: http://www.iigcc.org/docs/PDF/Public/ConstructionSector_2004.pdf
Embodied Energy of Materials
                             Material   Btu/lb.                Material       Btu/lb.
       ...
Embodied Energy of Materials
                             Material   Btu/lb.                Material       Btu/lb.
       ...
Embodied Energy of Materials

                   equipment - 24%                envelope - 26%




                       ...
Building Energy Over Time

           Demolition and Recycling




           Operating Energy                        Ener...
Building Energy Consumption
           How does a typical commercial building use energy?


                              ...
Building Energy Consumption
            How does a typical residential building use energy?


                            ...
World Energy




 of World Energy                      24%



      Used by U.S.
         Buildings                    17%...
CO2 Content of Fuels

                     100,000 Btu of Energy               Pounds of CO2 Emitted


                   ...
U.S. Energy Production
     54% of American adults think electricity is produced
     by a combination of solar, nuclear a...
U.S. Energy Production
     54% of American adults think electricity is produced
     by a combination of solar, nuclear a...
Green Buildings
Commercial Strategies




source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlsb4swinefan/3507768023/
Commercial Strategies




source: photo used by permission from Tom Bonner Photography
Commercial Strategies




source: photo used by permission from Tom Bonner Photography
Commercial Strategies




source: photo used by permission from Tom Bonner Photography
source: photo used by permission by NREL/Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver
Change Is Needed
                                        industry          transportation          buildings      Architec...
Long Term Policy
            14,000


            12,000

                                                                ...
Nellis Air Force Base
Nevada
National Standards




source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/24977266@N00/2779556854/
Look For Energy Star




source: http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=news.nr_news_photos2
PROJECT PROFILE




                                                                                                      ...
Green Building Programs
Rental & Sales Strategies




source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/challenge/energysmart.html
Rental & Sales Strategies




source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/challenge/energysmart.html
Monitoring Changes Behavior




source: http://www.luciddesigngroup.com/index.php and http://www.flickr.com/photos/its_our...
Monitoring Changes Behavior




source: http://www.luciddesigngroup.com/index.php and http://www.flickr.com/photos/its_our...
So, what should I do?
Steps to be taken in the proper order:

RELAX
1. REVIEW your energy use.
2. REDUCE your energy use.
...
Energy Use Reduction Goals
                 Kbtu/square foot/year




                                                    ...
source: photo used by permission of photographer © Conservation Services Group
source: photo used by permission of photographer © Conservation Services Group
Retrofit Existing Systems
"Worldwide, buildings - both commercial and
residential - contribute roughly one third of all GHG
emissions ...

The good ...
Questions?
  Thank You.
www.architecture2030.org
www.repoweramerica.org
www.theclimateproject.org
    www.usgbc.org
      hes.lbl.gov
  www.myfoot...
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
2009 TCP North American Summit
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2009 TCP North American Summit

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A presentation titled The Built Environment developed for Al Gore's non-profit organization The Climate Project. This show was first delivered as part of that organization's North American Summit held in Nashville, TN. This show was co-written with Mike O'Brien, Alli Kingfisher, Laura Bartels, and Kelly Lerner.

Published in: Design, Technology
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2009 TCP North American Summit

