SESEC Training Module 8: Ventilation and Air Conditioning

942 views

Published on

This is a training module developed in the European project SESEC. More information and the full training can be found here: www.sesec-training.eu
The SESEC project is designed to address the energy efficiency needs of the EU clothing industry. The Consortium relies on outstanding competences of the partners, spread over 6 countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Belgium) to provide the missing energy efficiency benchmarks and ready-to-use solutions for the large number of SMEs as well as larger companies. The SESEC project has 4 major objectives:
• To develop, test and offer an Energy Efficiency tool for clothing production, made up of guidelines and web-based applications, suitable for SMEs and large companies
• To transfer the project results to the sector, EURATEX members and interested companies
• To offer training and support to companies to implement energy-saving measures considering cost-effectiveness
• To improve opportunities for energy-efficiency for the whole European clothing industry

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
942
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
131
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

SESEC Training Module 8: Ventilation and Air Conditioning

  1. 1. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union Air conditioning and ventilation.
  2. 2. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 2 Overview  Introduction Fields of application – air conditioning Fields of application – ventilation Reasons for excess consumption Ways of energy savings  Theory Identify minimum air exchange rate Identify ventilation systems that are necessary Check if organisational measures improve the air conditioning and ventilation situation Define a ventilation plan  Exercises  Business Case  Summary Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  3. 3. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 3Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  4. 4. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 4 Fields of application – air conditioning There is a wide range of space cooling activities in the textile industry. The application and use depend on the location in Europe. They are used:  To maintain satisfactory working conditions  To maintain product quality (e.g. cold rooms)  To maintain input material quality and handling characteristics, e.g. enclosed waste storage areas in Scandinavia, prevention of corrosion on components treatment in surface treatment metal industries The systems can be localised (e.g. Infra red space heaters for equipment in storage areas) or centralised (e.g. air conditioning systems in offices). [1, p. 236] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  5. 5. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 5 Fields of application - Ventilation A ventilation system is essential for many industrial installations to function well.  It protects staff from pollutant and emissions within premises  It maintains a clean working atmosphere to protect product quality. [1, p. 238] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  6. 6. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 6 Reasons for excess consumption of air conditioning/ventilation Excess consumption through technical issues:  Undersized acclimatization  Obsolete systems  Lack of automatic control  Uninsulated ducts, pipes and fittings  Use of decentralized systems with individual controls  Low thermal characteristics in building construction  Accesses, such as windows and doors, not caulked  Malfunction of network accessories Excess consumption through behavioral issues:  Accesses are kept open during use of air conditioning  Temperature set-point higher than necessary (or lower if in summer)  System kept on without being needed [2, p. 11] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  7. 7. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 7 It is estimated that 10 % of the electricity consumption in companies is by ventilation systems. Where there is also air conditioning, ventilation and air conditioning can take up an even larger share of the corporate energy budget. [1, p. 240] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  8. 8. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 8 Ways of energy savings Energy savings can be achieved in two ways:  Reducing the cooling needs by: – Building insulation – Efficient glazing – Air infiltration reduction – Automatic closure of doors – Destratification – Lower temperature settings during non- production periods (programmable regulation) – Reducing set point  Improving the efficiency of heating systems through: – Recovery or use of waste heat – Heat pumps – Radiative and local heating systems coupled with reduced temperatures in the unoccupied areas of the buildings [3, p. 13] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  9. 9. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 9Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  10. 10. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 10Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  11. 11. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 11 Approach 1. Identify minimum air exchange rate 2. Identify the ventilation systems that are necessary 3. Check if organisational measures improve the air conditioning and ventilation situation 4. Define a ventilation plan Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  12. 12. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 12 1. Identify minimum air exchange rate Type of room Air exchange rate in 1/hour Criteria for air exchange Warehouse 2 to 6 Number of persons Production hall, assembly hall 1,5 to 7 Number of persons Printing 4 to 6 Air pollution Laundry 15 to 25 Moisture, odours Rolling mills 10 to 40 Heat, air pollution Glassworks 20 to 80 Heat, air pollution Necessary minimum air exchange rate [4, p. 28] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  13. 13. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 13 2. Identify ventilation systems that are necessary  General ventilation: Used to change the air in large volume working areas. Type of systems depends on the premises of ventilation, the pollution, and whether or not air conditioning is required. The lower the flowrate, the lower the energy consumption is.  Process ventilation: Is integrated into the heart of the process Used to remove pollution, cool machines, circulate cooled or heated air etc.  Specific ventilation: Designed to remove emissions as close as possible to the source. Directed at localised pollutant emissions [1, p. 240] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  14. 14. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 14 3. Organisational measures a. Rearrange workplace b. Change behaviour c. Technical measures Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  15. 15. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 15 a. Rearrange workplace  Measure: Using clean and effective coolers. Verify dirt deposition in all heat transfer surfaces  Effect: Reduction of electric and thermal consumptions; cost reduction and emission reduction because of reduction of electric consumption and in use of combustibles  Important: Cost effective measure, should always be checked [5] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  16. 16. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 16 b. Change behaviour  Cooling  Free-cooling  Repairing leaks Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  17. 17. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 17 Cooling  Measure: Use cooling only when area is occupied  Effect: Reduction of electric and thermal consumptions  Important: Applies for comfort areas, technical areas such as server rooms, display rooms, etc. should be analyzed separately [5] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  18. 18. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 18 Free-Cooling  Measure: – Use free-cooling whenever possible – Free cooling takes place when the external ambient air enthalpy is less than the indoor air enthalpy  Effect: Reduction of electric and thermal consumptions [5]  Important: – Available when the outside temperature is lower than the inside and cooling is required, e.g. cooling production plant in winter. Cold water maybe used to cool machines and get warmed up at the same time; savings up to 40% (higher in very cold climates) – This free contribution can be transferred to the system needing cooling either directly or indirectly. [1, p. 244] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  19. 19. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 19 Repairing leaks  Measure: Repair leaks in ventilation pipework  Effect: Reduction of electric consumption; cost reduction and Emission reduction because of electric consumption reduction  Important: Very cost effective measure, should always be checked [5] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  20. 20. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 20 c. Technical measures  Adequate ventilation control  Timer switch  Removal of covering/impediments  Window frames Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  21. 21. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 21 Adequate ventilation control  Measure: Use of frequency converter  Effect: Adequate ventilation control, reduced electricity consumption, better air quality  Important: Opportunities for integrating air control into a central building control system should be screened During current peaks ventilation systems can be regulated or switched off for a short period [4, p. 28] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  22. 22. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 22 Timer switch  Measure: Control optimization with a timer switch and/or occupancy sensor  Effect: Reduction of the amount of ventilation; reduction of electric consumption  Important: Air conditioning consumes electricity, which is more expensive and more carbon intensive than heating, this is why different thresholds haven been chosen. Low thresholds, because quite inexpensive BP. [5] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  23. 23. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 23 Removal of covering / impediments  Measure: – Removal of covering / impediments from air conditioners  Effect: Reduction of electric and of combustible consumption  Important: Savings low-medium Cautiousi approach is recommended, because removals have a security function [5] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  24. 24. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 24 Window frames  Measure: Adoption of high efficiency window frames  Effect: Reduction of electric and thermal consumptions  Important: Savings Low - Low/Medium [5] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  25. 25. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 25 4. Define a ventilation plan A ventilation plan is a system consisting of many interacting parts. For instance:  The air system (intake, distributor, transport network)  The fans (fans, motors, transmission systems)  The ventilation control and regulation systems (flow variation, centralised technical management (CTM), etc.)  Energy recovery devices  Air cleaners and the different types of ventilation system chosen (general ventilation, specific ventilation, with or without air conditioning, etc.). [1, p. 238] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  26. 26. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 26 Exercises. Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  27. 27. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 27 Analysis Define a ventilation plan for a room of your company. Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  28. 28. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 28 Analysis Did you consider…  the air system  the fans  the ventilation control and regulation systems  energy recovery devices  air cleaners and the different types of ventilation system chosen? Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  29. 29. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 29 Business Case. Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  30. 30. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 30 Practical example – office building in Mannheim  Project:Optimisation of the ventilation system  Problem: High energy consumption  Measures: Exchange of all ventilatiors Installation of new ventilators & driving motors [6, p. 34] Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  31. 31. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 31 Ventilation improvements: Savings and Amortisation Practical example - Würzburg Transport services ISSUE COSTS Investment costs 71.455 € Armortisation Around 1,7 years Energy saving 115 kW Volumetric flows + 9430 m3/h Cost savings 41.900 /a Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary [6, p. 34]
  32. 32. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 32 Summary. Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  33. 33. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 33  It is estimated that 10 % of the electricity consumption in companies is by ventilation systems.  Energy savings can be achived through reducing cooling needs and improving the effiency  Organisational measures could be rearranging workplace, changing behaviour and technichal measures Repetition Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  34. 34. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 34 Readings  [1] European Commission (2009): Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency.  [2] CITEVE (2013): Critical Energy Saving Points for the Clothing Manufacturing Process/Factory Environment, Deliverable D3.1.  [3] Gherzi: Savings potential, Deliverable D2.3  [4] EnergieAgentur.NRW (2012): Leitfaden. Effiziente Energienutzung in der Textilveredlung.  [5] Extra energy saving measures for Artisan Tool.  [6] Landesgewerbeamt Baden-Württemberg (2002): Energieeffiziente Lüftungsanalagen in Betrieben. http://www.umweltschutz- bw.de/PDF_Dateien/Wichtig_fuer_alle_Branchen/BaWue_Lueftungsanlagen.pdf Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  35. 35. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 35 More readings  Origin energy: Energy Efficiency Fact Sheet http://www.originenergy.com.au/files/SMEfs_HeatingAirCon.pdf  Hkfsd: Fire Safety Requirements for Ventilation / Air conditioning Control Systems for Licensed Premises http://www.hkfsd.gov.hk/eng/source/licensing/VAC_EN.pdf  Carbon Trust: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning http://www.carbontrust.com/media/7403/ctv046_heating_ventilation _and_air_conditioning.pdf Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  36. 36. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 36 Pictures -1  Slide 1 – Dee O‘Shell: Ventilator – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/deeoshell/5271108512/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 2 – Luigi Mengato: Overview – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/luigimengato/6331404824/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 3 – viZZZual.com: ventilator – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/vizzzual-dot- com/2732742219/sizes/m/in/photolist-5au24a/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 4 – Brian Snelson: Air conditioning fan 1 – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/exfordy/405051167/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 5 – John Loo: Wheel – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnloo/3711663828/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 6 – Jim_K-Town: Simple cooling system – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/innovaticlab/5652951890/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 7 – GillyBerlin: Steckdose – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gillyberlin/3095818670/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 8 – Neil Bird: Energy Saver – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nechbi/1006657497/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode) Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  37. 37. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 37 Pictures -2  Slide 9 – Thomas Angermann: Foto til et tag – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/angermann/3551261675/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 10 – Dennis Skley: *grübel* – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dskley/8627475625/sizes/z/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-ND 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 11 – Carissa Rogers: kid to do list, list, Be happy and go home – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rog2bark/3437630552/sizes/m/in/photolist-6eLKNh-c1mn5W-9Lcbki-9jeZKu- CdE9B-6tQG1N-8cuPQg-6oCMfR-5R2t5b-9uCMNF-7WWKna-82Z8Cz-87uSWj-839wC-8QW9Yq-7pHc1U- 6qsYHC-gu1Ra-7Jq5QH-7Mfehz-7VWPxJ-6J37Hp-4QCVn9-8QzzeL-8w3ARY-5JaQRk-5wvNsm-fMnd2- ffgRgs-4yar1X-dr9xUw-dJLTso-3bLKoc-5sane8-eT8xC-5QjTMr-55xTxK-iYZum-i8xKL-61m8xK-6YzqVs-7JKQkd- 5SyRgw-4VSKqq-avZUVo-4ZwxHC-3svSV-4qU25r-4sCr3S-PVLFS-5rMwqS/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 13 – Florin Rosoga: DSCF8415 – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/florinrosoga/5811873948/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 14 – Peter Kaminski: STOP ALL WAY – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterkaminski/1510724/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 15 – webmatch.de: Putzfrau gesucht – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dogdoor/5567592161/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 16 – Wonderlane: DANN Behavior Observations – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/3103598269/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 17 – grisei: wurm3 – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/grisei/363329205/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 18 – fihu: Fenster auf – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fihu/2104980022/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode) Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  38. 38. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 38 Pictures -3  Slide 19 – Anja Nowak: 04.07.2013 – Leck – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pommeranze/9541005886/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 20 – BiblioArchives/ LibraryArchives: Ottawa Technical School students studying to become radio technicians and mechanics with the R.C.A.F / Des étudiants de l'école technique d'Ottawa étudient pour devenir techniciens radio ou mécaniciens dans l'Aviation royale du Canada – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lac-bac/7797312736/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 21 – Metro Centric: Köln / Cologne – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/16782093@N03/10368063274/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 22 – mlpeixoto: Timer de Cozinha em forma de Tomate – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mlpeixoto/5351547427/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 23 – Vetatur Fumare: Vintage aftermarket air conditioning sticker on an old Alfa Romeo Montreal – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/10047629@N04/9602181809/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 24 – Ramesh NG: Window – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rameshng/6045027221/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 25 – Steve Jurvetson: Google‘s Master Plan – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/21470089/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode) Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary
  39. 39. Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union 39 Pictures -4  Slide 26 – Florian Simeth: Arbeiten von zu Hause mit dem Laptop – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hangout-lifestyle/5865980513/sizes/o/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 27 – Bilal Kamoon: Question Mark Graffiti – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bilal- kamoon/6835060992/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 28 – Photocapy: ! – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/photocapy/3834784192/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 29 – Son of Groucho: Not Our Guide – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sonofgroucho/3855487710/sizes/z/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode  Slide 30 – Anthony Easton: overhang of 80s office building, port huron – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinkmoose/4556314563/sizes/m/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode  Slide 32 – Kutchala Sutchi: Repetition, 23.03.'10, Abidjan-Yopougon (4640) – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kutchala/4469943694/sizes/o/in/photostream/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)  Slide 33 – evoo73: Windows – URI: http://www.flickr.com/photos/evoo73/3702164848/sizes/l/in/photolist- 6D9yCq-68gUgN-byrkkv-6yHq7C-68qZeB-6bSytR-7MgbcK-774LZw-65Q13g-66126u-7mwo9M-6gsSTp-64Xrqo- 8UZ4bD-65WEyZ-6yDoqg-6iTjcM-6D6Bn8-6cn7SD-4YQTvN-4nXt13-59cxnL-4jJGzk-5nMcV5-5zaTqE-5PigRp- 5BzJ8t-4hyNRJ-4wSa3V-52MssZ-5ASMt2-5G4T5b-4huHLX-4ZjNaQ-4Atiro-4pV2fU-4Asw56-4x5nLb-5bVxBy- 5k6PoW-5gKVHk-4og7bV-4jJHqg-4huGaK-4YBT4N-5j5YhW-5GEMMi-5bRuuP-4hyNiE-4jNuQo-52Ducc/ License: CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode) Introduction - Theory - Exercises - Business Case - Summary

×