SESEC Training Module 6: Lighting

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This is a training module developed in the European project SESEC. More information and the full training can be found here: www.sesec-training.eu
The SESEC project is designed to address the energy efficiency needs of the EU clothing industry. The Consortium relies on outstanding competences of the partners, spread over 6 countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Belgium) to provide the missing energy efficiency benchmarks and ready-to-use solutions for the large number of SMEs as well as larger companies. The SESEC project has 4 major objectives:
• To develop, test and offer an Energy Efficiency tool for clothing production, made up of guidelines and web-based applications, suitable for SMEs and large companies
• To transfer the project results to the sector, EURATEX members and interested companies
• To offer training and support to companies to implement energy-saving measures considering cost-effectiveness
• To improve opportunities for energy-efficiency for the whole European clothing industry

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SESEC Training Module 6: Lighting

  1. 1. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 1
  2. 2. Overview  Introduction  Theory    Identification of lighting requirements for each area Analysis of lighting quality and design Management of lighting  Exercises  Business Case  Summary Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 2
  3. 3. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 3
  4. 4. Reasons for excess consumption  Excess consumption through technical issues: – Reduced area for natural lighting – Use of outdated and low efficiency lamp technology – Use of ferromagnetic ballasts – Inexistent reflectors on fixtures – Over lightened areas – Use of general instead of located lighting  Excess consumption through behavioral issues: – Dirty reflectors on fixtures – Lighting turned on unnecessarily [1, p. 10] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 4
  5. 5. Modernisation of production sectors and storage areas will deliver savings of up to 80 %. [2, p. 38, 39] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 5
  6. 6. Political aspects  Since September 2009, non-clear (frosted) lamps have to be of A-class standard according to the EU's lamp energy label.  Conventional incandescent and halogen bulbs which cannot meet these requirements were gradually phased out from the EU market till late 2012.  Only compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps can achieve the A-class standard - all the more inefficient non-clear types will disappear. [3] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 6
  7. 7. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 7
  8. 8. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 8
  9. 9. Approach 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify the light requirements at each workplace (general lighting and task lighting) Identify the working behaviour of the employees Identify the natural and artificial light sources Check if a. b. c. 5. Rearranging workplaces improves lighting situation Behaviour change can improve lighting situation Artificial light sources are suitable and technically up-to-date Define measures (organisational and technical ones) Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 9
  10. 10. 1. Identify light requirements at each workplace Recommended indoor lighting levels by task and area [6, p. 2] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 10
  11. 11. 2. Identify working behaviour of employees  Where did they perform which task preferably and why (essential for cross-checking the lighting demand)?  Which walking path did they use in production (essential for possible rearrangement of working places)?  How did they use existing lighting (essential for finding organisational measures to save energy)? Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 11
  12. 12. 3. Identify natural and artificial light sources  The integration of space planning with interior design (including choice of interior surfaces and room geometries) to optimize the use of natural light.  Planning activities to optimize the use of natural light  Consideration of the spectral content required for any activities needing artificial light  Selection of fixtures and lamp types that reflect best available techniques for energy conservation [5, p. 246] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 12
  13. 13. 4. Organisational Measures a. Rearrange workplace b. Change behaviour c. Technical measures Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 13
  14. 14. 4a. Rearrange workplace  Measure:  Move workplaces considering natural and artificial light sources  Effects:  Better utilisation of light sources  Amount of artificial light sources could be reduced  Light sources with less luminance can be used Important:  Move workplaces only when changes do not negatively influence the daily work activities Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 14
  15. 15. 4b. Change behaviour  Measure:  Clean reflectors regularly  Use light only when the working place is used  Effects:  Up to 20 % energy saving  Prolonging the life of the lamp  Lower replacement costs Important:  Consider the frequency of usage for working instructions Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 15