  1. 1. An Inconvenient Truth Climate Change and the Built Environment North American Summit - May 16, 2009
  2. 2. An Inconvenient Truth Built Env. Module AIT (length varies) (approx. 25 minutes)
  3. 3. Resource Use Water: 13.6% Wood: 25% source: Energy Information Administration 2008 EIA Annual Energy Outlook
  4. 4. Metric Tons of Carbon (millions) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 source: 2006 Energy Information Administration 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 U.S. CO2 Emissions 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 18%
  5. 5. Metric Tons of Carbon (millions) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 source: 2006 Energy Information Administration 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 U.S. CO2 Emissions 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 18% 34%
  6. 6. Metric Tons of Carbon (millions) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 source: 2006 Energy Information Administration 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 U.S. CO2 Emissions 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 18% 34% 48%
  7. 7. How do Buildings emit CO2?
  8. 8. The Embodied Energy of Concrete source: Kruse, Claudia. 2004. IIGCC Briefing Note
  9. 9. The Embodied Energy of Concrete source: Kruse, Claudia. 2004. IIGCC Briefing Note
  10. 10. The Embodied Energy of Concrete source: Change and the Construction Sector
  11. 11. The Embodied Energy of Concrete source: http://www.iigcc.org/docs/PDF/Public/ConstructionSector_2004.pdf
  12. 12. Embodied Energy of Materials Material Btu/lb. Material Btu/lb. Baled Straw 6,499 Mineral Wool Insulation 395,365 Stone (local) 21,685 Glass 430,564 Concrete Block 24,388 Fiberglass Insulation 820,524 Concrete 35,199 Steel 866,534 Lumber 67,696 PVC 1,895,615 Brick 67,696 Copper 1,911,832 Gypsum Wallboard 165,185 Paint 2,526,565 Particle Board 216,665 Linoleum 3,141,298 Aluminum (recycled) 219,367 Polystyrene Insulation 3,168,389 Steel (recycled) 240,990 Carpet (synthetic) 4,007,832 Plywood 281,658 Aluminum 6,147,204 source: Cole and Kernan
  13. 13. Embodied Energy of Materials Material Btu/lb. Material Btu/lb. Baled Straw 6,499 Mineral Wool Insulation 395,365 Stone (local) 21,685 Glass 430,564 Concrete Block 24,388 Fiberglass Insulation 820,524 Concrete 35,199 Steel 866,534 Lumber 67,696 PVC 1,895,615 Brick 67,696 Copper 1,911,832 Gypsum Wallboard 165,185 Paint 2,526,565 Particle Board 216,665 Linoleum 3,141,298 Aluminum (recycled) 219,367 Polystyrene Insulation 3,168,389 Steel (recycled) 240,990 Carpet (synthetic) 4,007,832 Plywood 281,658 Aluminum 6,147,204 source: Cole and Kernan
  14. 14. Embodied Energy of Materials equipment - 24% envelope - 26% site - 6% construction - 6% structure - 24% finishes - 14% source: Cole and Kernan
  15. 15. Building Energy Over Time Demolition and Recycling Operating Energy Energy Consumption (MWh/m2) Induced Energy Grey Energy Embodied Energy 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (years) source: UN Environment Programme - Buildings and Climate Change Report - referenced table by Jones, 1998
  16. 16. Building Energy Consumption How does a typical commercial building use energy? other - 8% equipment - 3% heating - 36% refrigeration - 6% cooking - 3% 72% lighting - 21% cooling - 8% water heating - 8% ventilation - 7% source: 2003 Energy Information Administration
  17. 17. Building Energy Consumption How does a typical residential building use energy? other - 13% heating - 25% wash & clean - 6% refrigeration - 7% 61% cooking - 5% cooling - 13% lighting - 11% electronics & computers - 9% water heating - 12% source: U.S. DOE Building Energy Data Book 2008
  18. 18. World Energy of World Energy 24% Used by U.S. Buildings 17% source: 2005 Energy Information Administration
  19. 19. CO2 Content of Fuels 100,000 Btu of Energy Pounds of CO2 Emitted 1 therm of natural gas 11.7 3/4 gallon of heating oil 16 29.3 kWh of electricity 39.3* *At national average emission rate of 1.34 lbs. of CO2 per kWh source: Carbon Monitoring for Action - www.carma.org
  20. 20. U.S. Energy Production 54% of American adults think electricity is produced by a combination of solar, nuclear and hydropower. (2006 Roper Report) oil - 2% hydro - 4% solar/wind - 1% gas - 18% coal - 55% nuclear - 20% source: 2008 Energy Information Administration
