Benefits of a proper warm-up• To prepare the body and mind for work and/or more strenuous physical activity• Increase kinesthetic awareness• To minimize the chance of injury• To indicate the possibility of injury (nagging areas)• Increase heart rate, blood flow, respiratory rate and core and muslce temperature• Mobilize the joints and increase synovial fluid• Neuromuscular facilitation stimulated• Felixibility increased - 5% for every 1 degree celcius increase in body temperature
What is the purpose of a cool down/warm-down?• To prevent/reduce muscle soreness and stiffness• To aid in the removal of waste products, primarily lactic acid• Allow the heart rate to transition and recover in a physiologically healthy way (avoid blood pooling)• Decrease chances of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
Components of a Warm-Up1. Aerobic2. Dynamic stretching / light strength exercise/possibly light static stretching, which may be case specific and/or sport specific.3. Sport specific drills / Pre-Game4. Game Time!*Consider your subsitutes and their gamereadiness off the bench. Keep them warm ifpossible.
Aerobic elements of a warm-up• Aerobic = Continuous rhythmic movement that incorporates large muscle groups• Light jogging for 5-10 minutes • Results in increased heart rate • Increases blood flow to the body • Increased rate of transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the working muslces • Increase in muscle and core temperarture
Dynamic Stretching(Warm-up through motion)• Sport specific movements to activate the body’s muscle groups and joints• Maintains muscle warmth, while enhancing elasticity and movement around a joint.• Neuromuscular activation and stimulation• Contractile mechanisms in muscle are activated• Is used for trained athletes and those who are in good physical condidition but is not limited to untrained athletes/participants in physical activity• Should be introduced and carried out to the individuals level of mobilty, flexibility and level of fitness
Examples of Dynamic Stretches• High knees• Butt kicks• Leg swings• Toy soldiers/Frakensteins• Walking lunges• Carioca• Power skips, skipping for distance• Open the gate, close the gate• 1,000 steps• Shuffle steps• Spider mans• Percentage increase runs • There are many more that can be sport /activity specific • This is a good and fairly basic general dynamic warm-up that can be used for a wide range of physical activity
Light Stretching• Recommended if it is sport specific• Recommended if it is case specific e.g., rehabilitation or recovery from an injury• Light stretching may be ok, but do not perfrom long intense static stretches• Do after dynamic stretching and a light sweat has been achieved if you feel it may be necessary• Do not do static stretching to initiate your workout
Sport Specific Drills / Pre-Game• Focus on sport specific skills that will be incorporated in game situatons• Intensity can be increased• Mental focus becomes ready for game play• Be mindful not to tire players before game play
Most recent recent information on static stretching• Should I remain old school? Could I have perfomed better as an athlete if I did not perform static stretching prior to practice and games?• The majority of professional and high level trainers and coaches use a dynamic warm-up as opposed to static stretching to warm up. The same is true in physical education classes.• A bit of the science behind the practice...
The science behind it• Static stretching hinders maximum contraction of a muslce• Power is reduced• Static stretching is most beneficial when administered during the cool down/warm-down phase of the workout to increase flexibility and reduce or elimintate (depending on level of fitness) Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness• Actin and Myosin filaments are stretched to the point where there is ineffective contact for maximum force production• The ability to apply maximum force is hindered thus reducing speed, power, and agility