  16. 16. 4c. Technical Measures  Lamp replacement  Efficient lights  Interior design  Lighting control Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 16
  17. 17. Lamp replacement  Measure:  Change-over from T8/T12 fluorescent lamps with conventional ballasts (CBs) to T5 lamps with electronic ballasts  Effects:  Up to 40 % energy saving  Prolonging the life of the lamp  Lower replacement costs Important:  Cooperation with manufactures  Replacement of the whole lamp, not only of the bulb Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union [2, p. 39] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 17
  18. 18. Efficient lights Measure:  Installation of mirrored reflectors which are adjusted on the current room height  Effect:  Optimum light yield, right up to the triple value [8]  Important:  Concerning the geometric shape, the mirrored reflectors should be adjusted to the room height to avoid early expansion of the light [2, p. 39] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 18
  19. 19. Interior design Measures:  Selection of bright floor and wall colours  Adaption of the light arrangement and the classification of the switching group to the respective task areas, the visual performance and daylight  Effect:  Raise of the room utilisation factor  Important:  Avoiding shadowing through cable conduits, pipelines, plant components and high-bay racks [2, p. 41] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 19
  20. 20. Lighting control  Measures:  In rooms with high daylight admission: daylightdependent lighting control system  Link of the lighting to the machine power supply  Lighting adapted to the operating time through timer function[2, p. 41]  Effect:  Reduction of energy consumption up to 82 % [9, p. 1]  Reduction of operating costs [10]  Important:  Installation of an occupancy-based control with presence detection is mainly useful for highly frequented rooms such as corridors, social and storage area [2, p. 41] Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 20
  21. 21. 5. Define measures  Define measures that are adequate (realise 90% energy potential not the final 10%).  Define measures that are affordable (short ROI, within budget of company).  Define measures that are future oriented (do not select technology that is already succeeded by new ones). Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 21
  22. 22. Exercises. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 22
  23. 23. Lamp replacement What is the effect of a change-over from lamps with conventional ballasts (CBs) to T5 lamps with electronic ballasts? a.Up to 20% energy saving b.Up to 40 % energy saving Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 23
  24. 24. Lamp replacement What is the effect of a change-over from lamps with conventional ballasts (CBs) to T5 lamps with electronic ballasts? a.Up to 20% energy saving b.Up to 40 % energy saving Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 24
  25. 25. Efficient lights What can be done to improve the efficiency of lights? a. Installation of mirrored reflectors b. Installation of prismatics Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 25
  26. 26. Efficient lights What can be done to improve the efficiency of lights? a. Installation of mirrored reflectors b. Installation of prismatics Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 26
  27. 27. Interior design What could be measures to save energy in context of the interior design? a. Selection of bright floor and wall colours, avoiding shadowing through cable conduits, pipelines, plant components and high-bay racks b. Using drapes to avoid shadowing, selection of pastel floor and wall colours Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 27
  28. 28. Interior design What could be measures to save energy in context of the interior design? a. Selection of bright floor and wall colours, avoiding shadowing through cable conduits, pipelines, plant components and high-bay racks b. Using drapes to avoid shadowing, selection of pastel floor and wall colours Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 28
  29. 29. Analysis Analyse a room of your choice considering the workplaces as well as the natural and artificial light sources. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 29
  30. 30. Analysis  Did you consider the frequency and time of use (day/night, duration)?  Did you identify all artificial light sources including mobile lamps used by employees?  Did you identify all types of usage of the workplaces? Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 30
  31. 31. Organisational Measures Can the light situation in this room be improved by organisational measures? Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 31
  32. 32. Organisational Measures  Did you consider walking routes?  Did the changes disturbe the flow of activities in any workingplace?  Is the lighting ok even in exceptional circumstances (e.g. additional night shift)? Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 32
  33. 33. Business Case. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 33