  21. 21. U.S. Energy Production 54% of American adults think electricity is produced by a combination of solar, nuclear and hydropower. (2006 Roper Report) oil - 2% hydro - 4% solar/wind - 1% gas - 18% 75% Fossil Fuels coal - 55% nuclear - 20% source: 2008 Energy Information Administration
  22. 22. Green Buildings
  23. 23. Commercial Strategies source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlsb4swinefan/3507768023/
  24. 24. Commercial Strategies source: photo used by permission from Tom Bonner Photography
  25. 25. Commercial Strategies source: photo used by permission from Tom Bonner Photography
  26. 26. Commercial Strategies source: photo used by permission from Tom Bonner Photography
  27. 27. source: photo used by permission by NREL/Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver
  28. 28. Change Is Needed industry transportation buildings Architecture 2030 challenge 3,500 3,000 CO2 Emissions (MMT CO2e) Architecture 2030 Challenge 2,500 (Codes + Reach Codes) 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 Projected 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 source: Architecture 2030 - www.architecture2030.org
  29. 29. Long Term Policy 14,000 12,000 United States 2005 Differences 10,000 = 5,300kWh/yr = $165/capita 8,000 6,000 California 4,000 2,000 0 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Per Capita Electricity Sales (not including self-generation) (kWh/person) (2006 to 2008 are forecast data) source: 2008 Energy Efficiency in California Report, California Energy Commission
  30. 30. Nellis Air Force Base Nevada
  31. 31. National Standards source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/24977266@N00/2779556854/
  32. 32. Look For Energy Star source: http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=news.nr_news_photos2
  33. 33. PROJECT PROFILE ARMSTRONG WORLD INDUSTRIES CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS Armstrong World Industries, 701 Corporate Campus Building Project #: 10003664 LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA Certification Level: Platinum 2 LEED for Existing Buildings v2.0 4/25/2007 64 Points Achieved Possible Points: 85 Certified 31 to 39 points Silver 40 to 47 points Gold 48 to 63 points Platinum 64 or more points 7 Sustainable Sites Possible Points: 14 15 Materials & Resources Possible Points: 16 million kWh of wind power purchased each year Y Y Y Prereq 1 Erosion & Sedimentation Control Y Prereq 1 .1 Source Reduction and Waste Management, Waste Stream Audit 3 Y Prereq 2 Age of Building Y Prereq 1 .2 Source Reduction and Waste Management, Storage & Collection 2 Credit 1 Plan for Green Site and Building Exterior Management 2 Y Prereq 1 .3 Toxic Material Source Reduction, Reduced Mercury in Light Bulbs 1 Credit 2 High Development Density Building and Area 1 2 Credit 1 Construction, Demolition and Renovation Waste Management 2 Credit 3.1 Alternative Transportation, Public Transportation Access 1 5 Credit 2 Optimize Use of Alternative Materials 5 1 Credit 3.2 Alternative Transportation, Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms 1 2 Credit 3 Optimize Use of IAQ Compliant Products 2 year return on investment for green features 1 Credit 3.3 Alternative Transportation, Alternative Fuel Vehicles 1 2 Credit 4 Sustainable Cleaning Products and Materials 3 1 Credit 3.4 Alternative Transportation, Car Pooling & Telecommuting 1 3 Credit 5 Occupant Recycling 3 65 Credit 4.1 Reduced Site Disturbance, Protect or Restore Open Space: 50% of Site Area 1 1 Credit 6 Additional Toxic Materials Source Reduction: Reduced Mercury in Light Bulbs 1 Credit 4.2 Reduced Site Disturbance, Protect or Restore Open Space: 75% of Site Area 1 1 Credit 5 Stormwater Management, Rate and Quantity Reduction (1 to 2 points) 2 17 Indoor Environmental Quality Possible Points: 22 Credit 6.1 Heat Island Reduction, Non-Roof 1 Y Credit 6.2 Credit 7 Heat Island Reduction, Roof Light Pollution Reduction 1 1 Y Y Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Outside Air Introduction and Exhaust Systems Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control tons of material being recycled annually Y Prereq 3 Asbestos Removal or Encapsulation 5 Water Efficiency Possible Points: 5 Y Prereq 4 PCB Removal Y 1 Credit 1 Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring 1 Y Prereq 1 Minimum Water Efficiency Credit 2 Increase Ventilation 1 Y Prereq 2 Discharge Water Compliance 1 Credit 3 Construction IAQ Management Plan 1 2 Credit 1 Water Efficient Landscaping, Reduce Water Use (1 to 2 points) 2 Credit 4.1 Documenting Productivity Impacts - Absenteeism and Healthcare Cost