  34. 34. Practical example - Würzburg Transport services  Project: Optimisation of lighting in an underground parking for buses  Problem: – – – – 65 conventional neon lightings were used Inadequate illumination, 24 hours operation over 365 days, High energy consumption, waste of lamps  Measures: – Replacement of the lamps with 116 more efficient and better positioned neon lightings – Conventional ballasts were replaced with electronic ballasts, which have lower power dissipation results (10-20 percent less) and allow computerised dimming http://www.energieeffizienz-im-betrieb.net/energiesparen-betrieb/energiespar-hallenbeleuchtung.html Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 34
  35. 35. Practical example - Würzburg Transport services Lighting improvements: Savings and Amortisation ISSUE COSTS Investment costs 48.770 € Amortisation Around 7 years (statically) Energy saving 29.900 kWh/year CO2 saving 16.400 kg/year Cost savings 6.900 €/year Source: LEEN, via http://www.energieeffizienz-im-betrieb.net/energiesparenbetrieb/energiespar-hallenbeleuchtung.html Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 35
  36. 36. Summary. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 36
  37. 37. Repetition       Excess energy consumption through lighting is caused by technichal as well as behavioural issues. Through the modernisation of the production sectors and storage areas savings of up to 80 % are possible. Lamp replacement can effect up to 40 % energy saving. Efficient lights through installation of mirrored reflectors Through the selection of bright wall colors, the adaption of the light arrangement and the installation of cable conduits, pipelines, plant components and high-bay racks the room utilisation factor can raise. Lighting control through control systems, timer function and the linking of the lighting to the machine power supply. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 37
  38. 38. Readings            [1] CITEVE (2013): Critical Energy Saving Points for the Clothing Manufacturing Process/Factory Environment, Deliverable D3.1. [2] EnergieAgentur.NRW (2012): Leitfaden. Effiziente Energienutzung in der Textilveredlung. [3] European Commission: Changes – bulbs and packaging. URL: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/lumen/overview/whatchanges/index_en.htm. [4] OÖ Energiesparverband: Buy Smart. Energieeffiziente Beschaffung. Presentation. [5] European Commission (2009): Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency. [6] IAPA (2008): Lighting at work. URL: http://www.iapa.ca/pdf/lightin.pdf. [7] European Commission (2009): Energy Efficiency. [8] Hörbrand Effiziente Lichttechnik: Spiegelreflektoren zum Nachrüsten. URL: http://www.hoerbrand-licht.de/produkte-und-loesungen/spiegelreflektoren/. [9] Reichenbach, Franz: Energieeffizienz mit intelligenter Lichsteuerung. URL: http://www.zublin-energieeffizienz.com/pdf/Fachbeitrag_Energieeffizienz.pdf. [10] Frank Elektrotechnik: Beleuchtungsregelung. URL: http: //www.frankelektrotechnik.net/index.php?id=52 [11] Once: Understanding LED and LED lighting. URL: http://www.onceinnovations.com/downloads/und_led.pdf Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 38
  39. 39. More readings General Ashok, S. : Energy Savings & Audit In Textile Industry. URL: http://www.emtindia.net/process/textiles/pdf/Energy%20savings%20audit%20in%20textile%20industry.pdf. Burthun, C./Kistamah, N./Chummun, J.: Energy saving strategies in textile industry: The case of Mauritius. URL: http://active.cput.ac.za/energy/past_papers/ICUE/2006/PDF/15%20-%20Q058%20%20C%20Bhurtun%20-%20Paper.pdf. Hassanbeigi, Ali: Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry. URL: http://www.energystar.gov/buildings/sites/default/uploads/tools/EE_Guidebook_for_Textile_industry.pdf. Sharma, Sarita: Energy Management In Textile Industry. In: International Journal of Power System Operation and Energy Management ISSN (PRINT): 2231 – 4407, Volume - 2, Issue - 1,2. URL: http://www.idconline.com/technical_references/pdfs/electrical_engineering/ENERGY%20MANAGEMENT%20IN.pdf.     LED    Once: Understanding LED and LED lighting. URL: http://www.onceinnovations.com/downloads/und_led.pdf OÖ Energiesparverband: Buy Smart. Energieeffiziente Beschaffung. Presentation. ArrowEurope: Lighting guide. URL: http://www.arroweurope.com/marketssolutions/markets/lighting/lighting-technologies-products/lenses-optics.html Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 39
  40. 40. Pictures -1       Slide 1 – Sam de Clercq : Licht Festival Gent 2011 – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samdecle/5401328770/sizes/s/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Slide 2 – reflex477: Overview over Paris from Sacré-Cœur – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/35164559@N04/4223238879/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 3 – Dbduo Photography: Lamp – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/drb62/515589256/sizes/m/in/photolist-MywHW5FAScn-A1WPM-57Rc68HWtNW-5uirCU-dMV1r-dorFj-8yd5d-vjae1-8TXAVj-6wFxdB-8krkZo-3RgJB-5n1H2Z-cQFsBh-8KQeJa-bTzctbTzbC-dffwA5-5jfpFc-fGKVHM-4LXxbb-7vxUoM-7Qxkbf-7MtQr-8q8MLj-CgiGA-cHg3Ah-6tdFjj-jMnCV6t9wWx-2oGeZE-HaBPH-NrUsy-6tdEUQ-sAKv2-bkcDHW-4HyEHn-5A3SLM-bw5RT7-7hnofE-dRLgo8-e3C95D5pM9Zw-7DUiPu-fzLw3-eptc-8G4BQ-bq5PT-9h9mKn/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Slide 4 – zoon bar: Lamps – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoonabar/331721430/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 5 – USCPSC: Floor Lamps Recalled by Dolan Northwest – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/uscpsc/8390153148/sizes/z/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 6 – SPÖ Presse und Kommunikation: 3.4.2009: SPÖ Bundesparteirat – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sozialdemokratie/3409066665/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 40