Impacts 1 1 Credit 2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies 1 Credit 4.2 Documenting Productivity Impacts - Other Impacts 1 1 Credit 3.1 Water Use Reduction, 10% Reduction 1 1 Credit 5.1 Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control: Non-Cleaning System - Reduc 1 1 Credit 3.2 Water Use Reduction, 20% Reduction 1 1 Credit 5.2 Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control: Non-Cleaning - High Volume C 1 LEED Facts 1 Credit 6.1 Controllability of Systems: Lighting 1 ® 15 Energy & Atmosphere Possible Points: 23 Credit 6.2 Controllability of Systems: Temperature & Ventilation 1 Y 1 Credit 7.1 Thermal Comfort: Compliance 1 Y Prereq 1 Existing Buildings Commissioning 1 Credit 7.2 Thermal Comfort: Monitoring 1 Armstrong World Industries Y Y Prereq 2 Prereq 3 Minimum Energy Performance Ozone Protection 1 1 Credit 8.1 Credit 8.2 Daylight & Views: Daylight for 50% of Spaces Daylight & Views: Daylight for 75% of Spaces 1 1 Corporate Headquarters 4 4 Credit 1 Credit 2 Optimize Energy Performance On-site and Of-site Renewable Energy (1 to 4 points) 10 4 1 Credit 8.3 Credit 8.4 Daylight & Views: Views for 40% of Spaces Daylight & Views: Views for 80% of Spaces 1 1 Lancaster, PA 1 Credit 3.1 Building Operation & Maintenance: Staff Education 1 1 Credit 9 Contemporary IAQ Practice 1 1 Credit 3.2 Building Operation & Maintenance: Building Systems Maintenance 1 1 Credit 10.1 Green Cleaning: Entryway Systems 1 1 Building Operation & Maintenance: Building Systems Monitoring 1 1 Green Cleaning: Isolation of Janitorial Closets 1 Credit 3.3 Additional Ozone Depletion Credit 10.2 Green Cleaning: Low Environmental Impact Cleaning Policy LEED for Existing Buildings 1 Credit 4 1 1 Credit 10.3 1 1 Credit 5.1-3 Performance Measurement - Enhanced Metering 3 2 Credit 10.4-5 Green Cleaning: Low Environmental Impact Pest Management Policy 2 Certification awarded April 25, 2007 1 Performance Measurement - Emission Reduction Reporting 1 1 Green Cleaning: Low Environmental Impact Cleaning Equipment Policy 1 Platinum 64* Credit 5.4 Credit 10.6 1 Credit 6 Documenting Sustainable Building Cost Impacts 1 5 Innovation & Design Process Possible Points: 5 Y 1 Credit 1.1 Innovation in Operation & Upgrades: Innovation in Operation & Upgrades: 1 Sustainable Sites 7/14 1 Credit 1.2 1 1 Credit 1.3 Innovation in Operation & Upgrades: 1 1 Credit 1.4 Innovation in Operation & Upgrades: 1 Water Efficiency 5/5 1 Credit 2 LEED® Accredited Professional 1 Energy & Atmosphere 15/23 Materials & Resources 15/16 Indoor Environmental Quality 17/22 Innovation & Design 5/5 *Out of a possible 85 points source: U.S. Green Building Council
  34. 34. Green Building Programs
  35. 35. Rental & Sales Strategies source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/challenge/energysmart.html
  36. 36. Rental & Sales Strategies source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/challenge/energysmart.html
  37. 37. Monitoring Changes Behavior source: http://www.luciddesigngroup.com/index.php and http://www.flickr.com/photos/its_our_city/2838668732/
  38. 38. Monitoring Changes Behavior source: http://www.luciddesigngroup.com/index.php and http://www.flickr.com/photos/its_our_city/2838668732/
  39. 39. So, what should I do? Steps to be taken in the proper order: RELAX 1. REVIEW your energy use. 2. REDUCE your energy use. 3. RESEAL AND REINSULATE. 4. REFURBISH OR RETROFIT your mechanical systems. 5. Install RENEWABLES and/or buy renewable energy.
  40. 40. Energy Use Reduction Goals Kbtu/square foot/year Net Zero Current New & Renovation 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 source: Architecture 2030 Residential Energy Use Reduction Goals - www.architecture2030
  41. 41. source: photo used by permission of photographer © Conservation Services Group
  42. 42. source: photo used by permission of photographer © Conservation Services Group
  43. 43. Retrofit Existing Systems
  44. 44. "Worldwide, buildings - both commercial and residential - contribute roughly one third of all GHG emissions ... The good news? By 2030, about 30 percent of the projected GHG emissions in the building sector can be avoided with net economic benefit," scientists write in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)..." Scientific American
  45. 45. Questions? Thank You.
  46. 46. www.architecture2030.org www.repoweramerica.org www.theclimateproject.org www.usgbc.org hes.lbl.gov www.myfootprint.org

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