  41. 41. Pictures -2      Slide 7 – janemetsast: Lamp – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/55972098@N07/5182487300/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 8 – Skley: Grübel – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dskley/8627475625/sizes/z/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-ND 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/) Slide 9 – Carissa GoodNCrazy: kid to do list, list, Be happy and go home – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rog2bark/3437630552/sizes/m/in/photolist-6eLKNh-c1mn5W-9Lcbki-9jeZKuCdE9B-6tQG1N-8cuPQg-6oCMfR-5R2t5b-9uCMNF-7WWKna-82Z8Cz-87uSWj-839wC-8QW9Yq-7pHc1U6qsYHC-gu1Ra-7Jq5QH-7Mfehz-7VWPxJ-6J37Hp-4QCVn9-8QzzeL-8w3ARY-5JaQRk-5wvNsm-fMnd2ffgRgs-4yar1X-dr9xUw-dJLTso-3bLKoc-5sane8-eT8xC-5QjTMr-55xTxK-iYZum-i8xKL-61m8xK-6YzqVs-7JKQkd5SyRgw-4VSKqq-avZUVo-4ZwxHC-3svSV-4qU25r-4sCr3S-PVLFS-5rMwqS/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 11 – BiblioArchives/ LibraryArchives: Female workers manufacturing military uniforms, Toronto, Ont. / Ouvrière fabriquant des uniformes militaires à Toronto (Ontario) – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lac-bac/4679194570/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 12 – shuttermonkey: Create Your Own Light... – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/shuttermonkey/3424750103/sizes/m/in/photolist-6dCJTz-6moqAN-e4xSV756eizp-rWnyK-7GTZm-4qKru-aR6Ccv-4wW88o-2VTuCE-bQdEGR-dbsfPr-4PYgvW-5pir9f-aydpGU-97pxoja5s8gA-4PYgyW-FbKBT-5Eiofc-4PYgt5-6TpLHt-4TVJnE-fksjoM-7rPuR9-9eh1G9-7S48QD-e8LbLi-eHXUzp6vSnoS-8RNKUN-9dQmEP-8hjYaC-dnep5T-dPJJUi-dRJMJ1-DRv9P-bLxCjX-ea4bYJ-6dezar-x4Rya-8EEtQN53K7N5-4arj5X-bo8dvk-5e7YEX-S1vD6-bn1uLk-b9CChF-5gVq8J-9bmtES/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 41
  42. 42. Pictures - 3         Slide 13 – Peter Kaminski: STOP AL WAY – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterkaminski/1510724/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 14 – jan_krutisch: my workplace, lensbaby'd – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jankrutisch/116847458/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Slide 15- Anton Fomkin: The incandescent light bulb – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/antonfomkin/3045744275/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 16 – remography: bulb – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rkottonau/161053228/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Slide 17 – AndYaDontStop: The road of life twists and turns and no two directions are ever the same. Yet our lessons come from the journey, not the destination......365/365 – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thenovys/3833212599/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 18 - dierk schaefer : Göppinger Taube mit Blick auf die Neue Mitte – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dierkschaefer/2516612934/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 19 – net_efekt: Preparing for The Wave – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wheatfields/4114177553/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 20 – marc faladerau: Bulb – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/49889874@N05/5595820741/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 42
  43. 43. Pictures - 4        Slide 21 - Folded Word: Ticking Off – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/foldedword/4893948301/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Slide 22 – Hangout Lifestyle: Arbeiten von zu Hause mit dem Laptop – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hangoutlifestyle/5865980513/sizes/z/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 23, 25, 27, 29, 31 – Bilal Kamoon: Question Mark Graffiti – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bilalkamoon/6835060992/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 24, 26, 28, 30, 32 – Photocapy: ! – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/photocapy/3834784192/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/) Slide 33 - Son of Groucho: Not Our Guide – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sonofgroucho/3855487710/sizes/z/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 34 - pantranco_bus: Bus Livery Design – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/busesinthephilippines/4075803794/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 36 - Kutchala Sutchi: Repetition, 23.03.'10, Abidjan-Yopougon (4640) – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kutchala/4469943694/sizes/o/in/photostream/ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Slide 37 - evoo73: Windows – URI: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/evoo73/3702164848/sizes/m/in/photolist6D9yCq-6vRS9w-92UgLg-bBKKcC-83Z1LS-92D1wh-8Lp4DZ-9eFpNm-85cqDq-44D8GC-NVZY-8mUXHM-dRVtGQ8Sjmt9-8JHTXm-4smbxn-9T2Fmc-5uHqK6-8SgeHc-8SgeMv-8SgeRT-9Hdiuh-9Hdiy1-5x46B-xZsfi-6wej7A-3bYyF6-79FaT97x2qhZ-a2nVe-dG6o3i-8VLmtq-4uvVap-ueCfx-egoGtL-bvxMTN-dYKBiv-dYRiLU-dYGVKk-dYKwmn-dXXG7B-dYtuTpdYvwCv-4oVuHB-eBhcr-75KwuU-8WJ5td-8WJ5DW-akG62P-69MYKT-7GhAZZ Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/) Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary 43

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